424B3
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Filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3)
Registration No. 333-266101

 

PROSPECTUS

Polestar Automotive Holding UK PLC

UP TO 2,203,977,609 CLASS A ADSs,

UP TO 24,999,965 CLASS A ADSs ISSUABLE UPON CONVERSION OF CLASS C ADSs AND

UP TO 9,000,000 Class C-2 ADSs

 

 

This prospectus relates to the offer and sale from time to time by the selling securityholders named in this prospectus (the “Selling Securityholders”) of up to (a) 2,228,977,574 Class A ADSs and (b) 9,000,000 Class C-2 ADSs. The Class A ADSs described in clause (a) of the prior sentence include (i) 294,877,349 Class A ADSs issued to Former Parent as merger consideration in connection with the Business Combination at an equity consideration value of $10.00 per share, (ii) up to 24,078,638 Class A ADSs which are issuable to the Former Parent Shareholders as earn out consideration (valued as $10.00 per Class A ADS at the time of the Business Combination) upon the achievement of certain price thresholds for the Class A ADSs, as further described in this prospectus, (iii) up to 1,776,332,546 Class A ADSs issuable upon conversion of Class B ADSs, including up to 134,098,971 Class B ADSs which are issuable to the Former Parent Shareholders as earn out consideration (valued as $10.00 per Class B ADS at the time of the Business Combination) upon the achievement of certain price thresholds for the Class A ADSs, as further described in this prospectus, (iv) 18,459,165 Class A ADSs issued to the GGI Sponsor in connection with the Business Combination in exchange for the 18,459,165 shares of GGI Class F Common Stock that the GGI Sponsor initially purchased at $0.001 per share of GGI Class F Common Stock and that the GGI Sponsor retained after forfeiture of 1,540,835 shares of GGI Class F Common Stock; (v) 26,540,835 Class A ADSs issued to GGI Sponsor, the PIPE Investors and Snita pursuant to the Sponsor Subscription Agreement, the PIPE Subscription Agreements and the Volvo Cars PIPE Subscription Agreement, respectively, at an average cash price of $9.42 per Class A ADS, (vi) 58,882,610 Class A ADSs issued to Snita upon conversion of the Volvo Cars Preference Subscription Shares at the time of the Business Combination at a $10.00 conversion price, (vii) 4,306,466 Class A ADSs that were issued to Former Parent Convertible Notes Holders upon conversion of the Former Parent Convertible Notes at the time of the Business Combination at a conversion price of $8.18, (viii) up to 500,000 Class A ADSs issuable to a service provider in exchange for the performance of marketing consulting services valued at up to $5,000,000, and (ix) up to 24,999,965 Class A ADSs issuable upon conversion of the Class C ADSs, including up to 9,000,000 Class A ADSs issuable upon conversion of the Class C-2 ADSs initially held by the GGI Sponsor in the form of Class C-2 ADSs and which may be converted into Class C-1 ADSs pursuant to the terms of the Class C-2 ADSs. This prospectus also covers any additional securities that may become issuable by reason of share splits, share dividends or similar transactions.

The Selling Securityholders may offer all or part of the securities for resale from time to time through public or private transactions, at either prevailing market prices or at privately negotiated prices. The resale of these securities is being registered to permit the Selling Securityholders to sell securities from time to time, in amounts, at prices and on terms determined at the time of offering. The Selling Securityholders may sell these securities through ordinary brokerage transactions, directly to market makers of our shares or through any other means permitted pursuant to applicable law described in the section entitled “Plan of Distribution” herein. In connection with any sales of securities offered hereunder, the Selling Securityholders, any underwriters, agents, brokers or dealers participating in such sales may be deemed to be “underwriters” within the meaning of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”).

We are registering the resale of these securities by the Selling Securityholders, or their donees, pledgees, transferees or other successors-in-interest (as a gift, pledge, partnership distribution or other non-sale related transfer) that may be identified in a supplement to this prospectus or, if required, a post-effective amendment to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. See “Plan of Distribution.”

We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of the securities by the Selling Securityholders, except with respect to amounts received by the Company upon exercise of the Class C ADSs to the extent such Class C ADSs are exercised for cash. We believe the likelihood that the holders of our Class C ADSs will exercise their Class C ADSs, and therefore the amount of cash proceeds that we would receive, is dependent upon the market price of our Class A ADSs. When the market price for our Class A ADSs is less than $11.50 per share (i.e., the Class C ADSs are “out of the money”), which it is as of the date of this prospectus, we believe the holders of our Class C ADSs will be unlikely to


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exercise their Class C ADSs. We will pay certain expenses associated with the registration of the resale of the securities covered by this prospectus, as described in the section titled “Plan of Distribution.”

Our Class A ADSs and Class C-1 ADSs are listed on the Nasdaq Stock Market LLC (“Nasdaq”), under the trading symbols “PSNY” and “PSNYW,” respectively. On April 25, 2023, the closing price for our Class A ADSs on Nasdaq was $3.50. On April 25, 2023, the closing price for our Class C-1 ADSs on Nasdaq was $0.75.

In connection with the Business Combination, holders of 16,265,203 shares of GGI Class A Common Stock, or approximately 20.3% of the issued and outstanding shares of GGI Class A Common Stock, exercised their right to redeem their shares for cash at a redemption price of approximately $10.00 per share, for an aggregate redemption amount of approximately $162,652,030. The Class A ADSs and Class C ADSs being offered for resale in this prospectus (collectively, the “Resale Securities”) represent a substantial percentage of the total outstanding ADSs as of the date of this prospectus. The Class A ADSs being offered in this prospectus represent approximately 476.6% of our current outstanding Class A ADSs, assuming the Earn Out Shares issuable pursuant to the Business Combination Agreement are not outstanding, or approximately 356.1% assuming they are outstanding and converted into Class A ADSs. Additionally, if all the Class C ADSs are exercised and all Class A ADSs are issued to a service provider in exchange for the performance of marketing consulting services, the Selling Securityholders would own an additional 25,093,715 shares of Class A ADSs, representing approximately an additional 5.4% of the current outstanding Class A ADSs. The sale of all the securities being offered in this prospectus, or the perception that these sales could occur, could result in a significant decline in the public trading price of our securities. The contractual lock-up restrictions entered into in connection with the Business Combination have expired. The frequency of any sales could also cause the market price of our securities to decline or increase the volatility in the market price of our securities. Despite a significant decline in the public trading price of our securities, the Selling Securityholders may still experience a positive rate of return on the securities they purchased due to the differences in the purchase prices described above and the public trading price of our securities. Based on the closing price of our Class A ADSs of $3.50 as of April 25, 2023, upon the sale of our Class A ADSs, (a) Former Parent Shareholders may experience a potential loss of up to $6.50 per Class A ADS, (b) GGI Sponsor, the PIPE Investors and Snita may experience a potential loss of up to $5.92 per Subscription Share, (c) the GGI Sponsor may experience a potential profit of approximately $3.50 per Class A ADS issued to the GGI Sponsor upon conversion of the shares of GGI Class F Common Stock, (d) Snita may experience a potential loss of up to $6.50 per Class A ADS issued to Snita upon conversion of the Volvo Cars Preference Subscription Shares, (e) the marketing consulting service provider may experience a potential loss of up to $6.50 per Class A ADS, and (f) Former Parent Convertible Notes Holders may experience a potential loss of up to $4.68 per Class A ADS. Based on the closing price of our Class C-1 ADSs of $0.75 as of April 25, 2023, upon the sale of the Class C-2 ADSs, the GGI Sponsor may experience a potential loss of up to $1.25 per Class C-2 ADS.

We may amend or supplement this prospectus from time to time by filing amendments or supplements as required. You should read this entire prospectus and any amendments or supplements carefully before you make your investment decision.

We are a “foreign private issuer” as defined under the U.S. federal securities laws and, as such, may elect to comply with certain reduced public company disclosure and reporting requirements. We are also a “controlled company” as defined under Nasdaq listing rules and, as such, may elect not to comply with certain corporate governance requirements. See “Prospectus Summary—Foreign Private Issuer” and “Prospectus Summary—Controlled Company.”

 

 

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully review the risks and uncertainties described under the heading “Risk Factors” beginning on page 10 of this prospectus, as well as the other parts of this prospectus and any prospectus supplement or amendment carefully, before you make an investment in the securities.

 

 

Neither the SEC nor any state or foreign securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

 

Prospectus dated April 25, 2023


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TRADEMARKS, SERVICE MARKS AND TRADE NAMES

     ii  

CURRENCY AND EXCHANGE RATES

     ii  

INDUSTRY AND MARKET DATA

     ii  

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

     ii  

PRESENTATION OF FINANCIAL INFORMATION

     iii  

CERTAIN DEFINED TERMS

     iv  

CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     xi  

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

     1  

THE OFFERING

     8  

RISK FACTORS

     10  

CAPITALIZATION AND INDEBTEDNESS

     75  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     76  

MARKET PRICE OF OUR SECURITIES AND DIVIDEND POLICY

     77  

BUSINESS

     78  

OPERATING AND FINANCIAL REVIEW AND PROSPECTS

     105  

BOARD OF DIRECTORS AND MANAGEMENT

     129  

COMPENSATION

     138  

BENEFICIAL OWNERSHIP

     149  

SELLING SECURITYHOLDERS

     152  

CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS AND RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS

     165  

DESCRIPTION OF SHARE CAPITAL AND ARTICLES OF ASSOCIATION

     186  

DESCRIPTION OF AMERICAN DEPOSITARY SHARES

     200  

SECURITIES ELIGIBLE FOR FUTURE SALE

     215  

TAXATION

     218  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     228  

EXPENSES RELATED TO THE OFFERING

     233  

LEGAL MATTERS

     234  

EXPERTS

     235  

SERVICE OF PROCESS AND ENFORCEMENT OF LIABILITIES

     236  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

     238  

INDEX TO FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

     F-1  

Except as otherwise set forth in this prospectus, we have not taken any action to permit a public offering of these securities outside the United States or to permit the possession or distribution of this prospectus outside the United States. Persons outside the United States who come into possession of this prospectus must inform themselves about and observe any restrictions relating to the offering of these securities and the distribution of this prospectus outside the United States.

 

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TRADEMARKS, SERVICE MARKS AND TRADE NAMES

This prospectus includes trademarks, trade names and service marks, certain of which belong to Polestar or Polestar’s affiliates and others that are the property of other organizations. The Polestar logo and other trademarks or service marks of Polestar appearing in this prospectus are the property of Polestar. Solely for convenience, trademarks, trade names and service marks referred to in this prospectus appear without the ®, TM and SM symbols, but the absence of those symbols is not intended to indicate, in any way, that Polestar or its affiliates will not assert its or their rights or that the applicable owner will not assert its rights to these trademarks, trade names and service marks to the fullest extent under applicable law. Polestar does not intend its use or display of other parties’ trademarks, trade names or service marks to imply, and such use or display should not be construed to imply, a relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of Polestar by, these other parties.

CURRENCY AND EXCHANGE RATES

In this prospectus, unless otherwise specified, all monetary amounts are in U.S. dollars and all references to “$” mean U.S. dollars. Certain monetary amounts described herein have been expressed in U.S. dollars for convenience only and, when expressed in U.S. dollars in the future, such amounts may be different from those set forth herein due to intervening exchange rate fluctuations.

INDUSTRY AND MARKET DATA

Unless otherwise indicated, information contained in this prospectus concerning Polestar’s industry, including Polestar’s general expectations and market position, market opportunity and market share, is based on information obtained from various independent sources and reports, as well as management estimates. Polestar has not independently verified the accuracy or completeness of any third-party information. While Polestar believes that the market data, industry forecasts and similar information included in this prospectus are generally reliable, such information is inherently imprecise. Forecasts and other forward-looking information obtained from third parties are subject to the same qualifications and uncertainties as the other forward-looking statements in this prospectus. In addition, assumptions and estimates of Polestar’s future performance and growth objectives and the future performance of its industry and the markets in which it operates are necessarily subject to a high degree of uncertainty and risk due to a variety of factors, including those discussed under the headings “Risk Factors,” “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” and “Operating and Financial Review and Prospects” in this prospectus.

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is part of a registration statement on Form F-1 filed with the SEC by Polestar Automotive Holding UK PLC. The Selling Securityholders named in this prospectus may, from time to time, sell the securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings. This prospectus includes important information about us, the securities being offered by the Selling Securityholders and other information you should know before investing. Any prospectus supplement may also add, update or change information in this prospectus. If there is any inconsistency between the information contained in this prospectus and any prospectus supplement, you should rely on the information contained in that particular prospectus supplement. This prospectus does not contain all of the information provided in the registration statement that we filed with the SEC. You should read this prospectus together with the additional information about us described in the section below entitled “Where You Can Find Additional Information.” You should rely only on information contained in this prospectus, any prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus. We have not, and the Selling Securityholders have not, authorized anyone to provide you with information different from that contained in this prospectus, any prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus. The information contained in this prospectus is accurate only as of the date on the front cover of the prospectus. You should not assume that the information contained in this prospectus is accurate as of any other date.

 

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This prospectus does not contain all of the information provided in the registration statement that we filed with the SEC. You should read this prospectus together with the additional information about us described in the section below entitled “Where You Can Find Additional Information.” Further, this prospectus contains summaries of certain provisions contained in some of the documents described herein, but reference is made to the actual documents for complete information. All of the summaries are qualified in their entirety by the actual documents. Copies of some of the documents referred to herein have been filed, will be filed or will be incorporated by reference as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and you may obtain copies of those documents as described below under “Where You Can Find Additional Information.”

Neither we nor the Selling Securityholders are making an offer to sell these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. Except as otherwise set forth in this prospectus, neither we nor the Selling Securityholders have taken any action to permit a public offering of these securities outside the U.S. or to permit the possession or distribution of this prospectus outside the U.S. Persons outside the U.S. who come into possession of this prospectus must inform themselves about and observe any restrictions relating to the offering of these securities and the distribution of this prospectus outside the U.S.

The Selling Securityholders may offer and sell the securities directly to purchasers, through agents selected by the Selling Securityholders, to or through underwriters or dealers or any other method permitted pursuant to applicable law. A prospectus supplement, if required, may describe the terms of the plan of distribution and set forth the names of any agents, underwriters (if applicable) or dealers involved in the sale of securities. See “Plan of Distribution.”

PRESENTATION OF FINANCIAL INFORMATION

The financial statements of Polestar Automotive Holding UK PLC (formerly known as Polestar Automotive Holding UK Limited) as of December 31, 2022 and 2021 and for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2022 were prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (“IFRS”) as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (“IASB”) and are denominated in U.S. dollars.

 

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CERTAIN DEFINED TERMS

Unless otherwise stated in this prospectus or the context otherwise requires, references to:

“AD securities” or “ADSs” means Class A ADSs and Class C ADSs.

“ADS Deposit Agreement—Class A ADSs” means the ADS Deposit Agreement, by and among the Company, Citibank, N.A., as depositary, and all holders and beneficial owners from time to time of American depositary shares issued thereunder and representing deposited Class A Shares, a copy of which is filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part.

“ADS Deposit Agreement—Class C-1 ADSs” means the ADS Deposit Agreement, dated June 23, 2022, by and among the Company, Citibank, N.A., as depositary, and all holders and beneficial owners from time to time of American depositary shares issued thereunder and representing deposited Class C-1 Shares, a copy of which is filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part.

“ADS Deposit Agreement—Class C-2 ADSs” means the ADS Deposit Agreement, dated June 23, 2022, by and among the Company, Citibank, N.A., as depositary, and all holders and beneficial owners from time to time of American depositary shares issued thereunder and representing deposited Company C-2 Shares, a copy of which is filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part.

“Amendment No. 1 to the Business Combination Agreement” means that certain amendment to the Business Combination Agreement, dated as of December 17, 2021, a copy of which is filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part.

“Amendment No. 2 to the Business Combination Agreement” means that certain amendment to the Business Combination Agreement, dated as of March 24, 2022, a copy of which is filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part.

“Amendment No. 3 to the Business Combination Agreement” means that certain amendment to the Business Combination Agreement, dated as of April 21, 2022, a copy of which is filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part.

“Board” means the board of directors of the Company.

“Business Combination” means the transactions contemplated by the Business Combination Agreement, including the Merger, and the other transactions contemplated by the other transaction documents contemplated by the Business Combination Agreement.

“Business Combination Agreement” means that certain Business Combination Agreement, dated as of September 27, 2021 (as amended by Amendment No. 1 to the Business Combination Agreement, Amendment No. 2 to the Business Combination Agreement and Amendment No. 3 to the Business Combination Agreement), by and among GGI, the Company, Former Parent, Polestar Singapore, Polestar Sweden and Merger Sub, a copy of which is filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part.

“Business Combination Closing” means the closing of the Business Combination.

“Business Combination Closing Date” means the date of the Business Combination Closing or June 23, 2022.

“Class A ADS” means one American depositary share of the Company duly and validly issued against the deposit with the Depositary of an underlying Class A Share.

 

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“Class A Shares” means Class A ordinary shares of the Company, entitling the holder thereof to one vote per share.

“Class B ADS” means one American depositary share of the Company duly and validly issued against the deposit with the Depositary of an underlying Class B Shares.

“Class B Shares” means Class B ordinary shares of the Company, entitling the holder thereof to 10 votes per share.

“Class C ADSs” means Class C-1 ADSs and Class C-2 ADSs.

“Class C Shares” means Class C-1 Shares and Class C-2 Shares.

“Class C Warrant Amendment” means the amendment to the SPAC Warrant Agreement entered into by and among GGI, Computershare Inc. and Computershare Trust Company, N.A., and pursuant to which, among other things, each GGI Public Warrant converted into a Class C-1 ADS and each GGI Private Placement Warrant converted into a Class C-2 ADS, each of which is exercisable for Class A ADSs and subject to substantially the same terms as were applicable to the GGI Warrants under the SPAC Warrant Agreement, a copy of which is filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part.

“Class C-1 ADS” means one American depositary share of the Company into which each GGI Public Warrant has been automatically cancelled and extinguished and converted into the right to receive one Class A ADS and each of which is duly and validly issued against the deposit with the Depositary of an underlying Class C-1 Share.

“Class C-1 Share” means a class C-1 ordinary share in the share capital of the Company, each of which underlies a Class C-1 ADS and is exercisable for one Class A Share.

“Class C-2 ADS” means one American depositary share of the Company into which each GGI Private Placement Warrant has been automatically cancelled and extinguished and converted into the right to receive one Class A ADS and each of which is duly and validly issued against the deposit with the Depositary of an underlying Class C-2 Share.

“Class C-2 Share” means a class C-2 ordinary share in the share capital of the Company, each of which underlies a Class C-2 ADS and is exercisable for one Class A Share.

“Code” means the U.S. Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended.

“Company” means, prior to the re-registration as a public limited company under the laws of England and Wales, “Polestar Automotive Holding UK Limited,” a limited company incorporated under the laws of England and Wales, and, after the re-registration as a public limited company under the laws of England and Wales, “Polestar Automotive Holding UK PLC.”

“Company securities” means the Shares and Class C Shares.

“Current GGI Certificate” means the Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation of GGI, dated March 22, 2021.

“December PIPE Investment” means the purchase of December PIPE Shares pursuant to the December PIPE Subscription Agreements.

“December PIPE Investors” means the purchasers of December PIPE Shares in the December PIPE Investment, which include certain affiliates and employees of the GGI Sponsor.

 

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“December PIPE Shares” means the Class A Shares in the form of Class A ADSs purchased by December PIPE Investors in the December PIPE Investment.

“December PIPE Subscription Agreements” means the share subscription agreements, dated December 17, 2021, by and among the Company, GGI and the December PIPE Investors pursuant to which the December PIPE Investors purchased the December PIPE Shares.

“Deferred Shares” means the deferred shares of USD 0.01 each in the capital of the Company that have no right to vote or dividend rights.

“Deloitte” means Deloitte AB, an independent registered public accounting firm.

“Deposit Agreements” means the ADS Deposit Agreement—Class A ADSs, the ADS Deposit Agreement—Class C-1 ADSs and the ADS Deposit Agreement—Class C-2 ADSs.

“Depositary” means Citibank, N.A., acting as depositary under the Deposit Agreements.

“Earn Out Class A Shares” means the earn out shares issuable by the Company in the form of Class A ADSs.

“Earn Out Class B Shares” means the earn out shares issuable by the Company in the form of Class B ADSs.

“Earn Out Shares” means earn out shares from the Company issuable in Class A ADSs and Class B ADS to certain Former Parent Shareholders depending on share price performance of Polestar.

“Employee Stock Purchase Plan” means Polestar Automotive Holding UK PLC 2022 Stock Purchase Plan.

“Equity Plan” means the Polestar Automotive Holding UK PLC 2022 Omnibus Incentive Plan.

“Exchange Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, together with the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.

“Former Parent” means Polestar Automotive Holding Limited, a Hong Kong incorporated company, which is in the process of completing its voluntary liquidation that commenced on October 19, 2022.

“Former Parent Convertible Notes” means the convertible notes of Former Parent outstanding as of immediately prior to the Business Combination Closing.

“Former Parent Convertible Note Holders” means the holders of the Former Parent Convertible Notes.

“Former Parent Shareholders” means Snita, PSINV AB, PSD Investment Limited, GLY New Mobility 1. LP, Northpole GLY 1 LP, Chongqing Liangjiang LOGO , Zibo Financial Holding Group Co., Ltd. and Zibo High-Tech Industrial Investment Co., Ltd.

“GAAP” means generally accepted accounting principles in the United States.

“Geely” means Zhejiang Geely Holding Group Company Limited.

“GGI” means Gores Guggenheim, Inc.

“GGI Class A Common Stock” means the shares of Class A common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, of GGI.

“GGI Class F Common Stock” means the shares of Class F common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, of GGI.

 

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“GGI Common Stock” means the GGI Class A Common Stock and the GGI Class F Common Stock.

“GGI Initial Stockholders” means the GGI Sponsor and Randall Bort, Elizabeth Marcellino and Nancy Tellem, GGI’s independent directors.

“GGI Public Warrants” means the warrants included in the GGI public units (consisting of one share of GGI Class A Common Stock and one-fifth of one GGI Public Warrant) issued in the GGI initial public offering, consummated on March 25, 2021.

“GGI Sponsor” means Gores Guggenheim Sponsor LLC, a Delaware limited liability company and its affiliates, including The Gores Group, LLC.

“GGI Warrants” means, collectively, the GGI Private Placement Warrants and the GGI Public Warrants.

“Initial PIPE Investment” means the purchase of Initial PIPE Shares pursuant to the Initial PIPE Subscription Agreements.

“Initial PIPE Investors” means the purchasers of Initial PIPE Shares in the Initial PIPE Investment.

“Initial PIPE Shares” means the Class A Shares in the form of Class A ADSs purchased by Initial PIPE Investors in the Initial PIPE Investment.

“Initial PIPE Subscription Agreements” means the share subscription agreements, dated September 27, 2021, by and among the Company, GGI and the Initial PIPE Investors pursuant to which the Initial PIPE Investors purchased the Initial PIPE Shares.

“IRS” means the U.S. Internal Revenue Service.

“March PIPE Investors” means the purchasers of March PIPE Shares in the March PIPE Investment, which include certain affiliates and employees of the GGI Sponsor.

“March PIPE Shares” means the Class A Shares in the form of Class A ADSs purchased by March PIPE Investors in the March PIPE Investment.

“March PIPE Subscription Agreements” means the shares subscription agreements, dated March 24, 2022, by and among the Company, GGI and the March PIPE Investors pursuant to which the March PIPE Investors purchased the March PIPE Shares.

“March Sponsor Investment” means the purchase of March PIPE Shares pursuant to the March PIPE Subscription Agreements.

“Merger” means the merger between Merger Sub and GGI, with GGI surviving as a direct wholly owned subsidiary of the Company.

“Merger Sub” means PAH UK Merger Sub Inc., a Delaware corporation and a direct wholly owned subsidiary of the Company until June 23, 2022.

“Nasdaq” means the National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations Global Market.

“PIPE Investment” means the purchase of PIPE Shares pursuant to the PIPE Subscription Agreements.

 

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“PIPE Investors” means the purchasers of PIPE Shares in the PIPE Investment.

“PIPE Shares” means the Class A Shares in the form of Class A ADSs purchased by PIPE Investors in the PIPE Investment.

“PIPE Subscription Agreements” means the Initial PIPE Subscription Agreements, the December PIPE Subscription Agreements and the March PIPE Subscription Agreements.

“Polestar” means, as the context requires, (i) in general Former Parent and its subsidiaries prior to the Business Combination Closing, (ii) in the context of the Business Combination, the Pre-Closing Reorganization and the Pre-Closing Sweden/Singapore Share Transfer, Polestar Sweden, or, both Polestar Singapore and Polestar Sweden if at any time (x) Polestar Sweden is not a wholly-owned subsidiary of Polestar Singapore or (y) Polestar Singapore is not a wholly-owned subsidiary of Polestar Sweden, or (iii) the Company or Polestar Group after the Business Combination Closing.

“Polestar Articles” means the Articles of Association of Polestar, a copy of which is filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part.

“Polestar Group” means Former Parent, together with its subsidiaries prior to the Business Combination Closing and the Company and its subsidiaries following the Business Combination Closing.

“Polestar Singapore” means Polestar Automotive (Singapore) Pte. Ltd., a private company limited by shares in Singapore.

“Polestar Spaces” means permanent or pop up/temporary Polestar showrooms located in urban or peri-urban areas where potential customers can experience Polestar vehicles, engage with Polestar specialists and, at select locations, test-drive Polestar vehicles.

“Polestar Sweden” means Polestar Holding AB, a private limited liability company incorporated under the laws of Sweden.

“Pre-Closing Reorganization” means the reorganization effectuated by Former Parent, the Company, Polestar Singapore, Polestar Sweden and their respective subsidiaries, pursuant to which, among other things, Polestar Singapore, Polestar Sweden and their respective subsidiaries became, directly or indirectly, wholly owned subsidiaries of the Company.

“Pre-Closing Sweden/Singapore Share Transfer” means, collectively, the following transactions contemplated under the Business Combination Agreement: (i) the transfer by Polestar Singapore to Former Parent of all of the issued and outstanding equity securities of Polestar Sweden (the “Pre-Closing Sweden Share Transfer”) and (ii) after the Pre-Closing Sweden Share Transfer, the contribution by Former Parent to Polestar Sweden of all of the issued and outstanding equity securities of Polestar Singapore.

“Registration Rights Agreement” means the registration rights agreement, dated September 27, 2021, by and among the Company, Former Parent, the Former Parent Shareholders, the GGI Sponsor and the independent directors of GGI (such persons, together with the GGI Sponsor and the Former Parent Shareholders, the “Registration Rights Holders”), as amended by the Registration Rights Agreement Amendment No. 1 and the Registration Rights Agreement Amendment No. 2. A copy of the Registration Rights Agreement is filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part.

“Registration Rights Agreement Amendment No. 1” means that certain amendment to the Registration Rights Agreement, dated December 17, 2021, a copy of which is filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part.

 

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“Registration Rights Agreement Amendment No. 2” means that certain amendment to the Registration Rights Agreement, dated March 24, 2022, a copy of which is filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part.

“Resale Securities” means the Class A ADSs and Class C ADSs being offered for resale in the prospectus that forms a part of the Shelf Registration Statement.

“Rule 144” means Rule 144 under the Securities Act.

“Sarbanes-Oxley Act” means the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.

“Securities Act” means the U.S. Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.

“Share Matching Plan” means the Polestar Automotive Holding UK PLC 2023 Share Matching Plan.

“Shareholder Acknowledgement Agreement” means the shareholder acknowledgement, dated September 27, 2021, by and among Former Parent, the Former Parent Shareholders, Volvo Car Corporation and the Company, as amended by the Shareholder Acknowledgement Agreement Amendment, a copy of which is filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part.

“Shareholder Acknowledgement Agreement Amendment” means that certain amendment to the Shareholder Acknowledgement Agreement, dated March 24, 2022, a copy of which is filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part.

“Shares” means the Class A Shares and the Class B Shares.

“Shelf Registration Statement” means the Registration Statement on Form F-1 that the Company initially filed on July 12, 2022, and subsequently updated and supplemented, including with the Post-Effective Amendment No. 1, filed with the SEC on September 20, 2022.

“Snita” means Snita Holding B.V., a corporation organized under the laws of the Netherlands and a wholly owned subsidiary of Volvo Car Corporation.

“Snita Term Loan Facility” means the Term Loan Facility, dated November 3, 2022, between the Company, as borrower, and Snita, as lender.

“SPAC Warrant Agreement” means that certain Warrant Agreement, by and between GGI and Computershare Trust Company, N.A., as warrant agent, dated as of March 22, 2021 (as amended by the SPAC Warrant Agreement Amendment and as may be further amended, supplemented or otherwise modified from time to time), a copy of which is filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part.

“SPAC Warrant Agreement Amendment” means that certain Amendment to the SPAC Warrant Agreement, by and between GGI and Computershare Trust Company, N.A., as warrant agent, dated as of April 7, 2022, a copy of which is filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part.

“Sponsor Subscription Agreement” means the subscription agreement, dated September 27, 2021, as amended and restated on December 17, 2021 and amended on March 24, 2022, by and among GGI, the Company and the GGI Sponsor.

“Sponsor Subscription Investment” means the purchase of the Sponsor Subscription Shares pursuant to the Sponsor Subscription Agreement.

 

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“Sponsor Subscription Shares” means the Class A Shares in the form of Class A ADSs purchased by the GGI Sponsor in the Sponsor Subscription Investment.

“Subscription Agreements” means the PIPE Subscription Agreements, the Sponsor Subscription Agreement and the Volvo Cars PIPE Subscription Agreement.

“Subscription Investments” means the purchase of the Subscription Shares pursuant to the Subscription Agreements.

“Subscription Shares” means the Class A Shares in the form of Class A ADSs purchased by the GGI Sponsor, the PIPE Investors and Snita pursuant to the Sponsor Subscription Agreement, the PIPE Subscription Agreements and the Volvo Cars PIPE Subscription Agreement, respectively.

“The Gores Group” means The Gores Group, LLC, an affiliate of the GGI Sponsor.

“TUSD” means thousands of U.S. Dollars.

“U.S. Dollars” and “USD” and “$” means United States dollars, the legal currency of the United States.

“U.S. GAAP” means generally accepted accounting principles in the United States.

“United Kingdom” or “UK” means the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and its territories and possessions.

“United States” or “US” means the United States of America and its territories and possessions.

“Volvo Cars” means Volvo Car AB (publ) and its subsidiaries.

“Volvo Cars PIPE Subscription Agreement” means the subscription agreement, dated September 27, 2021, as amended and restated on December 17, 2021 and amended on March 24, 2022, by and among GGI, the Company and Volvo Cars, pursuant to which Volvo Cars via its subsidiary Snita purchased 1,117,390 Volvo Cars PIPE Subscription Shares for a purchase price of $10.00 per share.

“Volvo Cars PIPE Subscription Investment” means the purchase of Volvo Cars PIPE Subscription Shares pursuant to the Volvo Cars PIPE Subscription Agreement.

“Volvo Cars PIPE Subscription Shares” means the Class A Shares in the form of Class A ADSs purchased by Snita in the Volvo Cars PIPE Subscription Investment.

“Volvo Cars Preference Subscription Agreement” means the subscription agreement, dated September 27, 2021, by and between the Company and Snita as amended on March 24, 2022, pursuant to which Snita purchased, at Business Combination Closing, mandatory convertible preference shares of the Company for an aggregate subscription price of $10.00 per share, for an aggregate investment amount equal to TUSD588,826.

“Volvo Cars Preference Subscription Investment” means the purchase of the Volvo Cars Preference Subscription Shares pursuant to the Volvo Cars Preference Subscription Agreement.

“Volvo Cars Preference Subscription Shares” means the mandatory convertible preference shares of the Company purchased by Snita pursuant to the Volvo Cars Preference Subscription Agreement.

 

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CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus includes statements that express Polestar’s opinions, expectations, beliefs, plans, objectives, assumptions or projections regarding future events or future results and therefore are, or may be deemed to be, “forward-looking statements” as defined in Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Exchange Act, that involve significant risks and uncertainties. These forward-looking statements can generally be identified by the use of forward-looking terminology, including the terms “believes,” “estimates,” “anticipates,” “expects,” “seeks,” “projects,” “intends,” “plans,” “may,” “will” or “should” or, in each case, their negative or other variations or comparable terminology. These forward-looking statements include all matters that are not historical facts. They appear in a number of places throughout this prospectus and include statements regarding Polestar’s intentions, beliefs or current expectations concerning, among other things: the benefits of the Business Combination; results of operations; financial condition; liquidity; prospects; growth; strategies and the markets in which Polestar operates, including estimates and forecasts of financial and operational metrics, projections of market opportunity, market share and vehicle sales; expectations and timing related to commercial product launches, including the start of production and launch of any future products of Polestar, and the performance, range, autonomous driving and other features of the vehicles of Polestar; future market opportunities, including with respect to energy storage systems and automotive partnerships; future manufacturing capabilities and facilities; future sales channels and strategies; and future market launches and expansion.

Such forward-looking statements are based on available current market information and the current expectations of Polestar including beliefs and forecasts concerning future developments and the potential effects of such developments on Polestar. Factors that may impact such forward-looking statements include:

 

   

the outcome of any legal proceedings that may be instituted against GGI or Polestar in connection with the Business Combination;

 

   

the ability to continue to meet stock exchange listing standards;

 

   

Polestar’s securities’ potential liquidity and trading;

 

   

changes in domestic and foreign business, market, financial, political and legal conditions;

 

   

Polestar’s ability to enter into or maintain agreements or partnerships with its strategic partners, including Volvo Cars and Geely, original equipment manufacturers, vendors and technology providers, and to source new suppliers for its critical components, and to complete building out its supply chain, while effectively managing the risks due to such relationships;

 

   

risks relating to the uncertainty of any projected financial information or operational results of Polestar, including underlying assumptions regarding expected development and launch timelines for Polestar’s carlines, manufacturing in the United States starting as planned, demand for Polestar’s vehicles or car sale volumes, revenue and margin development based on pricing, variant and market mix, cost reduction efficiencies, logistics and growing aftersales as the total Polestar fleet of cars and customer base grow;

 

   

delays in the development, design, manufacture, launch and financing of Polestar’s vehicles and Polestar’s reliance on a limited number of vehicle models to generate revenues;

 

   

risks related to the timing of expected business milestones and commercial launches, including Polestar’s ability to mass produce its current and new vehicle models and complete the upgrade or tooling of its manufacturing facilities;

 

   

increases in costs, disruption of supply or shortage of materials, in particular for lithium-ion cells or semiconductors;

 

   

risks related to product recalls, regulatory fines and/or an unexpectedly high volume of warranty claims;

 

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Polestar’s reliance on its partners to manufacture vehicles at a high volume, some of which have limited experience in producing electric vehicles, and on the allocation of sufficient production capacity to Polestar by its partners in order for Polestar to be able to increase its vehicle production volumes;

 

   

competition, the ability of Polestar to grow and manage growth profitably, maintain relationships with customers and suppliers and retain its management and key employees;

 

   

the possibility that Polestar may be adversely affected by other economic, business, and/or competitive factors;

 

   

risks related to future market adoption of Polestar’s offerings;

 

   

risks related to Polestar’s distribution model;

 

   

the effects of competition and the high barriers to entry in the automotive industry, the pace and depth of electric vehicle adoption generally on Polestar’s future business, and the risk of other competing propulsion technologies, such as hydrogen fuel cells, gaining market acceptance;

 

   

changes in regulatory requirements (including environmental laws and regulations), governmental incentives and fuel and energy prices;

 

   

Polestar’s ability to rapidly innovate;

 

   

risks associated with changes in applicable laws or regulations and with Polestar’s international operations;

 

   

Polestar’s ability to effectively manage its growth and recruit and retain key employees, including its chief executive officer and executive team;

 

   

Polestar’s reliance on the development of vehicle charging networks to provide charging solutions for its vehicles and its strategic partners for servicing its vehicles and their integrated software;

 

   

Polestar’s ability to establish its brand and capture additional market share, and the risks associated with negative press or reputational harm, including from lithium-ion battery cells catching fire or venting smoke;

 

   

the outcome of any potential litigation, government and regulatory proceedings, investigations and inquiries;

 

   

Polestar’s ability to continuously and rapidly innovate, develop and market new products;

 

   

the outcome of any potential litigation, government and regulatory proceedings, investigations and inquiries;

 

   

the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, inflation, interest rate changes, the ongoing conflict between Ukraine and Russia, supply chain disruptions and logistical constraints on Polestar’s business, projected results of operations, financial performance or other financial and operational metrics or on any of the foregoing risks;

 

   

the need to raise additional funds to support business growth; and

 

   

the other risks and uncertainties included in this prospectus in the section entitled “Risk Factors.”

There can be no assurance that future developments affecting Polestar will be those that Polestar has anticipated. These forward-looking statements involve a number of risks, uncertainties (some of which are beyond Polestar’s control) or other assumptions that may cause actual results or performance to be materially different from those expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. These risks and uncertainties include, but are not limited to, those factors described in the section entitled “Risk Factors.” Should one or more of these risks or uncertainties materialize, or should any of the assumptions prove incorrect, actual results may

 

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vary in material respects from those projected in these forward-looking statements. Polestar will not undertake any obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as may be required under applicable securities laws.

 

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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

This summary highlights certain information about us, this offering and selected information contained elsewhere in this prospectus. This summary is not complete and does not contain all of the information that you should consider before deciding whether to invest in the securities covered by this prospectus. You should read the following summary together with the more detailed information in this prospectus, any related prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, including the information set forth in the section entitled “Risk Factors” in this prospectus, any related prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus in their entirety before making an investment decision.

Overview

Polestar is determined to improve society by accelerating the shift to sustainable mobility.

Polestar is a pure play, premium electric performance car brand headquartered in Sweden, designing products engineered to excite consumers and drive change. Polestar believes that it defines market-leading standards in design, innovation and sustainability. Polestar was established as a premium electric car brand by Volvo Cars and Geely in 2017. Polestar benefits from the technological, engineering and manufacturing capabilities of these established global car manufacturers. Polestar has an asset-light, highly scalable business model with immediate operating leverage.

Polestar 1, an electric performance hybrid GT, was launched to establish Polestar in the premium luxury electric vehicle market in 2017. With a carbon fiber body, Polestar 1 has a combined 609 horse power (hp) and 1,000 Newton-meter (Nm) of torque. Production of the Polestar 1 ceased at the end of 2021, making Polestar a dedicated electric vehicle manufacturer. Polestar 2, an electric performance fastback and Polestar’s first fully electric, high volume car was launched in 2019. Polestar 2 has three variants with a combination of long- and standard range batteries as large as 82 kWh, and dual- and single-motor powertrains with up to 310 kW / 421 hp and 740 Nm of torque. Polestar 3, an electric performance SUV, was launched in 2022. Polestar 3 has two dual-motor 111 kWh battery variants with powertrains up to 380 kW / 517 hp and 910 Nm of torque.

Polestar’s cars have received major acclaim, winning multiple globally recognized awards across design, innovation and sustainability. Highlights for Polestar 1 include Insider car of the year and GQ’s Best Hybrid Sports Car awards. Polestar 2 alone has won over 50 awards, including various Car of the Year awards, the Golden Steering Wheel, Red Dot’s Best of the Best Product Design and a 2021 Innovation by Design award from Fast Company. And the SUV for the electric age, Polestar 3, has already been acclaimed Car WOW’s Car of the Year and ESUV of the Year for 2023. Polestar has also received a total of five awards from the German Design Council, including the German Design Awards for the Polestar 5 concept car and the ABC award for the Polestar 6 electric roadster concept. Furthermore, the Polestar 6 has been voted the Concept Car of the Year in Car Design Review.

As of December 31, 2022, Polestar’s cars are on the road in 27 markets across Europe, North America and Asia Pacific. Polestar intends to grow rapidly in its existing and new markets, which include eight new countries in 2022. Polestar also plans to introduce three new electric vehicles by 2026. Following the launch of the Polestar 3, an electric performance SUV, on October 12, 2022 where customers were able to begin placing orders, Polestar expects to launch Polestar 4, a sporty SUV coupe in 2023, Polestar 5, a luxury 4 door GT, in 2024 and Polestar 6, an electric performance roadster, in 2026. With growth in existing and new markets and broader vehicle portfolio, Polestar expects to compete in segments constituting approximately 80% of the global premium luxury vehicle market by volume of units sold by 2025. Polestar believes the premium luxury vehicle segment is one of the fastest growing vehicle segments, and expects the electric-only vehicle portion of this segment to grow at a faster rate than the overall segment.

 

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The following tables show Polestar’s revenue by type and geographical region for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2021 and 2022:

 

     For the year ended December 31,  
     2022      2021      2020  

Sales of vehicles

     2,404,246        1,290,031        542,783  

Sales of software and performance engineered kits

     21,308        25,881        35,434  

Sales of carbon credits

     10,984        6,299        27,141  

Vehicle leasing revenue

     16,719        6,217        —    

Other revenue

     8,639        8,753        4,887  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total

     2,461,896        1,337,181        610,245  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

     For the year ended December 31,  
     2022      2021      2020  

Europe, the Middle East, and Africa

     1,619,046        1,029,058        568,311  

North America

     609,058        265,661        28,084  

Asia and Australia

     233,792        42,462        13,850  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total

     2,461,896        1,337,181        610,245  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Polestar has set itself the important goal to create a truly climate neutral production car by the end of 2030, which it refers to as the Polestar 0 project. The development of a truly climate neutral production car by the end of 2030 is a significant milestone on the path to Polestar’s goal of becoming a climate neutral company by the end of 2040.

Polestar’s vehicles are currently manufactured at a plant in Luqiao, China that is owned and operated by Volvo Cars. The plant, referred to by Volvo Cars as the “Taizhou” plant, was acquired by Volvo Cars from Geely in December 2021. Prior to that time, the plant had been owned by Geely and operated by Volvo Cars. The Polestar 2 vehicles have been manufactured at this plant since production commenced in 2020. Commencing with the Polestar 3, Polestar intends to produce vehicles both in China at Volvo Cars’ Chengdu facility and in the United States at Volvo Cars’ facility in Charleston, South Carolina. Polestar’s ability to leverage the manufacturing footprint of both Volvo Cars and Geely provides it with access to a substantial combined installed production capacity and gives Polestar’s highly scalable business model immediate operating leverage. Polestar also plans on expanding its production capacity in Europe by leveraging plants that are owned and operated by Volvo Cars.

Polestar’s sales channels include both direct-to-business and direct-to-consumer models. In direct-to-business, vehicles are sold to dealerships and various fleet customers, such as rental car companies and corporate fleet managers. In direct-to-consumer, Polestar uses a digital first approach that enables its customers to browse Polestar’s products, configure their preferred vehicle and place their order on-line. Alternatively, Polestar Spaces are where customers can see, feel and test drive Polestar’s vehicles prior to making an on-line purchase. Polestar believes this combination of digital and physical retail presence delivers a seamless experience for its customers. Polestar’s customer experience is further enhanced by its comprehensive service network that leverages the existing Volvo Cars service center network. As of December 31, 2022, there were 158 Polestar Spaces. In addition, Polestar leverages the Volvo Cars service center network to provide access to 1,116 customer service points worldwide (as of December 31, 2022) in support of its international operations.

Polestar’s research and development expertise is a core competence and Polestar believes it is a significant competitive advantage. With over 650 personnel located in Coventry, United Kingdom and Gothenburg, Sweden, the European research and development team focuses on areas such as bonded aluminum architectures,

 

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high-performance electric motor and bi-directional compatible battery packs, in-car software development and advanced engineering and research. A further 30 employees in Shanghai, China are dedicated to the development of specific features for the Chinese market. The Polestar research and development team also benefits, through a variety of agreements, from having access to the substantial engineering and design teams of Volvo Cars and Geely. The strong expertise and ambition to develop and produce sustainable technology solutions and materials is also a key asset of Polestar’s research and development. All in all, Polestar’s ability to create cars with a strong Polestar product design is also widely recognized as a key differentiator.

Polestar has drawn extensively on the industrial heritage, knowledge and market infrastructure of Volvo Cars. This combination of deep automotive expertise, paired with cutting-edge technologies and an agile, entrepreneurial culture, underpins Polestar’s differentiation, potential for growth and success.

Recent Developments

On January 5, 2023, Polestar announced that its vehicles will benefit from Google’s new high definition (“HD”) map, a comprehensive map that will provide highly detailed and up-to-date road information. With HD map, Polestar expects to be able to combine its vehicle sensor technology and Google’s precise lane-level and localization data to facilitate driver assistance features like Pilot Assist, as well as future autonomous driving functionality.

On February 1, 2023, Polestar announced that it had signed up a further eight partners to the Polestar 0 project, the Company’s goal to create a truly climate neutral production car by 2030. The new collaborators. which include Vitesco Technologies and Stora Enso, will contribute to research in areas such as bio-based materials, chemicals, aluminum processes, electronics and interior surface materials.

On February 2, 2023, Polestar and Luminar announced an expanded collaboration on the industrial design and integration of Luminar’s 3D laser scanning technology which will be featured on Polestar’s future vehicles, including Polestar 5 – the electric 4-door GT expected to be launched in 2024. Luminar is an existing supplier of light detection and ranging (“LiDAR”) technology for Polestar 3, the Company’s electric performance SUV, which was launched in October 2022.

On February 8, 2023, Polestar and Rivian issued in collaboration a “Pathway Report” which concludes that the automotive industry is set to overshoot the IPCC’s 1.5-degree pathway by at least 75% by 2050. Issued in response to the climate crisis, the report, which uses existing, open-source data to model the current trajectory for emissions stemming from the car industry, was carried out by global management consulting firm Kearney.

On February 22, 2023, Polestar announced a major upgrade to the Polestar 2 for model 2024. The changes feature a new high-tech front end that reflects the design language premiered by Polestar 3, substantial performance increases with all-new electric motors, even more powerful batteries, sustainability improvements and, for the first time in a Polestar, rear-wheel drive.

On February 26, 2023, Polestar amended and restated the EUR 350,000,000 uncommitted green trade finance facility, including an accordion facility of up to EUR 250,000,000, into which it entered with Standard Chartered Bank, Nordea Bank ABP, Citibank Europe PLC and ING Belgium SA/NV on February 28, 2022. In connection with the amendment and restatement, the green trade finance facility was extended for an additional 12 months. Loans under the green trade finance facility carry interest at EURIBOR plus 2.3% per annum plus a flat arrangement fee of 0.05-0.10% to be paid on the value of a bank’s participation in the facility. The facility has a repayment period of 90 days and includes a covenant tied to Polestar’s cash and cash equivalents position and available commitments under committed credit facilities not falling below EUR 400,000,000. As of the date of this prospectus, the outstanding principal balance under the green trade finance facility was EUR 190,678,961.

 

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A copy of the amended and restated trade finance facility agreement is filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part.

On April 6, 2023, Polestar announced that it had delivered approximately 12,000 vehicles in the first quarter of 2023.

Foreign Private Issuer

As a foreign private issuer, the Company is subject to different U.S. securities laws than domestic U.S. issuers. As long as the Company continues to qualify as a foreign private issuer under the Exchange Act, the Company is exempt from certain provisions of the Exchange Act that are applicable to U.S. domestic public companies, including:

 

   

the sections of the Exchange Act regulating the solicitation of proxies, consents or authorizations in respect of a security registered under the Exchange Act;

 

   

the sections of the Exchange Act requiring insiders to file public reports of their stock ownership and trading activities and liability for insiders who profit from trades made in a short period of time; and

 

   

the rules under the Exchange Act requiring the filing with the SEC of quarterly reports on Form 10-Q containing unaudited financial and other specified information, or current reports on Form 8-K, upon the occurrence of specified significant events.

In addition, the Company is not required to file annual reports and financial statements with the SEC as promptly as U.S. domestic companies whose securities are registered under the Exchange Act, and is not required to comply with Regulation FD, which restricts the selective disclosure of material information.

Further, the Company is exempt from certain corporate governance requirements of Nasdaq by virtue of being a foreign private issuer. Although the foreign private issuer status exempts the Company from most of Nasdaq’s corporate governance requirements, the Company has decided to voluntarily comply with these requirements, except for the requirement to have a compensation committee and a nominating and governance committee consisting entirely of independent directors.

Furthermore, Nasdaq rules also generally require each listed company to obtain shareholder approval prior to the issuance of securities in certain circumstances in connection with the acquisition of the stock or assets of another company, equity based compensation of officers, directors, employees or consultants, change of control and certain transactions other than a public offering. As a foreign private issuer, the Company is exempt from these requirements and may elect not to obtain shareholders’ approval prior to any further issuance of our Class A ADSs other than as may be required by the laws of England and Wales.

Subject to requirements under the Polestar Articles and Shareholder Acknowledgment Agreement that the Board be comprised of a majority of independent directors for the three years following the Business Combination Closing, the Company may in the future elect to avail itself of these exemptions or to follow home country practices with regard to other matters. As a result, its shareholders will not have the same protections afforded to shareholders of companies that are subject to all of Nasdaq’s corporate governance requirements.

Controlled Company

By virtue of being a controlled company under Nasdaq listing rules, the Company may elect not to comply with certain Nasdaq corporate governance requirements, including that:

 

   

a majority of the board of directors consist of independent directors (however, pursuant to the Polestar Articles and Shareholder Acknowledgment Agreement, for the three years following the Business Combination Closing, the Board must be comprised of a majority of independent directors);

 

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the compensation committee be composed entirely of independent directors with a written charter addressing the committee’s purpose and responsibilities;

 

   

the nominating and governance committee be composed entirely of independent directors with a written charter addressing the committee’s purpose and responsibilities; and

 

   

there be an annual performance evaluation of the compensation and nominating and governance committees.

Other than as specified above, the Company may in the future elect to avail itself of these exemptions. As a result, its shareholders will not have the same protections afforded to shareholders of companies that are subject to all of Nasdaq’s corporate governance requirements.

Risk Factors

An investment in securities of Polestar involves substantial risks and uncertainties that may adversely affect Polestar’s business, financial condition and results of operations and cash flows. Some of the more significant challenges and risks relating to an investment in Polestar include, among other things, the following:

 

   

Polestar’s operations rely heavily on a variety of agreements with its strategic partners, Volvo Cars and Geely, including agreements related to research and development, intellectual property licensing, purchasing, manufacturing engineering and logistics, and Polestar may come to rely on other original equipment manufacturers, vendors and technology providers. The interests of Polestar’s partners, providers or licensors may diverge from those of Polestar.

 

   

Polestar’s ability to produce vehicles and its future growth also depend upon its ability to maintain relationships with its existing suppliers and strategic partners, to source new suppliers for its critical components, and to complete building out its supply chain, while effectively managing the risks due to such relationships.

 

   

Polestar is dependent on strategic partners and suppliers, some of which are single-source suppliers, and the inability of these partners and suppliers to deliver necessary components of Polestar’s products on schedule and at prices, quality levels and volumes acceptable to Polestar, or Polestar’s inability to efficiently manage these components, could have a material and adverse effect on Polestar.

 

   

Polestar may be unable to grow its global product sales, delivery capabilities and its servicing and vehicle charging partnerships, or Polestar may be unable to accurately project and effectively manage its growth.

 

   

Polestar has experienced and may in the future experience significant delays in the design, development, manufacture, launch and financing of its vehicles, which could harm its business and prospects.

 

   

Increases in costs, disruption of supply or shortage of materials, in particular for lithium-ion cells or semiconductors, could harm Polestar’s business.

 

   

Polestar operates in an intensely competitive market, which is generally cyclical and volatile.

 

   

Polestar has incurred net losses each year since its inception and expects to incur increasing expenses and substantial losses for the foreseeable future.

 

   

Polestar’s independent registered public accounting firm has included an explanatory paragraph relating to Polestar’s ability to continue as a going concern in its report on Polestar’s financial statements included in this prospectus.

 

   

Polestar depends on revenue generated from a limited number of models and expects this to continue in the foreseeable future.

 

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Delays in the timing of expected business milestones and commercial launches, including Polestar’s ability to mass produce its electric vehicles and/or complete and/or expand its manufacturing capabilities, could materially and adversely affect Polestar.

 

   

Polestar relies heavily on manufacturing facilities and suppliers, including single-source suppliers, based in China and its growth strategy will depend on growing its business in China.

 

   

The Chinese government may intervene in or influence Polestar’s and Polestar’s partners’ operations in China at any time, which could result in a material change in Polestar’s operations and ability to produce vehicles and significantly and adversely impact the value of Polestar’s securities.

 

   

Changes in Chinese policies, regulations and rules may be quick with little advance notice and the enforcement of laws of the Chinese government is uncertain and could have a significant impact upon Polestar’s and its partners’ ability to operate profitably.

 

   

Polestar and its subsidiaries (i) may not receive or maintain permissions or approvals from the CAC or other relevant authorities to operate in China, (ii) may inadvertently conclude that such permissions or approvals are not required or (iii) may be required to obtain new permissions or approvals in the future due to changes in applicable laws, regulations or interpretations related thereto.

 

   

Investors should not rely on outdated financial projections.

 

   

Polestar’s main distribution approach is different from the currently predominant distribution model for automakers, and its long-term viability is unproven.

 

   

Polestar’s vehicles make use of lithium-ion battery cells, which have been observed to catch fire or vent smoke and flame.

 

   

Polestar’s ability to generate meaningful product revenue will depend on consumer adoption of electric vehicles. If the pace and depth of electric vehicle adoption develops more slowly than Polestar expects, its revenue may decline or fail to grow, and Polestar may be materially and adversely affected.

 

   

Polestar is subject to evolving laws, regulations, standards, policies and contractual obligations related to data privacy, security and consumer protection, and any actual or perceived failure to comply with such obligations could harm Polestar’s reputation and brand, subject Polestar to significant fines and liability, or otherwise adversely affect its business.

 

   

Polestar has undertaken, and in the future may choose to or be compelled to undertake, product recalls or to take other actions that could result in litigation.

 

   

Much of the intellectual property pertaining to Polestar’s vehicles is owned by Volvo Cars and Geely and licensed, in some cases on a non-exclusive basis, to Polestar.

 

   

Polestar will require additional capital to support business growth, and this capital might not be available on commercially reasonable terms, or at all.

 

   

Polestar’s financial results may vary significantly from period to period due to fluctuations in its operating costs, product demand and other factors.

 

   

If Polestar’s performance does not meet the expectations of investors, stockholders or financial analysts, the market price of the ADSs may decline.

 

   

Polestar is a foreign private issuer within the meaning of the rules under the Exchange Act and, as such, it is exempt from certain provisions applicable to United States domestic public companies.

 

   

As Polestar is a foreign private issuer and follows certain home country corporate governance practices, its shareholders may not have the same protections afforded to shareholders of companies that are subject to all of Nasdaq’s corporate governance requirements.

 

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Polestar may lose its foreign private issuer status in the future, which could result in significant additional costs and expenses.

 

   

Polestar has identified material weaknesses in its internal control over financial reporting.

 

   

The securities being offered in this prospectus represent a substantial percentage of the outstanding Class A ADSs, and the sales of such securities, or the perception that these sales could occur, could cause the market price of the securities of the Company to decline significantly and certain Selling Securityholders still may receive significant proceeds.

Our Corporate Information

The Company was incorporated under the laws of England and Wales as a company limited by shares on September 15, 2021 and was re-registered as a public limited company under the laws of England and Wales on May 5, 2022 in connection with the Business Combination. The Company’s registered office in England is The Pavilions, Bridgewater Road, Bristol, England, BS13 8AE. The address of the principal executive office of the Company is Assar Gabrielssons Väg 9 405 31 Gothenburg, Sweden, and the telephone number of the Company is +1 (949) 735-1834. Our agent for service of process in the United States is Polestar Automotive Holding USA Inc. at 77 MacArthur Blvd, Mahwah, NJ 07430.

The SEC maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC. The SEC’s website is http://www.sec.gov. The Company’s principal website address is https://www.polestar.com/us/. We do not incorporate the information contained on, or accessible through, the Company’s websites into this prospectus, and you should not consider it a part of this prospectus.

 

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THE OFFERING

The summary below describes the principal terms of the offering. The “Description of Share Capital and Articles of Association” and “Description of American Depositary Shares” sections of this prospectus contain a more detailed description of the Company’s Class A ADSs and Class C ADSs.

 

Securities being registered for resale by the Selling Securityholders:

(i) 294,877,349 Class A ADSs issued to Former Parent as merger consideration in connection with the Business Combination at an equity consideration value of $10.00 per share, (ii) up to 24,078,638 Class A ADSs which are issuable to the Former Parent Shareholders as earn out consideration (valued as $10.00 per Class A ADS at the time of the Business Combination) upon the achievement of certain price thresholds for the Class A ADSs, as further described in this prospectus, (iii) 1,776,332,546 Class A ADSs issuable upon conversion of Class B ADSs, including 134,098,971 Class B ADSs which are issuable to the Former Parent Shareholders as earn out consideration (valued as $10.00 per Class B ADS at the time of the Business Combination) upon the achievement of certain price thresholds for the Class A ADSs, as further described in this prospectus, (iv) 18,459,165 Class A ADSs issued to the GGI Sponsor in connection with the Business Combination in exchange for the 18,459,165 shares of GGI Class F Common Stock that the GGI Sponsor initially purchased at $0.001 per share of GGI Class F Common Stock and that the GGI Sponsor retained after forfeiture of 1,540,835 shares of GGI Class F Common Stock; (v) 26,540,835 Class A ADSs issued to GGI Sponsor, the PIPE Investors and Snita pursuant to the Sponsor Subscription Agreement, the PIPE Subscription Agreements and the Volvo Cars PIPE Subscription Agreement, respectively, at an average cash price of $9.42 per Class A ADS, (vi) 58,882,610 Class A ADSs issued to Snita upon conversion of the Volvo Cars Preference Subscription Shares at the time of the Business Combination at a $10.00 conversion price, (vii) 4,306,466 Class A ADSs that were issued to Former Parent Convertible Notes Holders upon conversion of the Former Parent Convertible Notes at the time of the Business Combination at a conversion price of $8.18, and (viii) up to 500,000 Class A ADSs issuable to a service provider in exchange for the performance of marketing consulting services valued at up to $5,000,000. This prospectus also covers any additional securities that may become issuable by reason of share splits, share dividends or similar transactions.

 

Offering prices for resales:

The Selling Securityholders will determine when and how they will dispose of the Class A ADSs and Class C-2 ADSs, the resale of which is being registered under this prospectus.

 

Class A ADSs offered by us:

Up to 24,999,965 Class A ADSs issuable upon conversion of the Class C ADSs, including up to 9,000,000 Class A ADSs issuable upon conversion of the Class C-2 ADSs initially held by the GGI

 

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Sponsor in the form of Class C-2 ADSs and which may be converted into Class C-1 ADSs pursuant to the terms of the Class C-2 ADSs.

 

Terms of Class C ADSs:

Each Class C ADS entitles the holder to purchase one Class A ADS at a price of $11.50 per Class C ADS, subject to adjustments. Our Class C ADSs expire on June 23, 2027 at 5:00 p.m., New York City time, or earlier upon redemption.

 

Securities issued and outstanding prior to any exercise of Class C ADSs as of the date of this prospectus:

467,708,923 Class A ADSs, 1,642,233,575 Class B ADSs, no Volvo Cars Preference Subscription Shares, 50,000 GBP Redeemable Preferred Shares, 20,499,965 Class C-1 ADSs and 4,500,000 Class C-2 ADSs.

 

Class A ADSs outstanding assuming the exercise of all Class C ADSs

492,708,888 Class A ADSs.

 

Use of Proceeds:

All of the securities offered by the Selling Securityholders pursuant to this prospectus will be sold by the Selling Securityholders for their respective accounts. We will not receive any of the proceeds from such sales. We will receive up to an aggregate of approximately $287.5 million from the exercise of the Class C ADSs, assuming the exercise in full of all of the Class C ADSs for cash. We believe the likelihood that holders will exercise their Class C ADSs, and therefore the amount of cash proceeds that we would receive, is dependent upon the market price of our Class A ADSs. When the market price for our Class A ADSs is less than $11.50 per share (i.e., the Class C ADSs are “out of the money”), which it is as of the date of this prospectus, we believe holders of Class C ADSs will be unlikely to exercise their Class C ADSs. We expect to use the net proceeds from the exercise of the Class C ADSs for general corporate purposes. To the extent that any of the Class C ADSs are exercised on a “cashless basis,” the amount of cash we would receive from the exercise of the Class C ADSs will decrease. See “Use of Proceeds.”

 

Dividend Policy:

We have never declared or paid any cash dividend on our capital stock. We currently intend to retain any future earnings and do not expect to pay any dividends in the foreseeable future. Any further determination to pay dividends would be at the discretion of our board of directors, subject to applicable laws, and would depend on our financial condition, results of operations, capital requirements, general business conditions, and other factors that our board of directors may deem relevant.

 

Market for our Class A ADSs and Class C-1 ADSs:

Our Class A ADSs and Class C-1 ADSs are listed on Nasdaq under the trading symbols “PSNY” and “PSNYW,” respectively.

 

Risk Factors:

You should carefully consider the information set forth herein under “Risk Factors.”

 

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RISK FACTORS

Risks Related to Polestar’s Business and Industry

Polestar’s operations rely heavily on a variety of agreements with its strategic partners, Volvo Cars and Geely, including agreements related to research and development, intellectual property licensing, purchasing, manufacturing engineering and logistics, and Polestar may come to rely on other original equipment manufacturers, vendors and technology providers. The interests of Polestar’s partners, providers or licensors may diverge from those of Polestar. The inability of Polestar to maintain agreements or partnerships with its existing partners, providers or licensors, or to enter into new agreements or partnerships could have a material and adverse effect on Polestar’s ability to operate as a standalone business, produce vehicles, reach its development and production targets or focus efforts on its core areas of differentiation.

Polestar’s operations rely heavily on a variety of agreements, including agreements related to research and development, intellectual property licensing, purchasing, manufacturing engineering and logistics, with its strategic partners, including Volvo Cars, Geely and certain other original equipment manufacturers, vendors and technology providers. Polestar’s reliance on these agreements subjects it to a number of significant risks, including the risk of being unable to operate as a standalone business, produce vehicles, enforce intellectual property rights or effectively defend against intellectual property infringement claims, reach its development and production targets or focus its efforts on core areas of differentiation.

Of particular importance for Polestar’s operations are the related party agreements with Volvo Cars and Geely. These related party agreements include research and development agreements, manufacturing agreements, licensing agreements, purchasing agreements, component supply agreements, customer care agreements, logistics agreements and distribution agreements, amongst other areas. These agreements are described in more detail in this prospectus in the sections entitled “Business—Related Party Agreements with Volvo Cars and Geely” and “Certain Relationships and Related Party Transactions.” These partnerships permit Polestar to benefit from decades of experience of established auto-manufacturers while focusing its efforts on core areas of differentiation, such as design, performance and rapid adoption of the latest technologies and sustainability solutions. Polestar intends to continue to rely on these partnerships as part of its strategy. Polestar intends to rely solely on its arrangements with Volvo Cars, Geely and other contract partners to manufacture current and future Polestar models. If Polestar is unable to maintain agreements or partnerships with its existing partners, providers or licensors, or to enter into new agreements or partnerships, Polestar’s ability to operate as a standalone business, produce vehicles, reach its development and production targets or focus its efforts on core areas of differentiation could be materially and adversely affected.

Polestar’s ability to produce vehicles and its future growth depend upon its ability to maintain relationships with its existing suppliers and strategic partners, to source new suppliers for its critical components, and to complete building out its supply chain, while effectively managing the risks due to such relationships.

Polestar’s success will be dependent upon its ability to enter into new supplier agreements and maintain its relationships with suppliers and strategic partners who are critical and necessary to the output and production of its vehicles. Polestar also relies on suppliers and its strategic partners to provide it with key components and technology for its vehicles. The supplier agreements Polestar has or may enter into with key suppliers and its strategic partners in the future may have provisions where such agreements can be terminated in various circumstances, including potentially without cause. If these suppliers and strategic partners become unable to provide, or experience delays in providing components or technology, or if the supplier and related party agreements Polestar has in place are terminated, it may be difficult to find replacement components and technology. Changes in business conditions, pandemics, governmental changes and other factors beyond Polestar’s control or that Polestar does not presently anticipate could affect its ability to receive components or technology from its suppliers and strategic partners.

 

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Further, Polestar has not secured supply agreements for all of its components, technology and services. Polestar may be at a disadvantage in negotiating supply agreements for the production of its vehicles due to its limited operating history as a standalone business. In addition, there is the possibility that finalizing the supply agreements for the parts and components of its vehicles will cause significant disruption to Polestar’s operations, or such supply agreements could be at costs that make it difficult for Polestar to operate profitably.

If Polestar does not enter into long-term supplier agreements with guaranteed pricing for its parts or components, it may be exposed to fluctuations in prices of components, materials, labor and equipment. Agreements for the purchase of battery cells and other components contain or are likely to contain pricing provisions that are subject to adjustment based on changes in market prices of key commodities. Substantial increases in the prices for such components, materials, labor and equipment, whether due to supply chain or logistics issues or due to inflation, would increase Polestar’s operating costs and could reduce its margins if it cannot recoup the increased costs. Any attempts to increase the announced or expected prices of Polestar’s vehicles in response to increased costs could be viewed negatively by its customers or potential customers and could adversely affect Polestar’s business, prospects, financial condition or results of operations.

Polestar is dependent on its strategic partners and suppliers, some of which are single-source suppliers, and the inability of these strategic partners and suppliers to deliver necessary components of Polestar’s products on schedule and at prices, quality levels and volumes acceptable to Polestar, or Polestar’s inability to efficiently manage these components, could have a material and adverse effect on Polestar’s results of operations and financial condition.

Polestar relies on its strategic partners and suppliers for the provision and development of many of the key components and materials used in its vehicles. While Polestar plans to obtain components from multiple sources whenever possible, many of the components used in Polestar’s vehicles will be purchased by Polestar from a single source, and Polestar’s limited, and in many cases single-source, supply chain exposes it to multiple potential sources of delivery failure or component shortages for its production. Polestar’s suppliers may not be able to meet Polestar’s required product specifications and performance characteristics, which would impact Polestar’s ability to achieve its product specifications and performance characteristics as well. Additionally, Polestar’s suppliers may be unable to obtain required certifications or provide necessary warranties for their products that are necessary for use in Polestar’s vehicles. Polestar may also be impacted by changes in its supply chain or production needs, including cost increases from its suppliers, in order to meet its quality targets and development timelines as well as due to design changes. Likewise, any significant increases in its production may in the future require Polestar to procure additional components in a short amount of time. Polestar’s suppliers may not ultimately be able to sustainably and timely meet Polestar’s cost, quality and volume needs, requiring Polestar to replace them with other sources. If Polestar is unable to obtain suitable components and materials used in its vehicles from its suppliers or if its suppliers decide to create or supply a competing product, its business could be adversely affected. Further, if Polestar is unsuccessful in its efforts to control and reduce supplier costs, its results of operations will suffer.

In addition, Polestar could experience delays if its strategic partners and suppliers do not meet agreed upon timelines or experience capacity constraints. Any disruption in the supply of components, whether or not from a single source supplier, could temporarily disrupt production of Polestar’s vehicles until an alternative supplier is able to supply the required material, and there can be no guarantee that Polestar or its strategic partners will be able to make up for delays in production caused by any disruption in the supply of critical components. Even in cases where Polestar may be able to establish alternate supply relationships and obtain or engineer replacement components for its single source components, it may be unable to do so quickly, or at all, at prices or quality levels that are acceptable to it. This risk is heightened by the fact that Polestar has less negotiating leverage with suppliers than larger and more established automobile manufacturers, which could adversely affect its ability to obtain necessary components and materials on favorable pricing and other terms, or at all. Any of the foregoing could materially and adversely affect Polestar’s results of operations, financial condition and prospects. (See “—Increases in costs, disruption of supply or shortage of materials, in particular for lithium-ion cells or

 

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semiconductors, could harm Polestar’s business. Polestar will need to maintain and significantly grow its access to battery cells, including through the development and manufacture of its own cells, and control its related costs.”)

Furthermore, as the scale of its vehicle production increases, Polestar will need to accurately forecast, purchase, arrange for warehouse and transport of components internationally to manufacturing facilities and servicing locations and at much higher volumes. If Polestar is unable to accurately match the timing and quantities of component purchases to its actual needs or successfully implement automation, inventory management and other systems to accommodate the increased complexity in its supply chain, Polestar may incur unexpected production disruption, storage, transportation and write-off costs, which could have a material and adverse effect on its results of operations and financial condition.

In addition, as Polestar develops an international manufacturing footprint, it will face additional challenges with respect to international supply chain management and logistics costs. If Polestar is unable to access or develop localized supply chains in the regions where it or its partners already have or develop manufacturing facilities with the quality, costs and capabilities required, Polestar could be required to source components from distant suppliers, which would increase its logistics and manufacturing costs, increase the risk and complexity of Polestar’s supply chain and significantly impair Polestar’s ability to develop cost-effective manufacturing operations, which could have a material and adverse effect on Polestar’s business, results of operations and financial condition.

Furthermore, unexpected changes in business conditions, materials pricing and/or availability, labor issues, wars, governmental changes, tariffs, natural disasters, health epidemics such as the COVID-19 pandemic, and other factors beyond Polestar’s and its suppliers’ control could also affect these suppliers’ ability to deliver components to Polestar on a timely basis. For example, Polestar relies on single-source suppliers for critical components for Polestar vehicles, including single-source suppliers in Shanghai. Prolonged government mandated quarantines and lockdowns in China during 2022 due to further outbreaks of COVID-19 resulted in delays in the production and delivery of such critical components and delayed production of Polestar vehicles. The loss of a strategic partner or any supplier, particularly a single- or limited-source supplier, or the disruption in the supply of components from its strategic partners or suppliers, could lead to vehicle design changes, production delays, idle manufacturing facilities and potential loss of access to important technology and parts for producing, servicing and supporting Polestar’s vehicles, any of which could result in negative publicity, damage to its brand and a material and adverse effect on its business, prospects, results of operations and financial condition. In addition, if Polestar’s suppliers experience substantial financial difficulties, cease operations or otherwise face business disruptions, including as a result of the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, Polestar may be required to provide substantial financial support to ensure supply continuity, which could have an additional adverse effect on Polestar’s liquidity and financial condition.

Polestar may not be able to accurately estimate the supply and demand for its vehicles, which could result in inefficiencies in its business, hinder its ability to generate revenue and create delays in the production of its vehicles. If Polestar fails to accurately predict its manufacturing requirements, Polestar will incur the risk of having to pay for production capacities that it reserved but will not be able to use or that Polestar will not be able to secure sufficient additional production capacities at reasonable costs in case product demand exceeds expectations.

It is difficult to predict Polestar’s future revenues and appropriately budget for its expenses, and Polestar has limited insight into trends that may emerge and affect its business. Polestar is required to provide forecasts of its demand to certain of its strategic partners and suppliers several months prior to the scheduled delivery of vehicles to its prospective customers. Currently, there is little historical basis for making judgments about the demand for Polestar’s vehicles or its ability to develop, manufacture and deliver vehicles, or its profitability in the future. If Polestar overestimates its requirements, its strategic partners or suppliers may have excess manufacturing capacity and/or inventory, which indirectly would increase its costs. If Polestar underestimates its requirements,

 

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its strategic partners and suppliers may have inadequate manufacturing capacity and/or inventory, which could interrupt manufacturing of its products and result in delays in shipments and revenues. In addition, lead times for materials and components that Polestar’s suppliers order may vary significantly and depend on factors such as the specific supplier, contract terms and demand for each component at a given time. If Polestar fails to order sufficient quantities of product components in a timely manner, the delivery of vehicles to its customers could be delayed, which would harm Polestar’s brand, business, financial condition and results of operations.

Polestar may be unable to grow its global product sales, delivery capabilities and its servicing, or Polestar may be unable to accurately project and effectively manage its growth. If Polestar is unable to expand its servicing capabilities, customers’ perceptions of Polestar could be negatively affected, which could materially and adversely affect Polestar’s business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Polestar’s success will depend on its ability to continue to expand its sales capabilities. As Polestar develops and grows its products worldwide, its success will depend on its ability to correctly forecast demand in various markets. If Polestar incorrectly forecasts its demand in one market, it cannot move this excess supply to another market where demand for Polestar products exists. Polestar may face difficulties with deliveries at increasing volumes, particularly in international markets requiring significant transit times. Moreover, because of Polestar’s unique expertise with its vehicles, Polestar recommends that its vehicles be serviced by Polestar or by certain authorized professionals. If Polestar experiences delays in adding servicing capacity or servicing its vehicles efficiently, or experiences unforeseen issues with the reliability of its vehicles, it could overburden Polestar’s servicing capabilities and parts inventory.

There is no assurance that Polestar will be able to ramp its business to meet its sales, delivery, manufacturing and servicing targets globally, or that Polestar’s projections on which such targets are based will prove accurate. These plans require significant cash investments and management resources and there is no guarantee that they will generate additional sales or manufacturing of Polestar’s products, or that Polestar will be able to avoid cost overruns or be able to hire additional personnel to support them. As Polestar expands, it will also need to ensure its compliance with regulatory requirements in various jurisdictions applicable to the manufacturing, sale and servicing of its products. If Polestar fails to manage its growth effectively, its brand, business, prospects, financial condition and operating results may be harmed.

Polestar has experienced and may in the future experience significant delays in the design, development, manufacture, launch and financing of its vehicles, which could harm its business and prospects.

Any delay in the financing, development, design, manufacture and launch of Polestar’s vehicles, including planned future models, and any future electric vehicles could materially damage Polestar’s business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations. Automobile manufacturers often experience delays in the development, design, manufacture and commercial release of new vehicle models, and Polestar has experienced in the past, and may experience in the future, such delays with regard to its vehicles. For example, in 2020, the Polestar 2’s intended start date for production was delayed by one month. Further, delays can also impact features in the vehicles, as seen with Polestar’s introduction of Apple CarPlay into Polestar 2. Polestar’s plan to commercially manufacture and sell its vehicles is dependent upon the timely availability of funds, upon Polestar’s finalizing of the related development, component procurement, testing, build-out and manufacturing plans in a timely manner and also upon Polestar’s ability to execute these plans within the planned timeline. Prior to mass production of its new models, Polestar will also need the vehicles to be fully approved for sale according to differing requirements, including but not limited to regulatory requirements, in the different geographies where Polestar intends to launch its vehicles.

Furthermore, Polestar relies on its strategic partners and suppliers for the provision and development of many of the key components, technology and materials used in its vehicles. To the extent Polestar’s strategic partners or suppliers experience any delays in providing Polestar with or developing necessary components, technology and materials, Polestar could experience delays in delivering on its timelines. Any significant delay

 

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or other complication in the development, manufacture, launch and production ramp of Polestar’s future products, features and services, including complications associated with expanding its production capacity and supply chain or obtaining or maintaining related regulatory approvals, or the inability to manage such ramps cost-effectively, could materially damage Polestar’s brand, business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.

Increases in costs, disruption of supply or shortage of materials, in particular for lithium-ion cells or semiconductors, could harm Polestar’s business. Polestar will need to maintain and significantly grow its access to battery cells, including through the development and manufacture of its own cells, and control its related costs.

As Polestar produces its vehicles, it may experience increases in the cost of or a sustained interruption in the supply or shortage of materials. Any such increase, supply interruption or shortage could materially and adversely impact Polestar’s business, results of operations, prospects and financial condition. The production of Polestar’s vehicles requires lithium-ion cells and semiconductors from suppliers, as well as aluminum, steel, lithium, nickel, copper, cobalt, neodymium, terbium, praseodymium and manganese. The prices for these materials fluctuate, and their available supply may be unstable, depending on market conditions, inflationary pressure and global demand for these materials, including as a result of increased production of electric vehicles and energy storage products by Polestar’s competitors, and could adversely affect Polestar’s business and results of operations. Polestar’s ability to manufacture its vehicles will depend on the continued supply of battery cells for the battery packs used in its products. Polestar has limited flexibility in changing battery cell suppliers, and any disruption in the supply of battery cells from such suppliers could disrupt production of Polestar’s vehicles until a different supplier is fully qualified. In particular, Polestar is exposed to multiple risks relating to lithium-ion cells. These risks include:

 

   

the inability or unwillingness of current battery manufacturers to build or operate battery cell manufacturing plants to supply the numbers of lithium-ion cells required to support the growth of the electric vehicle industry as demand for such cells increases;

 

   

an increase in the cost, or a decrease in the available supply, of materials, such as cobalt, used in lithium-ion cells;

 

   

disruption in the supply of cells due to quality issues or recalls by battery cell manufacturers; and

 

   

fluctuations in the value of any foreign currencies, and the Swedish Krona (“SEK”), the Chinese Yuan (“CNY”), USD or the Euro (“EUR”) in particular, in which battery cell and related raw material purchases are or may be denominated.

Furthermore, Polestar’s ability to manufacture its vehicles depends on continuing access to semiconductors and components that incorporate semiconductors. A global semiconductor supply shortage is having wide-ranging effects across multiple industries and the automotive industry in particular, and it has impacted many automotive suppliers and manufacturers, including Polestar, that incorporate semiconductors into the parts they supply or manufacture. Polestar has experienced and may continue to experience an impact on its operations as a result of the semiconductor supply shortage, and such shortage could in the future have a material impact on Polestar or its suppliers, which could delay production or force Polestar or its suppliers to pay exorbitant rates for continued access to semiconductors and could have a material and adverse effect on Polestar’s business, prospects and results of operations. In addition, prices and transportation expenses for these materials fluctuate depending on many factors beyond Polestar’s control, including fluctuations in supply and demand, currency fluctuations, tariffs and taxes, fluctuations and shortages in petroleum supply, freight charges, the COVID-19 pandemic and other economic and political factors. Substantial increases in the prices for Polestar’s materials or prices charged to Polestar, such as those charged by battery cell or semiconductor suppliers, would increase Polestar’s operating costs, and could reduce Polestar’s margins if it cannot recoup the increased costs through increased prices. Any attempt to increase product prices in response to increased material costs could result in cancellations of orders and reservations and materially and adversely affect Polestar’s brand, image, business, results of operations, prospects and financial condition.

 

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The success and growth of Polestar’s business depends upon its ability to continuously and rapidly innovate, develop and market new products and there are significant risks related to future market adoption of Polestar’s products. Polestar’s limited operating history makes evaluating its business and future prospects difficult and may increase the risk of your investment.

The success and growth of Polestar’s business depends upon its ability, working with its strategic partners, to continuously and rapidly innovate, develop and market new products, and there are significant risks related to future market adoption of Polestar’s products and government programs incentivizing consumers to purchase electric vehicles. Polestar has a limited operating history and operates in a rapidly evolving and highly regulated market. Polestar has encountered and expects to continue to encounter risks and uncertainties frequently experienced by early-stage companies in rapidly changing markets, including risks relating to its ability to, among other things:

 

   

successfully launch commercial production and sales of its vehicles on the timing and with the specifications Polestar has planned;

 

   

hire, integrate and retain professional and technical talent, including key members of management;

 

   

continue to make significant investments in research, development, manufacturing, marketing and sales;

 

   

successfully obtain, maintain, protect and enforce its intellectual property and defend against claims of intellectual property infringement, misappropriation or other violations;

 

   

build a well-recognized and respected brand;

 

   

establish and refine its commercial manufacturing capabilities and distribution infrastructure;

 

   

establish and maintain satisfactory arrangements with its strategic partners and suppliers;

 

   

establish and expand a customer base;

 

   

navigate an evolving and complex regulatory environment;

 

   

anticipate and adapt to changing market conditions, including consumer demand for certain vehicle types, models or trim levels, technological developments, as well as changes in competitive landscape; and

 

   

successfully design, build, manufacture and market new models of electric vehicles, including in collaboration with its partners providers, or licensors, in the future.

Polestar operates in an intensely competitive market, which is generally cyclical and volatile. Should Polestar not be able to compete effectively against its competitors then it is likely to lose market shares, which could have a material and adverse effect on the business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects of Polestar.

The global automotive market, particularly for electric and alternative fuel vehicles, is highly competitive, and Polestar expects it will become even more so in the future. In recent years, the electric vehicle industry has grown, with several companies that focus completely or partially on the electric vehicle market. Polestar expects additional companies to enter this market within the next several years. Polestar also competes with established automobile manufacturers in the luxury vehicle segment, many of which have entered or have announced plans to enter the alternative fuel and electric vehicle market with either fully electric or plug-in hybrid versions of their vehicles, and Polestar also expects to compete for sales with luxury vehicles with internal combustion engines from established manufacturers. Many of Polestar’s current and potential competitors have significantly greater financial, technical, manufacturing, marketing and other resources than Polestar does and may be able to devote greater resources to the design, development, manufacturing, distribution, promotion, sale, servicing and support of their products. In addition, many of these companies have longer operating histories, greater name recognition, larger and more established sales forces, broader customer and industry relationships and other

 

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resources than Polestar does. Polestar’s competitors may be in a stronger position to respond quickly to new technologies and may be able to design, develop, market and sell their products more effectively than it does. Polestar expects competition in its industry to significantly intensify in the future in light of increased demand for alternative fuel vehicles, continuing globalization, favorable governmental policies and consolidation in the worldwide automotive industry. Polestar’s ability to successfully compete in its industry will be fundamental to its future success in existing and new markets. Further, sales of vehicles in the automotive industry tend to be cyclical in many markets, which may expose Polestar to further volatility as it expands and adjusts its operations. Increases in the retail or wholesale prices of electricity from utilities or other renewable energy sources could make Polestar’s products less attractive to customers. There can be no assurance that Polestar will be able to compete successfully in its markets.

Polestar’s business and prospects depend significantly on the Polestar brand. If Polestar is unable to maintain and enhance its brand and capture additional market share or if its reputation and business are harmed, it could have a material and adverse impact on Polestar’s business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Polestar’s business and prospects heavily depend on its ability to develop, maintain and strengthen the “Polestar” brand associated with design, sustainability and technological excellence. Promoting and positioning its brand depend significantly on Polestar’s ability to provide a consistently high-quality customer experience. To promote its brand, Polestar may be required to change its customer development and branding practices, which could result in substantially increased expenses, including the need to use traditional media such as television, radio and print advertising. In particular, any negative publicity, whether or not true, can quickly proliferate on social media and harm consumer perception and confidence in Polestar’s brand. Polestar’s ability to successfully position its brand could also be adversely affected by perceptions about the quality of its competitors’ vehicles or its competitors’ success. For example, certain of Polestar’s competitors have been subject to significant scrutiny for incidents involving their self-driving technology and battery fires, which could result in similar scrutiny of Polestar. Furthermore, as Polestar launches new vehicles, particularly those based on new architectural platforms or incorporating new technologies, it may experience unusually high numbers of quality issues, customer complaints and/or warranty claims, which may cause lasting harm to the Polestar brand.

In addition, from time to time, Polestar’s vehicles may be evaluated and reviewed by third parties. Any negative reviews or reviews which compare Polestar unfavorably to competitors could adversely affect consumer perception about its vehicles and reduce demand for its vehicles, which could have a material and adverse effect on Polestar’s business, results of operations, prospects and financial condition.

Polestar’s sales depend in part on its ability to establish and maintain confidence in its business prospects among consumers, analysts and others within its industry.

Consumers may be less likely to purchase Polestar’s products if they do not believe that its business will succeed or that its operations, including service and customer support operations, will continue for many years. Similarly, suppliers and other third parties will be less likely to invest time and resources in developing business relationships with Polestar if they are not convinced that its business will succeed. Accordingly, to build, maintain and grow its business, Polestar must establish and maintain confidence among customers, suppliers, analysts and other parties with respect to its liquidity and business prospects. Maintaining such confidence may be particularly difficult as a result of many factors, including Polestar’s limited operating history, others’ unfamiliarity with its products, uncertainty regarding the future of electric vehicles, any delays in scaling production, delivery and service operations to meet demand, competition and Polestar’s production and sales performance compared with market expectations. Many of these factors are largely outside of Polestar’s control, and any negative perceptions about Polestar’s business prospects, even if exaggerated or unfounded, would likely harm its business and make it more difficult to raise additional capital in the future. In addition, a significant number of new electric vehicle companies have recently entered the automotive industry, which is an industry that has historically been associated with significant barriers to entry and a high rate of failure. If these new

 

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entrants or other manufacturers of electric vehicles go out of business, produce vehicles that do not perform as expected or otherwise fail to meet expectations, such failures may have the effect of increasing scrutiny of others in the industry, including Polestar, and further challenging customer, supplier and analyst confidence in Polestar’s business prospects.

The automotive industry has significant barriers to entry that Polestar must overcome in order to manufacture and sell electric vehicles at scale.

The automobile industry is characterized by significant barriers to entry, including large capital requirements, investment costs of developing, designing, manufacturing and distributing vehicles, long lead times to bring vehicles to market from the concept and design stage, the need for specialized design and development expertise, regulatory requirements, competition from established companies with large patent portfolios and the need to establish a brand name and image and sales and service locations. Since Polestar is focused on electric vehicles, it faces a variety of added challenges to entry that a traditional automobile manufacturer would not encounter, including additional costs of developing and producing an electric powertrain that has comparable performance to a traditional gasoline engine in terms of range and power, limited experience with servicing electric vehicles, regulations associated with the transport of batteries, the need for markets to establish or provide access to sufficient charging locations and unproven high-volume customer demand for fully electric vehicles. If Polestar is not able to overcome these barriers, its business, prospects, results of operations and financial condition will be negatively impacted, and its ability to grow its business will be harmed.

Polestar may be unable to adequately control the substantial costs associated with its operations.

Polestar will require significant capital to develop and grow its business, and will need to seek new financing in the future. Polestar has incurred and expects to continue to incur significant expenses, including leases, sales and distribution expenses as its builds its brand and markets its vehicles; expenses relating to developing and manufacturing its vehicles; tooling and expanding its manufacturing facilities; research and development expenses; raw material procurement costs; and general and administrative expenses as it scales its operations and incurs the costs of being a public company. In addition, Polestar expects to incur significant costs servicing and maintaining customers’ vehicles, including establishing its service operations and facilities. These expenses could be significantly higher than Polestar currently anticipates. In addition, any delays in the start of production, obtaining necessary equipment or supplies, expansion of Polestar’s manufacturing facilities or manufacturing agreements, or the procurement of permits and licenses relating to Polestar’s expected manufacturing, sales and distribution model could significantly increase Polestar’s expenses. In such event, Polestar could be required to seek additional financing earlier than it expects, and such financing may not be available on commercially reasonable terms, or at all.

In the longer term, Polestar’s ability to become profitable will depend on its ability not only to control costs, but also to sell in quantities and at prices sufficient to achieve its expected margins. If Polestar is unable to cost-efficiently develop, design, manufacture, market, sell, distribute and service its vehicles, its margins, profitability and prospects would be materially and adversely affected.

Polestar has incurred net losses each year since its inception and expects to incur increasing expenses and substantial losses for the foreseeable future.

As of December 31, 2022, Polestar’s accumulated deficit was TUSD3,726,775. Polestar expects to continue to incur substantial losses and increasing expenses in the foreseeable future as it:

 

   

continues to design and develop its vehicles;

 

   

builds up inventories of parts and components for its vehicles;

 

   

manufactures an available inventory of its vehicles;

 

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develops and deploys vehicle charging partnerships;

 

   

expands its design, research, development, maintenance and repair capabilities, including in partnership with its strategic partners;

 

   

increases its sales and marketing activities and develops its distribution infrastructure; and

 

   

expands its general and administrative functions to support its growing operations and status as a public company.

If Polestar’s product development or commercialization is delayed, its costs and expenses may be significantly higher than it currently expects. Because Polestar will incur the costs and expenses from these efforts before it receives any incremental revenues with respect thereto, Polestar expects its losses in future periods will be significant.

Polestar requires additional funding and has determined there is substantial doubt about its ability to continue as a going concern.

Polestar’s financial statements were prepared assuming that Polestar will continue as a going concern. However, there is substantial doubt about its ability to continue as a going concern, meaning that Polestar may not be able to continue in operation for the foreseeable future or be able to realize assets and discharge liabilities in the ordinary course of operations. Polestar needs to raise additional funds through the issuance of new debt, equity securities, or otherwise in order to support its current operations, liquidity needs, and business growth. There is no assurance that sufficient financing will be available when needed to allow Polestar to continue as a going concern. The perception that Polestar may not be able to continue as a going concern may also make it more difficult to raise additional funds or operate Polestar’s business due to concerns about its ability to meet contractual obligations.

Based on current operating plans, availability of short-term and long-term debt financing arrangements, and continued financial support from existing Polestar shareholders, Polestar believes that it has resources to fund its operations for at least the next twelve months. However, Polestar will require additional funds to finance its activities thereafter and expects to consider various financing alternatives with banks and other third parties. For more information, see “—Risks Related to Financing and Strategic Transactions—Polestar will require additional capital to support business growth, and this capital might not be available on commercially reasonable terms, or at all” and “Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Liquidity and capital resources.”

Polestar depends on revenue generated from a limited number of models and expects this to continue in the foreseeable future.

Polestar currently depends on revenue from Polestar 2 and, with deliveries expected to commence in the fourth quarter of 2023, Polestar 3. For the foreseeable future Polestar will be significantly dependent on a limited number of models. Although Polestar has other vehicle models on its product pipeline, it currently does not expect to introduce another vehicle model for sale until late 2023. Polestar expects to rely on sales from Polestar 2 and Polestar 3, along with other sources of financing, for the capital that will be required to develop and commercialize those subsequent models (see “—Risks Related to Financing and Strategic Transactions—Polestar will require additional capital to support business growth, and this capital might not be available on commercially reasonable terms, or at all.”). To the extent that production of Polestar’s vehicles is delayed or reduced, or if the vehicles are not well-received by the market for any reason, Polestar’s revenues and cash flow would be adversely affected and it may need to seek additional financing earlier than it expects, and such financing may not be available to it on commercially reasonable terms, or at all.

Polestar relies on the development of vehicle charging networks to provide charging solutions for its vehicles.

Demand for Polestar’s vehicles depends in part on the availability of charging infrastructure. While the prevalence of charging stations has been increasing, charging station locations are significantly less widespread

 

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than gas stations. Some potential customers may choose not to purchase an electric vehicle because of the lack of a more widespread service network or charging infrastructure at the time of sale. Polestar’s ability to generate customer loyalty and grow its business could be impaired by a lack of satisfactory access to charging infrastructure. To the extent Polestar is unable to meet user expectations or experiences difficulties in providing charging solutions, demand for its vehicles may suffer, and Polestar’s reputation and business may be materially and adversely affected.

Polestar relies on its strategic partners for servicing its vehicles and on their systems, such as dealer management systems and diagnostic tools. If Polestar or its strategic partners are unable to adequately address the service requirements of its customers, Polestar’s business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

Polestar’s strategic partners have limited experience servicing or repairing Polestar vehicles. This risk is enhanced by Polestar’s limited operating history and its limited data regarding its vehicles’ real-world reliability and service requirements. Servicing electric vehicles is different than servicing vehicles with internal combustion engines and requires specialized skills, including high voltage training and servicing techniques. As such, there can be no assurance that Polestar’s service arrangements adequately address the service requirements of its customers to their satisfaction, or that Polestar and its servicing partners have sufficient resources, experience or inventory to meet these service requirements in a timely manner as the volume of vehicles Polestar delivers increases. In addition, if Polestar is unable to establish a widespread service network that provides satisfactory customer service, its customer loyalty, brand and reputation could be adversely affected, which in turn could materially and adversely affect its sales, results of operations, prospects and financial condition.

In addition, the motor vehicle industry laws in many jurisdictions require that service facilities be available to service vehicles physically sold from locations in the state. While Polestar anticipates developing a service program that would satisfy regulatory requirements in these circumstances, the specifics of its service program are still in development, and at some point may need to be restructured to comply with state law, which may impact Polestar’s business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Furthermore, in some jurisdictions, pursuant to applicable competition laws, Polestar may be regarded as a competitor of its strategic partners in relation to servicing vehicles. Therefore, Polestar and its strategic partners’ sales units in those markets will be subject to strict controls over the sharing of commercially sensitive information and anti-cartel requirements that can result in reduced coordination with respect to providing servicing to customers, which in turn could have a material and adverse effect on Polestar’s sales, results of operations, prospects and financial condition.

Polestar’s customers will also depend on Polestar’s customer support team to resolve technical and operational issues relating to the integrated software underlying its vehicles. As Polestar grows, additional pressure may be placed on its customer support team or partners, and Polestar may be unable to respond quickly enough to accommodate short-term increases in customer demand for technical support. Polestar also may be unable to change the manner and delivery of its technical support to compete with changes in the technical support provided by its competitors. Increased customer demand for support, without corresponding revenue, could increase costs and negatively affect Polestar’s results of operations. If Polestar is unable to successfully address the service requirements of its customers, or if it establishes a market perception that it does not maintain high-quality support, its brand and reputation could be adversely affected, and it may be subject to claims from its customers, which could result in loss of revenue or damages, and its business, results of operations, prospects and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected.

If Polestar’s vehicles fail to perform as expected, its ability to develop, market and sell or lease its products could be harmed.

Polestar’s vehicles may contain defects in components, software, design or manufacture that may cause them not to perform as expected or that may require repairs, recalls and design changes, any of which would

 

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require significant financial and other resources to successfully navigate and resolve. Polestar’s vehicles use a substantial amount of software code to operate, and software products are inherently complex and may contain defects and errors and subject Polestar to licensing restrictions and conditions. In addition, certain components used by Polestar were originally developed for use in vehicles with internal combustion engines, and thus may not offer a similar or satisfactory level of performance in Polestar’s electric vehicles. If Polestar’s vehicles contain defects in design and manufacture that cause them not to perform as expected or that require repair, or certain features of Polestar’s vehicles take longer than expected to become available, are legally restricted or become subject to additional regulation, Polestar’s ability to develop, market and sell its products and services could be harmed. Efforts to remedy any issues Polestar observes in its products could significantly distract management’s attention from other important business objectives, may not be timely, may hamper production or may not be to the satisfaction of its customers. Further, Polestar’s limited operating history and limited field data reduce its ability to evaluate and predict the long-term quality, reliability, durability and performance characteristics of its battery packs, powertrains and vehicles. There can be no assurance that Polestar will be able to detect and fix any defects in its products prior to their sale or lease to customers.

Any defects, delays or legal restrictions on vehicle features, or other failure of Polestar’s vehicles to perform as expected, could harm Polestar’s reputation and result in delivery delays, product recalls, product liability claims, breach of warranty claims and significant warranty and other expenses, and could have a material and adverse impact on Polestar’s business, results of operations, prospects and financial condition. As a newer entrant to the industry attempting to build customer relationships and earn trust, these effects could be significantly detrimental to Polestar. Additionally, problems and defects experienced by other electric consumer vehicles could by association have a negative impact on perception and customer demand for Polestar’s vehicles.

In addition, even if its vehicles function as designed, Polestar expects that the battery efficiency, and hence the range, of its electric vehicles, like other electric vehicles that use current battery technology, will decline over the time of its life. Other factors, such as usage, time and stress patterns, may also impact the battery’s ability to hold a charge, or could require Polestar to limit vehicles’ battery charging capacity, including via over-the-air or other software updates, for safety reasons or to protect battery capacity, which could further decrease Polestar’s vehicles’ range between charges. Such decreases in or limitations of battery capacity and therefore range, whether imposed by deterioration, software limitations or otherwise, could also lead to consumer complaints or warranty claims, including claims that prior knowledge of such decreases or limitations would have affected consumers’ purchasing decisions. There can be no assurance that Polestar will be able to improve the performance of its battery packs, or increase its vehicles’ range, in the future. Any such battery deterioration or capacity limitations and related decreases in range may negatively influence potential customers’ willingness to purchase Polestar’s vehicles and negatively impact its brand and reputation, which could adversely affect Polestar’s business, prospects, results of operations and financial condition.

Polestar must develop complex software and technology systems, including in coordination with its strategic partners, vendors and suppliers, in order to produce its electric vehicles, and there can be no assurance such systems will be successfully developed.

Polestar’s vehicles use a substantial amount of externally developed and in-house software and complex technological hardware to operate, some of which is still subject to further development and testing. The development and implementation of such advanced technologies is inherently complex, and Polestar will need to coordinate with its vendors and suppliers in order to develop such technologies and integrate them into its electric vehicles and ensure such technologies interoperate with other complex technology as designed and as expected. Polestar may fail to detect defects and errors that are subsequently revealed, and its control over the performance of other parties’ services and systems may be limited. Any defects or errors in, or which are attributed to, Polestar’s technology, could result in, among other things:

 

   

delayed production and delivery of Polestar’s vehicles;

 

   

delayed market acceptance of Polestar’s vehicles;

 

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loss of customers or the inability to attract new customers;

 

   

diversion of engineering or other resources for remedying the defect or error;

 

   

damage to Polestar’s brand or reputation;

 

   

increased service and warranty costs;

 

   

legal action by customers or third parties, including product liability claims; and

 

   

penalties imposed by regulatory authorities.

In addition, if Polestar and its partners are unable to develop the software and technology systems necessary to operate its vehicles, Polestar’s competitive position will be harmed. Polestar relies on its strategic partners and suppliers to develop a number of technologies for use in its products, including Google Android Automotive Services for the infotainment system installed in Polestar vehicles and independent developers developing third-party apps for Polestar vehicles. There can be no assurances that Polestar’s strategic partners and suppliers will be able to meet the technological requirements, production timing and volume requirements to support Polestar’s business plan. In addition, such technology may not satisfy the cost, performance useful life and warranty characteristics Polestar anticipates in its business plan, which could materially and adversely affect Polestar’s business, prospects and results of operations.

Polestar’s vehicle production relies heavily on complex machinery and involves a significant degree of risk and uncertainty in terms of operational performance and costs.

Polestar’s vehicle production relies heavily on complex machinery and involves a significant degree of uncertainty and risk in terms of operational performance and costs. The manufacturing plants for Polestar’s vehicles consist of large-scale machinery combining many components. These manufacturing plant components are likely to suffer unexpected malfunctions from time to time and will depend on repairs and spare parts to resume operations, which may not be available when needed.

Unexpected malfunctions of the manufacturing plant components may significantly affect the intended operational efficiency of Polestar. Operational performance and costs can be difficult to predict and are often influenced by factors outside of Polestar’s control, such as, but not limited to, scarcity of natural resources, environmental hazards and remediation, costs associated with decommissioning of machines, labor disputes and strikes, difficulty or delays in obtaining governmental permits, damages or defects in electronic systems, industrial accidents, pandemics, fire, seismic activity and natural disasters. Should operational risks materialize, it may result in the personal injury to or death of workers, the loss of production equipment, damage to manufacturing facilities, monetary losses, delays and unanticipated fluctuations in production, environmental damage, administrative fines, increased insurance costs and potential legal liabilities, all which could have a material and adverse effect on Polestar’s business, results of operations, cash flows, financial condition or prospects.

Polestar relies on its partners to manufacture vehicles and these partners have limited experience in producing electric vehicles. Further, Polestar relies on sufficient production capacity being available and/or allocated to it by its partners in order to manufacture its vehicles. Delays in the timing of expected business milestones and commercial launches, including Polestar’s ability to mass produce its electric vehicles and/or complete and/or expand its manufacturing capabilities, could materially and adversely affect Polestar’s business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Polestar intends to rely solely on its contract manufacturing arrangements with its partners to manufacture current and future Polestar models. Polestar cannot provide any assurance as to whether its partners will be able to develop efficient, automated, low-cost production capabilities and processes and reliable sources of component supply that will enable Polestar to meet the quality, price, engineering, design and production

 

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standards, as well as the production volumes, required to successfully mass market its vehicles. Even if Polestar’s partners are successful in developing high volume production capabilities and processes and reliably source their component supplies, no assurance can be given as to whether they will be able to do so in a manner that avoids significant delays and cost overruns, including as a result of factors beyond their and Polestar’s control such as problems with suppliers and vendors, or force majeure events, or in time to meet Polestar’s commercialization schedules or to satisfy the requirements of customers and potential customers. Any failure to develop such production processes and capabilities within Polestar’s projected costs and timelines could have a material and adverse effect on its business, results of operations, prospects and financial condition. Bottlenecks and other unexpected challenges may also arise as Polestar ramps production, and it will be important that Polestar address these challenges promptly while continuing to control its manufacturing costs. If Polestar is not successful in doing so, or if it experiences issues with its manufacturing process improvements, it could face delays in establishing and/or sustaining its production ramps or be unable to meet its related cost and profitability targets. It may be very difficult to switch contract manufacturers should the need arise.

Polestar faces risks associated with international operations, including tariffs and unfavorable regulatory, political, tax and labor conditions, which could materially and adversely affect its business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Polestar has operations and subsidiaries in Europe, North America and Asia that are subject to the legal, political, regulatory and social requirements and economic conditions in these jurisdictions. Additionally, as part of its growth strategy, Polestar intends to expand its sales, maintenance and repair services and manufacturing activities to new countries in the coming years. However, Polestar has limited experience in manufacturing, selling or servicing its vehicles, and such expansion would require it to make significant expenditures, including the hiring of local employees, in advance of generating any revenue. Polestar is subject to a number of risks associated with international business activities that may increase its costs, impact its ability to sell, service and manufacture its vehicles and require significant management attention. These risks include:

 

   

conforming Polestar’s vehicles to various international regulatory requirements where its vehicles are sold, or homologated;

 

   

establishing localized supply chains and managing international supply chain and logistics costs;

 

   

difficulty in staffing and managing foreign operations;

 

   

difficulties attracting customers in new jurisdictions;

 

   

difficulties establishing international manufacturing operations, including difficulties establishing relationships with or establishing localized supplier bases and developing cost-effective and reliable supply chains for such manufacturing operations;

 

   

taxes, regulations and permit requirements, including taxes imposed by one taxing jurisdiction that Polestar may not be able to offset against taxes imposed upon it in another relevant jurisdiction, and foreign tax and other laws limiting its ability to repatriate funds to another relevant jurisdiction;

 

   

fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates and interest rates, including risks related to any forward currency contracts, interest rate swaps or other hedging activities Polestar undertakes;

 

   

United States and foreign government trade restrictions, tariffs and price or exchange controls;

 

   

foreign labor laws, regulations and restrictions;

 

   

changes in diplomatic and trade relationships, including political risk and customer perceptions based on such changes and risks;

 

   

political instability, natural disasters, climate change, environmental conditions, pandemics (including the COVID-19 pandemic), war or events of terrorism; and

 

   

the strength of international economies.

 

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If Polestar fails to successfully address these risks, its business, prospects, results of operations and financial condition could be materially harmed.

Polestar relies heavily on manufacturing facilities and suppliers, including single-source suppliers, based in China and its growth strategy will depend on growing its business in China. This subjects Polestar to economic, operational, regulatory and legal risks specific to China.

Polestar relies heavily on manufacturing facilities based in China for the manufacture of its vehicles, including facilities of Volvo Cars, Geely and its other contract partners, as well as its own manufacturing facilities in China. Polestar intends to rely solely on arrangements with its contract manufacturers, including Volvo Cars and Geely, for current and future Polestar models, many of which are based in China, and its growth strategy will depend on growing its business based in China. In addition, Polestar relies on single-source suppliers in China for critical components for Polestar vehicles, including single-source suppliers in Shanghai and elsewhere. This growing presence increases Polestar’s sensitivity to the economic, operational and legal risks specific to China. For example, China’s economy differs from the economies of most developed countries in many aspects, including, but not limited to, the degree of government involvement, level of development, reinvestment control of foreign exchange, allocation of resources, growth rate and development level. Although the Chinese government has implemented measures since the late 1970s emphasizing the utilization of market forces for economic reform, including the reduction of state ownership of productive assets, and the establishment of improved corporate governance in business enterprises, which are generally viewed as a positive development for foreign business investment, a substantial portion of productive assets in China are still owned by the Chinese government. In addition, the Chinese government continues to play a significant role in regulating industry development by imposing industrial policies. The Chinese government also exercises significant control over economic growth in China through allocating resources, controlling payments of foreign currency-denominated obligations, setting monetary policy and providing preferential treatment to particular industries or companies.

While China’s economy has experienced significant growth over the past decades, growth has been uneven, both geographically and among various sectors of the economy, and the rate of growth has been slowing down, particularly in view of the effects of government actions to address the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, including significant closures of businesses in 2022. For example, prolonged government mandated quarantines and lockdowns in China during 2022 due to further outbreaks of COVID-19 resulted in delays in the production and delivery of critical components and delayed production of Polestar vehicles. Some of the governmental measures may benefit the overall Chinese economy, but may have a negative effect on Polestar. For example, Polestar’s financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected by changes in tax regulations. Higher inflation could adversely affect Polestar’s results of operations and financial condition. Furthermore, certain operating costs and expenses, such as battery prices and freight and distribution costs, employee compensation and office operating expenses, may increase as a result of higher inflation. In addition, the Chinese government has implemented in the past certain measures to control the pace of economic growth. These measures may cause decreased economic activity, which in turn could lead to a reduction in demand for Polestar’s products and services, and consequently have a material and adverse effect on Polestar’s businesses, financial condition and results of operations.

It is unclear whether and how Polestar’s current or future business, prospects, financial condition or results of operations may be affected by changes in China’s economic, political and social conditions and in its laws, regulations and policies. In addition, many of the economic reforms carried out by the Chinese government are unprecedented or experimental and are expected to be refined and improved over time. This refining and improving process may not necessarily have a positive effect on Polestar’s operations and business development.

Additionally, the legal system in China is developing and there are inherent uncertainties that may affect the protection afforded to Polestar for its business and activities in China that are governed by Chinese laws and regulations. Any administrative and court proceedings in China may be protracted, resulting in substantial costs

 

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and diversion of resources and management attention. Since administrative and court authorities in China have significant discretion in interpreting and implementing statutory and contractual terms, it may be more difficult to evaluate the outcome of administrative and court proceedings and the level of legal protection for Polestar than in more developed legal systems. These uncertainties may impede Polestar’s ability to enforce contracts and could materially and adversely affect Polestar’s business, financial condition and results of operations.

The Chinese government may intervene in or influence Polestar’s and Polestar’s partners’ operations in China at any time, which could result in a material change in Polestar’s operations and ability to produce vehicles and significantly and adversely impact the value of Polestar’s securities.

The Chinese government exerts substantial influence, discretion, oversight and control over the manner in which companies incorporated under the laws and regulations of China must conduct their business activities, including activities relating to overseas offerings of securities and/or foreign investments in such companies. Polestar is incorporated under the laws of England and Wales with headquarters in Sweden, and has subsidiaries with operations in mainland China as well as other significant markets. Accordingly, Polestar is not subject to the permissions requirements of the China Securities Regulatory Commission (the “CSRC”) with respect to the issuance of securities by Polestar to investors. However, Polestar cannot guarantee that the Chinese government will not seek to intervene or influence any of Polestar’s or its partners’ operations or securities’ offerings at any time. If Polestar or its partners were to become subject to such direct influence, intervention, discretion, oversight or control, including those over overseas offerings of securities (including foreign investments), it may result in a material adverse change in Polestar’s and its partners’ operations and cause the value of Polestar’s securities to significantly decline or be worthless.

The Chinese government has recently published new policies that significantly affected certain industries such as the education and internet industries, and Polestar, albeit not engaging in such industries, cannot rule out the possibility that the Chinese government will in the future release regulations or policies regarding Polestar’s industry that could require Polestar and its partners to seek permission from Chinese authorities to continue operating, which may adversely affect Polestar’s business, financial condition and results of operations.

Changes in Chinese policies, regulations and rules may be quick with little advance notice and the enforcement of laws of the Chinese government is uncertain and could have a significant impact upon Polestar’s and its partners’ ability to operate profitably.

Polestar relies on its and its partners’ operations and facilities located in China. Accordingly, economic, political and legal developments in China will significantly affect Polestar’s business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. Policies, regulations, rules and the enforcement of laws of the Chinese government can have significant effects on economic conditions in China and the ability of businesses to operate profitably. Polestar’s ability to operate profitably may be adversely affected by rapid and unexpected changes in policies by the Chinese government, including changes in laws, regulations, their interpretation and their enforcement.

Compliance with China’s new Data Security Law, Cybersecurity Review Measures (revised draft for public consultation), Personal Information Protection Law, regulations and guidelines relating to the multi-level protection scheme and any other future laws and regulations may entail significant expenses and could materially affect Polestar’s business.

China has implemented new rules relating to data protection, and the new Data Security Law of the People’s Republic of China (“Data Security Law”) took effect in September 2021. The Data Security Law provides that the data processing activities, including the collection, storage, usage, editing, transmission, provision and publication of the data shall be in compliance with the laws, regulations and shall not damage the national security or public interest, or damage any legitimate interest of any individuals or entities. Pursuant to the Data Security Law, China establishes the “data classification and hierarchical protection system” and “data security review system” for the purpose of data protection. Without prior approval by the Chinese competent regulator,

 

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any entity or individual shall be prohibited from transferring data stored in China to foreign law enforcement agencies or judicial authorities.

Additionally, the Cyber Security Law of the People’s Republic of China (“Cyber Security Law”) that came into effect in June 2017 requires companies to take certain organizational, technical and administrative measures and other necessary measures to ensure the security of their networks and data stored on their networks. Specifically, the Cyber Security Law provides that China adopt a multi-level protection scheme (“MLPS”), under which network operators are required to implement security protection measures to ensure that the network is free from interference, disruption or unauthorized access, and prevent network data from being disclosed, stolen or tampered with. Under the MLPS, entities operating information systems must have a thorough assessment of the risks and the conditions of their information and network systems to determine the level to which the entity’s information and network systems belong-from the lowest Level 1 to the highest Level 5 pursuant to a series of national standards on the grading and implementation of the classified protection of cyber security. The grading result will determine the set of security protection obligations that entities must comply with. In the event the information and network systems are preliminarily classified as Level 2 or above, the network operator should report the grade to the relevant government authority for examination, approval and final determination of its protection level.

Recently, the Cyberspace Administration of China (the “CAC”) has taken action against several Chinese Internet companies in connection with their initial public offerings on U.S. securities exchanges, for alleged national security risks and improper collection and use of the personal information of Chinese data subjects. According to the official announcement, the action was initiated based on the National Security Law, the Cyber Security Law and Cybersecurity Review Measures, which are aimed at “preventing national data security risks, maintaining national security and safeguarding public interests.” On November 14, 2021, the CAC published the draft Network Data Security Management Regulation for public comment, which stipulates the requirement that data processors processing more than 1 million individuals’ information should apply for a cybersecurity review with the CAC, if the processors intend to list their securities in a foreign country. On December 28, 2021, the CAC published the Cybersecurity Review Measures, which came into effect on February 15, 2022, specifying that the cybersecurity review must be conducted in the event the data processing operators in possession of personal information of over 1 million users intend to list their securities in a foreign country.

It is unclear at the present time how widespread the cybersecurity review requirement and the enforcement action will be and what effect they will have on Polestar in particular. China’s regulators may impose penalties for non-compliance ranging from fines or suspension of operations, and this could lead to us delisting from the U.S. stock market.

Also, on August 20, 2021, the Standing Committee of China’s National People’s Congress passed the Personal Information Protection Law of the People’s Republic of China (“Personal Information Protection Law”), which became effective on November 1, 2021. The Personal Information Protection Law provides a comprehensive set of data privacy and protection requirements that apply to the processing of personal information and expands data protection compliance obligations to cover the processing of personal information of individuals by organizations and individuals in China. In addition, if the processing of personal information of individuals in China is conducted outside of China, the Personal Information Protection Law shall also apply if such processing is for purposes of providing products and services to, or analyzing and evaluating the behavior of, persons in China. The Personal Information Protection Law also provides that critical information infrastructure operators and personal information processing entities who process personal information meeting a volume threshold to be set by the CAC are also required to store in China personal information generated or collected in China, and to pass a security assessment administered by the CAC for any export of such personal information. On July 7, 2022, the CAC issued Security Assessment Measures for Outbound Data Transfers, which became effective on September 1, 2022. The Security Assessment Measures for Outbound Data Transfers requires that the data processor shall apply for the security assessment organized by the CAC under any of the following circumstances before the information is transferred outbound: (i) where a data processor provides key

 

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data overseas, (ii) critical information infrastructure operator and personal information processors who process more than 1 million individual’s personal information; (iii) where a data processor has provided personal information of over 100,000 individuals or sensitive personal information of over 10,000 individuals in total abroad since January 1 of the previous year. Lastly, the Personal Information Protection Law contains proposals for significant fines for serious violations of up to CNY 50 million or 5% of annual turnover of the prior year and may also be ordered to suspend any related activity by competent authorities.

Other than personal information, the Several Measures on the Automobile Data Security Management (for Trial Implementation) jointly issued by the National Development and Reform Commission, Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, Ministry of Public Security, CAC and Ministry of Transport on August 16, 2021 and came into effect on October 1, 2021, impose strict regulation on important data, which includes more than 100,000 individuals’ personal information. The Several Measures on the Automobile Data Security Management (for Trial Implementation) provide that important data should be stored within the territory of China in accordance with the law, and if it is really necessary to export such data due to business needs, a security assessment organized by the CAC must be passed.

On July 7, 2022, the CAC released the Cross-border Data Transfer Security Measures (the “Security Assessment Measures”) effective from September 1, 2022, with a six months “rectification period.” The Security Assessment Measures provides for the scope of data that will be subject to security assessment when being exported, including (i) personal information and important data collected and generated by a critical information infrastructure operator; (ii) any important data that is to be exported; (iii) personal information from a data handler that has processed personal information of one million individuals or more; (iv) information from a data handler that in aggregate has exported personal information of over 100,000 individuals or sensitive personal information of over 10,000 individuals; and (v) such other information prescribed by the CAC. Critical information infrastructure operators or data handlers that are subject to the Security Assessment Measures must submit application materials to the CAC offices at the provincial level for the security assessment. As a data handler may subject to the Security Assessment Measures, as of the date of this prospectus, Polestar has not obtained any approval on the security assessment from the CAC, nor has Polestar submitted any materials with any CAC offices at the provincial level concerning the security assessment. Although the CAC has not issued any formal documentation specifying the meaning of the six months “rectification period” and many companies filed for the security assessment after the expiration of the six months “rectification period,” Polestar and its external counsel cannot assure whether Polestar’s filings to be made after the six months “rectification period” will not have a material adverse effect on Polestar’s business operations in China.

On December 8, 2022, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology of China promulgated the Industry and Information Technology Field Data Security Administrative Measures (for Trial Implementation) effective from January 1, 2023, which regulate the data processing activities in the field of industry and information technology conducted within the territory of the PRC. Under the foregoing measures, data handlers in the field of industry and information technology must further implement data classification and categorization management, take necessary measures to ensure that data remains effectively protected and is lawfully processed, and conduct data security risk monitoring. Under the data classification and categorization, “data in the field of industry and information technology” includes industrial data, telecommunications data, and radio data; among others, “industrial data” means data produced and collected in the course of research and development, design, production and manufacturing, business management, operating maintenance, and platform operation in various sectors and fields of industry. A data handler in the industry and information technology field in the PRC shall submit its catalog of important data and core data to the local industrial regulatory department for recordation. Since Polestar is not registered manufacturer in PRC but cooperating with its Original Equipment Manufacturer (“OEM”) suppliers, the legal obligations are mainly with the OEM suppliers. However, Polestar may be impacted should its OEM suppliers not fulfill such for obligations under the forgoing measures.

Polestar uses global information systems to support its worldwide operation, but the information systems might not have servers in China and the personal information collected by Polestar in China may be constantly

 

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exported outside China to countries hosting the information systems’ servers. Polestar also relies on certain information systems maintained by Volvo Cars to process certain personal information, which similarly exports personal information outside China on a regular basis. Personal information processed by information systems with servers in China is stored in China, unless Polestar’s operations necessitate exporting such personal information.

Interpretation, application and enforcement of these laws, rules and regulations will evolve over time and their scope may continually change, through new legislation, amendments to existing legislation or changes in enforcement. Compliance with the Cyber Security Law, the Data Security Law, the Personal Information Protection Law and/or related implementing regulations could significantly increase the cost to Polestar of producing and selling vehicles, require significant changes to Polestar’s operations or even prevent Polestar from providing certain service offerings in jurisdictions in which Polestar currently operates or in which Polestar may operate in the future. Despite Polestar’s efforts to comply with applicable laws, regulations and other obligations relating to privacy, data protection and information security, it is possible that Polestar’s practices or offerings could fail to meet all of the requirements imposed on Polestar by the Cyber Security Law, the Data Security Law, the Personal Information Protection Law and/or related implementing regulations. Any failure on Polestar’s part to comply with such laws or regulations or any other obligations relating to privacy, data protection or information security, or any compromise of security that results in unauthorized access, use or release of personally identifiable information or other data, or the perception or allegation that any of the foregoing types of failure or compromise has occurred, could damage Polestar’s reputation, discourage new and existing counterparties from contracting with Polestar or result in investigations, fines, suspension or other penalties by Chinese government authorities and private claims or litigation, any of which could materially adversely affect Polestar’s business, financial condition and results of operations. Even if Polestar’s practices are not subject to legal challenge, the perception of privacy concerns, whether or not valid, may harm Polestar’s reputation and adversely affect Polestar’s business, financial condition and results of operations (See “—Risks Related to Cybersecurity and Data Privacy—Data privacy concerns are generally increasing, which could result in new legislation, in negative public perception of Polestar’s current data collection practices and certain of its services or technologies and/or in changing user behaviors that negatively affect Polestar’s business and product development plans.”). Moreover, the legal uncertainty created by the Data Security Law and the recent Chinese government actions could materially adversely affect Polestar’s ability, on favorable terms, to raise capital, including engaging in follow-on offerings of its securities in the U.S. market.

Polestar and its subsidiaries (i) may not receive or maintain permissions or approvals from the CAC or other relevant authorities to operate in China, (ii) may inadvertently conclude that such permissions or approvals are not required or (iii) may be required to obtain new permissions or approvals in the future due to changes in applicable laws, regulations or interpretations related thereto.

Polestar and its subsidiaries in China are not classified as “critical information infrastructure operators” or “network platform operators” under the Cybersecurity Review Measures, nor have Polestar and its subsidiaries received any notice from the CAC defining them as the foregoing, which would require Polestar or its subsidiaries to apply for a cybersecurity review with the CAC. See “—Compliance with China’s new Data Security Law, Cybersecurity Review Measures (revised draft for public consultation), Personal Information Protection Law, regulations and guidelines relating to the multi-level protection scheme and any other future laws and regulations may entail significant expenses and could materially affect Polestar’s business.” However, if it is determined in the future that approvals or permissions from the CAC or other regulatory authorities are required, these regulatory authorities may impose fines, suspend Polestar’s relevant businesses or halt operations, revoke relevant business permits or operational licenses, limit Polestar’s ability to pay dividends outside of China, limit Polestar’s operating privileges in China or take other actions that could materially and adversely affect Polestar’s business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects, as well as the trading price of ADSs. The CAC or other relevant authorities may also take actions requiring Polestar, or making it advisable for Polestar, to halt operations before any potential future offerings. In addition, if the CAC or other regulatory authorities later promulgate new rules or explanations requiring that Polestar or its subsidiaries to obtain their

 

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approvals or accomplish any required filing or other regulatory procedures, Polestar may be unable to obtain a waiver of such approval requirements, if and when procedures are established to obtain such a waiver. Any uncertainties or negative publicity regarding such approval requirements could materially and adversely affect Polestar’s business, prospects, financial condition, reputation and the trading price of ADSs.

Polestar may be adversely affected by the complexity, uncertainties and changes in the regulations on internet-related business, automotive business and other business carried out by Polestar’s operating entities in China.

The Chinese government extensively regulates the internet and automotive industries and other business carried out by Polestar’s operating entities in China. Such laws and regulations are relatively new and evolving, and their interpretation and enforcement involve significant uncertainties. As a result, in certain circumstances it may be difficult to determine what actions or omissions may be deemed to be in violation of applicable laws and regulations. The Chinese government also has significant oversight and discretion over the conduct of Polestar’s business and Polestar’s operations may be affected by evolving regulatory policies as a result. The Chinese government has recently published new policies that significantly affect certain industries, and Polestar cannot rule out the possibility that it will in the future release regulations or policies regarding Polestar’s industry that could adversely affect Polestar’s business, financial condition and results of operations.

Several regulatory authorities in China, such as the State Administration for Market Regulation, the National Development and Reform Commission, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology and the Ministry of Commerce, oversee different aspects of the electric vehicle business, and Polestar’s operating entities in China are required to obtain a wide range of government approvals, licenses, permits and registrations in connection with their operations in China. For example, certain filings must be made by automobile dealers through the information system for the national automobile circulation operated by the relevant commerce department within 90 days after the receipt of a business license. Furthermore, the electric vehicle industry is relatively immature in China, and the government has not adopted a clear regulatory framework to regulate the industry.

There are substantial uncertainties regarding the interpretation and application of the existing laws, regulations and policies and possible new laws, regulations or policies in China relating to internet-related businesses as well as automotive businesses and companies. There is no assurance that Polestar will be able to obtain all the permits or licenses related to its business in China, or will be able to maintain its existing permits and licenses or obtain new ones. In the event that the Chinese government considers that Polestar was or is operating without the proper approvals, licenses or permits, promulgates new laws and regulations that require additional approvals or licenses, or imposes additional restrictions on the operation of any part of Polestar’s business, the Chinese government has the power, among other things, to levy fines, confiscate any of Polestar’s income that it considers illegal, revoke its business licenses and require Polestar to discontinue the relevant business or impose restrictions on the affected portion of its business. Any of these actions by the Chinese government may have a material and adverse effect on Polestar’s business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.

If Polestar updates or discontinues the use of its manufacturing equipment more quickly than expected, it may have to shorten the useful lives of any equipment to be retired as a result of any such update, and the resulting acceleration in Polestar’s depreciation could negatively affect its financial results.

Polestar has invested and expects to continue to invest significantly in what it believes is state of the art tooling, machinery and other manufacturing equipment, including in collaboration with its manufacturing partners, and Polestar depreciates the cost of such equipment over its expected useful lives. However, manufacturing technology may evolve rapidly, and Polestar may decide to update its manufacturing processes more quickly than expected. Moreover, as Polestar ramps the commercial production of its vehicles, Polestar’s experience may cause it to discontinue the use of already installed equipment in favor of different or additional

 

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equipment. The useful life of any equipment that would be retired early as a result would be shortened, causing the depreciation on such equipment to be accelerated, and Polestar’s results of operations could be negatively impacted.

Investors should not rely on outdated financial projections.

In connection with the Business Combination, Polestar disclosed certain projections regarding its potential operating and financial performance in future years in connection with the registration statement on Form F-4 the Company filed in connection with the Business Combination. As previously disclosed, these projections were prepared for internal use, were finalized in September 2021 and were not updated to reflect events after that date. Also, as previously disclosed, the projected financial information was not prepared with a view toward complying with the published guidelines of the SEC or the guidelines established by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants for preparation and presentation of prospective financial information, or IFRS with respect to forward-looking financial information. Readers were cautioned not to rely on the prospective financial information because actual results were likely to differ materially from the prospective financial information, and not to look upon the projections as “guidance” of any sort.

The projected financial information disclosed in connection with the Business Combination is outdated and does not represent the current views of management. Specifically, Polestar management believes the impact of the prolonged COVID-19 government mandated quarantines and lockdowns in China during 2022 negatively impacted Polestar’s and its strategic and contract manufacturing partner, Volvo Cars’, ability to manufacture and deliver Polestar’s vehicles in the volumes previously anticipated by Polestar. As a result, Polestar expects that its actual results for the periods covered by the projections will differ materially from the projected financial information that Polestar prepared in September 2021.

Polestar reiterates its prior caution not to rely on the previously published and now outdated financial projections. Polestar has not undertaken any obligation to publish or update any financial projections.

Polestar’s main distribution approach is different from the currently predominant distribution model for automakers, and its long-term viability is unproven. Polestar does not have a third-party retail product distribution network in all of the countries in which it operates, and Polestar may face regulatory challenges to or limitations on its ability to sell vehicles directly.

Polestar’s main distribution approach is not common in the automotive industry today. Polestar vehicles are sold either directly to users (rather than through dealerships), or, in certain countries, through third parties via a franchising model. In North America, for example, all sales are conducted through trusted representatives. Polestar’s direct to consumer approach of vehicle distribution is relatively new and has a shorter track record to prove long-term effectiveness. It thus subjects Polestar to risks as it requires, in the aggregate, significant expenditures and may provide for slower expansion of Polestar’s distribution and sales systems than the traditional dealership system. For example, Polestar does not utilize long established sales channels developed through a dealership system to increase its sales volume. However, Polestar does leverage the existing Volvo Cars network of dealers as a pipeline of potential operators of Polestar Spaces or distributors (depending on the distribution approach in each country). Moreover, Polestar competes with automakers with well-established distribution channels. If Polestar’s lack of a traditional dealer distribution network results in lost opportunities to generate sales, it could limit Polestar’s ability to grow. Polestar’s expansion of its network of retail locations and service points may not fully meet users’ expectations. Polestar’s success will depend in large part on its ability to effectively develop its own sales channels and marketing strategies. Implementing its business model is subject to numerous challenges, including obtaining permits and approvals from government authorities, and Polestar may not be successful in addressing these challenges.

Polestar’s experience distributing directly to consumers only started in 2019 with the launch of Polestar 1 and at a larger scale in 2020 with the launch of Polestar 2. Therefore, Polestar expects that the building of an

 

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in-house sales and marketing function will be expensive and time consuming. To the extent Polestar is unable to successfully execute on its current direct distribution plans, it may be required to change such plans, which may prove costly, time-consuming or ineffective. If Polestar’s use of an in-house sales and marketing team is not effective, Polestar’s results of operations and financial conditions could be adversely affected.

Insufficient reserves to cover future warranty or part replacement needs or other vehicle repair requirements, including any potential software upgrades, could have a material and adverse effect on Polestar’s business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.

Polestar provides a manufacturer’s warranty on all vehicles, components and systems it sells. Polestar needs to maintain reserves to cover part replacement and other vehicle repair needs, including any potential software upgrades or warranty claims. In addition, Polestar provides additional warranties on installation workmanship or performance guarantees. Warranty reserves will include Polestar’s management team’s best estimate of the projected costs to repair or to replace items under warranty. Such estimates are inherently uncertain, particularly in light of Polestar’s limited operating history and the limited field data available to it, and changes to such estimates based on real-world observations may cause material changes to Polestar’s warranty reserves in the future. If Polestar’s reserves are inadequate to cover future maintenance requirements on its vehicles, its business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected. Polestar may become subject to significant and unexpected expenses as well as claims from its customers, including loss of revenue or damages. There can be no assurances that the then-existing reserves will be sufficient to cover all claims. In addition, if future laws or regulations impose additional warranty obligations on Polestar that go beyond Polestar’s manufacturer’s warranty, Polestar may be exposed to materially higher warranty, parts replacement and repair expenses than it expects, and its reserves may be insufficient to cover such expenses.

Polestar may be unable to offer attractive leasing and financing options for its current vehicle models and future vehicles, which would adversely affect consumer demand for its vehicles.

Polestar offers leasing and financing of its vehicles to potential customers through financing partners. Polestar believes that the ability to offer attractive leasing and financing options is particularly relevant to customers in the premium vehicle segments in which it competes, and if Polestar is unable to offer its customers an attractive option to finance the purchase or lease of its vehicles, such failure could substantially reduce the population of potential customers and decrease demand for Polestar’s vehicles.

Polestar is subject to risks associated with advanced driver assistance system technology. Polestar is also working on adding autonomous driving technology to its vehicles and expects to be subject to the risks associated with this technology. Polestar cannot guarantee that its vehicles will achieve its targeted assisted or autonomous driving functionality within its projected timeframe, or ever.

Polestar’s vehicles are designed with the advanced driver assistance system (“ADAS”) hardware, and Polestar expects to launch automation functionalities and additional capabilities, including autonomous driving (“AD”), over time. ADAS/AD technologies are emerging and subject to known and unknown risks, and there have been accidents and fatalities associated with such technologies. The safety of such technologies depends in part on user interaction, and users, as well as other drivers on the roadways, may not be accustomed to using or adapting to such technologies. In addition, self-driving technologies are the subject of intense public scrutiny and interest, and previous accidents involving autonomous driving features in other vehicles, including alleged failures or misuse of such features, have generated significant negative media attention and government investigations. To the extent accidents associated with Polestar’s ADAS or AD technologies occur, Polestar could be subject to significant liability, negative publicity, government scrutiny and further regulation. Any of the foregoing could materially and adversely affect Polestar’s results of operations, financial condition and growth prospects.

 

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In addition, Polestar faces substantial competition in the development and deployment of ADAS/AD technologies. Many of Polestar’s competitors, including Tesla, established automakers such as Mercedes-Benz, Audi and General Motors (including via its investments in Cruise Automation), and technology companies including Waymo (owned by Alphabet), Zoox.ai (owned by Amazon), Aurora, Argo AI (jointly owned by Ford and Volkswagen), Mobileye, Aptiv (which recently acquired Wind River), Baidu, Nuro and Ghost Autonomy, have devoted significant time and resources to developing ADAS/AD technologies. They may also own patents in this area, which may be relevant to technologies Polestar may use. If Polestar is unable to develop competitive or more advanced ADAS/AD technologies in-house or acquire access to such technology via partnerships or investments in other companies or assets, it may be unable to equip its vehicles with competitive ADAS/AD features, which could damage its brand, reduce consumer demand for its vehicles or trigger cancellations of reservations and could have a material and adverse effect on its business, results of operations, prospects and financial condition. ADAS/AD technologies are also subject to considerable regulatory uncertainty, which exposes Polestar to additional risks.

Uninsured losses, including losses resulting from product liability, accidents, acts of God and other claims against Polestar, could result in payment of substantial damages, which would decrease Polestar’s cash reserves and could harm its cash flow and financial condition.

In the ordinary course of business, Polestar may be subject to losses resulting from product liability, accidents, acts of God and other claims against it, for which it may have no insurance coverage. While Polestar currently carries commercial general liability, commercial automobile liability, excess liability, product liability, crime, cargo stock throughput, property, workers’ compensation, employment practices, production and directors’ and officers’ insurance policies, it may not maintain as much insurance coverage as other companies do, and in some cases, it may not maintain any at all. Additionally, the policies it does have may include significant deductibles, and it cannot be certain that its insurance coverage will be sufficient to cover all or any future claims against it. A loss that is uninsured or exceeds policy limits may require Polestar to pay substantial amounts, which could adversely affect its financial condition and results of operations. Further, insurance coverage may not continue to be available to Polestar or, if available, may be at a significantly higher cost, especially if insurance providers perceive any increase in Polestar’s risk profile in the future.

Polestar’s vehicles make use of lithium-ion battery cells, which have been observed to catch fire or vent smoke and flame.

The battery packs within Polestar’s vehicles make use of lithium-ion cells. On rare occasions, lithium-ion cells can rapidly release the energy they contain by venting smoke and flames in a manner that can ignite nearby materials as well as other lithium-ion cells. Any such events or failures of Polestar’s vehicles, battery packs or warning systems could subject Polestar to lawsuits, product recalls, or redesign efforts, all of which would be time consuming and expensive. Also, negative public perceptions regarding the suitability of lithium-ion cells for automotive applications or any future incident involving lithium-ion cells, such as a vehicle or other fire, even if such incident does not involve Polestar’s vehicles, could seriously harm Polestar’s business and reputation.

Moreover, any failure of a competitor’s electric vehicle or energy storage product, as well as the mishandling of battery cells or a safety issue or fire related to the cells at partners’ manufacturing facilities, may cause indirect adverse publicity for Polestar and its products. Such adverse publicity could negatively affect Polestar’s brand and harm its business, prospects, results of operations and financial condition.

 

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Polestar’s ability to generate meaningful product revenue will depend on consumer adoption of electric vehicles. However, the market for electric vehicles is still evolving and changes in governmental programs incentivizing consumers to purchase electric vehicles, fluctuations in energy prices, the sustainability of electric vehicles and other regulatory changes might negatively impact adoption of electric vehicles by consumers. If the pace and depth of electric vehicle adoption develops more slowly than Polestar expects, its revenue may decline or fail to grow, and Polestar may be materially and adversely affected.

Polestar is only developing electric vehicles and, accordingly, its ability to generate meaningful product revenue will highly depend on sustained consumer demand for alternative fuel vehicles in general and electric vehicles in particular. If the market for electric vehicles does not develop as Polestar expects, develops more slowly than it expects, or if there is a decrease in consumer demand for electric vehicles, Polestar’s business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations will be harmed. The market for electric and other alternative fuel vehicles is relatively new and rapidly evolving and is characterized by rapidly changing technologies, price competition, additional competitors, evolving government regulations (including government incentives and subsidies) and industry standards, frequent new vehicle announcements and changing consumer demands and behaviors. Any number of changes in the industry could negatively affect consumer demand for electric vehicles in general and Polestar’s electric vehicles in particular.

In addition, demand for electric vehicles may be affected by factors directly impacting automobile prices or the cost of purchasing and operating automobiles such as sales and financing incentives like tax credits, prices of raw materials and parts and components, cost of fuel or electricity, availability of consumer credit and governmental regulations, including tariffs, import regulation and other taxes. Volatility in demand may lead to lower vehicle unit sales, which may result in downward price pressure and adversely affect Polestar’s business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations. Further, sales of vehicles in the automotive industry tend to be cyclical in many markets, which may expose Polestar to increased volatility, especially as it expands and adjusts its operations and retail strategies. Specifically, it is uncertain how such macroeconomic factors will impact Polestar as a newer entrant in an industry that has globally been experiencing a recent decline in sales.

Other factors that may influence the adoption of electric vehicles include:

 

   

perceptions about electric vehicle quality, safety, design, performance and cost;

 

   

perceptions about the limited range over which electric vehicles may be driven on a single battery charge;

 

   

perceptions about the total cost of ownership of electric vehicles, including the initial purchase price and operating and maintenance costs, both including and excluding the effect of government and other subsidies and incentives designed to promote the purchase of electric vehicles;

 

   

concerns about electric grid capacity and reliability;

 

   

perceptions about the sustainability and environmental impact of electric vehicles, including with respect to both the sourcing and disposal of materials for electric vehicle batteries and the generation of electricity provided in the electric grid;

 

   

the availability of other alternative fuel vehicles, including plug-in hybrid electric vehicles;

 

   

improvements in the fuel economy of the internal combustion engine;

 

   

the quality and availability of service for electric vehicles, especially in international markets;

 

   

volatility in the cost of oil, gasoline and electricity;

 

   

government regulations and economic incentives promoting fuel efficiency and alternative forms of energy;

 

   

access to charging stations and the cost to charge an electric vehicle, especially in international markets, and related infrastructure costs and standardization;

 

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the availability of tax and other governmental incentives to purchase and operate electric vehicles or future regulation requiring increased use of nonpolluting vehicles; and

 

   

macroeconomic factors.

The influence of any of the factors described above or any other factors may cause a general reduction in consumer demand for electric vehicles or Polestar’s electric vehicles in particular, either of which would materially and adversely affect Polestar’s business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects.

Developments in electric vehicle or alternative fuel technology or improvements in the internal combustion engine may adversely affect the demand for Polestar’s vehicles.

Polestar may be unable to keep up with changes in electric vehicle technology or alternatives to electricity as a fuel source and, as a result, its competitiveness may suffer. Significant developments in alternative technologies, such as alternative battery cell technologies, hydrogen fuel cell technology, advanced gasoline, ethanol or natural gas or improvements in the fuel economy of the internal combustion engine, may materially and adversely affect Polestar’s business and prospects in ways it does not currently anticipate. Existing and other battery cell technologies, fuels or sources of energy may emerge as customers’ preferred alternative to the technologies in Polestar’s electric vehicles. Any failure by Polestar to develop new or enhanced technologies or processes, or to react to changes in existing technologies, could materially delay its development and introduction of new and enhanced electric vehicles, which could result in the loss of competitiveness of its vehicles, decreased revenues and a loss of market share to competitors. In addition, Polestar expects to compete in part on the basis of its vehicles’ range, efficiency, charging speeds and performance, and improvements in the technology offered by competitors could reduce demand for Polestar’s vehicles. As technologies change, Polestar plans to upgrade or adapt its vehicles and introduce new models that reflect such technological developments, but its vehicles may become obsolete, and its research and development efforts (and those of its strategic partners) may not be sufficient to adapt to changes in alternative fuel and electric vehicle technology. Additionally, as new companies and larger, existing vehicle manufacturers continue to enter the electric vehicle space, Polestar may lose any technological advantage it may have and suffer a decline in its competitive position. Any failure by Polestar to successfully react to changes in existing technologies or the development of new technologies could materially harm its competitive position and growth prospects.

A resurgence of the COVID-19 pandemic and return of global control measures could adversely affect Polestar’s business and operations.

The COVID-19 pandemic had a significant impact on Polestar’s business, particularly with regards to its manufacturing and supply chain operations. Should a flare up of the COVID-19 pandemic occur, with previously imposed governmental control measures brought back into force, consumers may reduce spending, delay purchases of Polestar’s vehicles or cancel their orders for Polestar’s vehicles. Because of Polestar’s premium brand positioning and pricing, an economic downturn is likely to have a heightened adverse effect on it, compared to many of its electric vehicle and traditional automotive industry competitors, to the extent that consumer demand for luxury goods is reduced in favor of lower-priced alternatives. Any economic recession or other downturn could also cause logistical challenges and other operational risks if any of Polestar’s suppliers, sub-suppliers or partners becomes insolvent or are otherwise unable to continue their operations. Further, the immediate or prolonged effects of the COVID-19 pandemic could significantly affect government finances and, accordingly, the continued availability of incentives related to electric vehicle purchases and other governmental support programs.

The spread of COVID-19 has also in the recent past disrupted the manufacturing operations of other vehicle manufacturers and their suppliers. Any such disruptions to Polestar or to its suppliers could result in delays and could negatively affect its production volume.

During the height of the pandemic, governments imposed travel bans and restrictions, quarantines, shelter-in-place and stay-at-home orders and business shutdowns. These measures posed numerous operational

 

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risks and logistical challenges to Polestar’s business. In addition, regional, national and international travel restrictions resulted in adverse impacts to Polestar’s supply chain. Further, Polestar’s sales and marketing activities were, and may in the future be, adversely affected due to the cancellation or reduction of in-person sales activities, meetings, events and conferences. During the period when Polestar’s personnel were mostly a remote workforce ,the demands on Polestar’s information technology resources and systems increased as did data privacy and cybersecurity risks. Should such restrictive measures, or even more restrictive measures than experienced in the past, return or be imposed for a significant period of time , Polestar’s manufacturing and sales and distribution plans and timelines could be adversely affected.

Changes in foreign currency rates, interest rate risks, or inflation could materially affect Polestar’s results of operations.

Due to its international operations, Polestar faces foreign currency risk exposure from fluctuating currency exchange rates, interest rate risk from its exposure to floating and variable interest rates, and inflation risk from existing and expected rates of inflation in the U.S. and other jurisdictions.

Particularly COVID-19 and the Russo-Ukrainian War have led to increased inflationary pressures on prices of components, materials, labor, and equipment used in the production of Polestar vehicles. Increases in battery prices due to the increased prices of lithium, cobalt, and nickel are expected to lead to higher inventory and costs of goods sold. Higher oil prices have also increased freight and distribution costs across all markets. It is uncertain whether these inflationary pressures will persist in the future. See “Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Key factors affecting performance—Impact of COVID-19 and the Russo-Ukrainian War” and “—Inflation.”

Further, fluctuations in currency rates, interest rate hikes and existing and expected rates of inflation in the U.S. and other jurisdictions, including as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic and the Russo-Ukrainian War, have resulted in extreme volatility in the global financial markets, which has increased Polestar’s cost of capital and may limit its ability to access financing when needed. Polestar may not be able to obtain additional financing on terms favorable to it, if at all. See “—Risks Related to Financing and Strategic Transactions—Polestar will require additional capital to support business growth, and this capital might not be available on commercially reasonable terms, or at all.”

Polestar’s facilities or operations could be and have been adversely affected by events outside of its control, such as natural disasters, wars, health epidemics, pandemics or security incidents.

Polestar may be impacted by natural disasters, wars, health epidemics or pandemics or other events outside of its control. For example, flooding impacted Polestar’s manufacturing facility in July 2019 and stopped production for one half of a day. Further, if major disasters such as earthquakes, wildfires, tornadoes or other events occur, or if Polestar’s information system or communications network breaks down or operates improperly, Polestar’s facilities and manufacturing may be seriously damaged or affected, or Polestar may have to stop or delay production and shipment of its products. In addition, the COVID-19 pandemic impacted economic markets, manufacturing operations, supply chains, employment and consumer behavior in nearly every geographic region and industry across the world, and Polestar was, and may in the future be, adversely affected as a result. Furthermore, Polestar could be impacted by physical security incidents at its facilities or those of its strategic partners, which could result in significant damage to such facilities that could require Polestar or its partners to delay or discontinue production of its vehicles. Polestar may incur significant expenses or delays relating to such events outside of its control, which could have a material adverse impact on its business, results of operations and financial condition.

The conflict between Russia and Ukraine has, and is likely to continue to, generate uncertain geopolitical conditions, including sanctions that could adversely affect Polestar’s business prospects and results of operations.

Russia and Ukraine are not Polestar markets, and there are no plans to launch in either market in the near future. Nevertheless, the uncertain geopolitical conditions, sanctions, and other potential impacts on the global

 

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economic environment resulting from Russia’s invasion of Ukraine may weaken demand for Polestar’s vehicles, which could make it difficult for Polestar to forecast its financial results and manage its inventory levels. The uncertainty surrounding these conditions and the current, and potentially expanded, scope of international sanctions against Russia may cause unanticipated changes in customers’ buying patterns, adversely impact operations of Polestar’s suppliers, or interrupt Polestar’s ability to source products from this region. Sanctions have also created supply constraints and driven inflation that has impacted, and may continue to impact, Polestar’s operations and could create or exacerbate risks facing Polestar’s business.

Polestar vehicles are manufactured at facilities owned and operated by Volvo Cars. While Polestar understands that Volvo Cars does not have any “Tier 1” suppliers from Russia, car production is a complex process, with thousands of components sourced from all over the world. There can be no assurance, therefore, that there will not be some components sourced from suppliers subject to sanctions against Russia nor that the resulting disruption to the supply chain will not have an adverse impact on Polestar’s business and results of operations.

In the event geopolitical tensions deteriorate further or fail to abate, additional governmental sanctions may be enacted that could adversely impact the global economy, banking and monetary systems, markets, and the operations of Polestar and its suppliers.

If vehicle owners customize Polestar vehicles or change the charging infrastructure with aftermarket products, the vehicle may not operate properly, which may create negative publicity and could harm Polestar’s business.

Automobile enthusiasts may seek to alter Polestar’s vehicles to modify their performance, which could compromise vehicle safety systems. Also, customers may customize their vehicles with after-market parts that can compromise driver safety. Polestar does not test, nor does it endorse, such changes or products. In addition, the use of improper external cabling or unsafe charging outlets can expose customers to injury from high voltage electricity. Such unauthorized modifications could reduce the safety of Polestar’s vehicles and any injuries resulting from such modifications could result in adverse publicity that would negatively affect Polestar’s brand and harm its business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.

Risks Related to Cybersecurity and Data Privacy

Polestar relies on its and Volvo Cars’ IT systems and any material disruption to its or Volvo Cars’ IT systems could have a material and adverse effect on Polestar.

The availability and effectiveness of Polestar’s services depend on the continued operation of its information technology and communications systems. Polestar relies on its and Volvo Cars’ IT systems, and such systems are vulnerable to damage or interruption from, among other adverse effects, fire, terrorist attacks, natural disasters, power loss, telecommunications failures, computer viruses, computer denial of service attacks or other attempts to harm its systems. Polestar’s products and services are also highly technical and complex and may contain errors or vulnerabilities that could result in interruptions in its services or the failure of its systems or the systems on which it relies.

As part of Volvo Cars IT incident process, Volvo Cars has over the course of 2021 and 2022 informed Polestar of incidents that could have had an impact on the operations of Polestar. While the outcomes of these incidents were determined not to have had an impact on the safety or security of Polestar’s customers or their personal data, it nonetheless highlights the risk that Polestar faces by being partly reliant on external IT systems. Should a future material IT incident at Volvo Cars occur, it could cause Polestar to suffer lengthy interruptions to its ability to operate its business, damage to Polestar’s reputation, loss of customers, loss of revenue, investigations or litigation or liability for damages, any of which could materially and adversely affect Polestar’s business, results of operations, prospects and financial condition.

 

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Any unauthorized control or manipulation of Polestar’s products, digital sales tools and systems could result in loss of confidence in Polestar and its products.

Polestar’s products contain complex information technology systems. Polestar collects, stores, transmits and otherwise processes data from vehicles, customers, employees and other third parties as part of its business operations, which may include personal data or confidential or proprietary information. Polestar also works with third parties that collect, store and process such data on its behalf and also uses digital tools to sell vehicles to its customers. Polestar has created a foundation of security polices and an information security directive and is in the process of creating and testing information security policies to deployed systems. Polestar is creating measures to implement such policies, including encryption technologies, to prevent unauthorized access and plans to continue deploying additional security measures as it grows. Notwithstanding these measures, there can be no assurance that such systems and measures will not be compromised as a result of intentional misconduct, including by employees, contractors or vendors, as well as by software bugs, human error or technical malfunctions.

Furthermore, hackers may in the future attempt to gain unauthorized access to, modify, alter and use Polestar’s vehicles, products, and digital sales tools and Polestar’s and its service providers’ or vendors’ systems to (i) gain control of, (ii) change the functionality, user interface and performance characteristics of or (iii) gain access to data stored in or generated by, such vehicles, products, digital sales tools and systems. Advances in technology, an increased level of sophistication and diversity of Polestar’s products, digital sales tools and services, an increased level of expertise of hackers and new discoveries in the field of cryptography could lead to a compromise or breach of the measures that Polestar or its service providers or vendors use. Polestar and its service providers’ and vendors’ systems have in the past and may in the future be affected by security incidents. Polestar’s and its service providers’ and vendors’ systems are also vulnerable to damage or interruption from, among other things, physical theft, fire, terrorist attacks, natural disasters, power loss, war, telecommunications failures, computer viruses, computer denial or degradation of service attacks, ransomware, social engineering schemes, domain name spoofing, insider theft or misuse or other attempts to harm its products and such systems. Polestar’s and its service providers’ or vendors’ data centers could be subject to break-ins, sabotage and intentional acts of vandalism causing potential disruptions. Some of Polestar’s and its service providers’ and vendors’ systems are not and will not be fully redundant. Further, its disaster recovery planning is not yet fully developed and cannot account for all eventualities. Any problems at Polestar’s or its service providers’ or vendors’ data centers could result in lengthy interruptions in Polestar’s service. There can be no assurance that any security or other operational measures that Polestar or its service providers or vendors have implemented will be effective against any of the foregoing threats or issues.

If Polestar is unable to protect its products, digital sales tools and its service providers’ and vendors’ systems (and the information stored on such platforms) from unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification, destruction or other breach, such problems or security breaches could have negative consequences for its business and future prospects, subjecting Polestar to substantial fines, penalties, damages and other liabilities under applicable laws and regulations, incurring substantial costs to respond to, investigate and remedy such incidents, reducing customer demand for Polestar’s products, harming its reputation and brand and compromising or leading to a loss of protection of its intellectual property or trade secrets. In addition, regardless of their veracity, reports of unauthorized access to Polestar’s vehicles or data or Polestar’s or its service providers’ and vendors’ systems, as well as other factors that may result in the perception that such vehicles, systems or data are capable of being “hacked,” could negatively affect Polestar’s brand. In addition, some members of the U.S. federal government, including certain members of Congress and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (“NHTSA”), have recently focused attention on automotive cybersecurity issues and may in the future propose or implement regulations specific to automotive cybersecurity. In addition, the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe has introduced regulations governing connected vehicle cybersecurity, which became effective in January 2021 and apply in the European Union to all new vehicle types beginning in July 2022 and will become mandatory for all new vehicles produced from July 2024. Such regulations are also in effect, or expected to come into effect, in certain other international jurisdictions. These and other regulations could adversely affect Polestar’s business in Europe and other markets, and if such

 

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regulations or other future regulations are inconsistent with Polestar’s approach to automotive cybersecurity, Polestar would be required to modify its systems (or cause its service providers and vendors to modify their systems) to comply with such regulations, which would impose additional costs and delays and could expose Polestar to potential liability to the extent its automotive cybersecurity systems and practices are inconsistent with such regulation.

In addition, Polestar’s vehicles depend on the ability of software and hardware to store, retrieve, process and manage immense amounts of data. Polestar’s software and hardware, including any over-the-air or other updates, may contain, errors, bugs, design defects or vulnerabilities, and its service providers’ and vendors’ systems may be subject to technical limitations that may compromise its ability to meet its objectives. Some errors, bugs or vulnerabilities may be inherently difficult to detect and may only be discovered after code has been released for external or internal use. Although Polestar will attempt to remedy any issues it observes in its vehicles as effectively and rapidly as possible, such efforts may not be timely, may hamper production or may not be to the satisfaction of its customers. Additionally, if Polestar is able to deploy updates to the software addressing any issues, but its over-the-air update procedures fail to properly update the software, Polestar’s customers would then need to arrange for installing such updates to the software, and their software may be subject to deficiencies and vulnerabilities until they do so. Any compromise of Polestar’s intellectual property, proprietary information, systems or vehicles or inability to prevent or effectively remedy errors, bugs, vulnerabilities or defects in Polestar’s software and hardware may cause Polestar to suffer lengthy interruptions to its ability to operate its business and its customers’ ability to operate their vehicles, damage to Polestar’s reputation, loss of customers, loss of revenue, governmental fines, investigations or litigation or liability for damages, any of which could materially and adversely affect its business, results of operations, prospects and financial condition.

Data privacy concerns are generally increasing, which could result in new legislation, in negative public perception of Polestar’s current data collection practices and certain of its services or technologies and/or in changing user behaviors that negatively affect Polestar’s business and product development plans.

In the course of its operations, Polestar collects, uses, stores, discloses, transfers and otherwise processes personal information from its customers, employees and third parties with whom it conducts business, including names, accounts, user IDs and passwords and payment or transaction related information. Additionally, Polestar uses its vehicles’ electronic systems to log information about vehicle use, such as charge time, battery usage, mileage and driving behavior, in order to aid it in vehicle diagnostics, repair and maintenance, as well as to help it customize and improve the driving experience.

Data privacy concerns of consumers are generally increasing, which could result in new legislation, in negative public perception of Polestar’s current data collection practices and certain of its services or technologies and/or in changing user behaviors that negatively affect Polestar’s business and product development plans.

Polestar is subject to evolving laws, regulations, standards, policies and contractual obligations related to data privacy, security and consumer protection, and any actual or perceived failure to comply with such obligations could harm Polestar’s reputation and brand, subject Polestar to significant fines and liability, or otherwise adversely affect its business.

Due to Polestar’s data collection practices, products, services and technologies, Polestar is subject to or affected by a number of federal, state, local and international laws and regulations, as well as contractual obligations and industry standards, that impose certain obligations and restrictions with respect to data privacy and security and govern its collection, storage, retention, protection, use, processing, transmission, sharing and disclosure of personal information including that of Polestar’s employees, customers and other third parties with whom Polestar conducts business. These laws, regulations and standards may be interpreted and applied differently over time and from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, and it is possible that they will be interpreted and applied in ways that may have a material and adverse impact on Polestar’s business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

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The global data protection landscape is rapidly evolving, and implementation standards and enforcement practices are likely to remain uncertain for the foreseeable future. Polestar may not be able to monitor and react to all developments in a timely manner. The European Union adopted the General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”), which became effective on May 25, 2018, and as a result of the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union on January 31, 2020 the United Kingdom now has its own data privacy regime comprised of the United Kingdom General Data Protection Regulation and Data Protection Act 2018 (collectively, the “UK GDPR”) (the GDPR and UK GDPR together referred to as the “GDPR”) and California adopted the California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018 (“CCPA”), which became effective in January 2020. Both the GDPR and the CCPA impose additional obligations on companies regarding the handling of personal data and provides certain privacy rights to individual persons whose data is collected. Compliance with existing, proposed and recently enacted laws and regulations (including implementation of the privacy and process enhancements called for under the GDPR and CCPA) can be costly, and any failure to comply with these regulatory standards could subject Polestar to legal and reputational risks.

The GDPR imposes comprehensive data privacy compliance obligations in relation to Polestar’s collection, processing, sharing, disclosure, transfer and other use of personal information, including a principle of accountability and the obligation to demonstrate compliance through policies, procedures, training and audit. The GDPR also regulates cross-border transfers of personal information out of the EEA and the UK. Recent legal developments in Europe have created complexity and uncertainty regarding such transfers, in particular in relation to transfers to the United States, and recent European court and regulatory decisions have taken a restrictive approach. Polestar currently relies on the standard contractual clauses and definition of supplementary measures, where applicable and available, or derogations, to transfer personal information outside the EEA and the UK, with respect to both intragroup and third party transfers. As the enforcement landscape further develops, and supervisory authorities issue further guidance on international data transfers, Polestar could suffer additional costs, complaints and/or regulatory investigations or fines; Polestar may have to stop using certain tools and vendors and make other operational changes; and/or it could otherwise affect the manner in which Polestar provides its services, and could adversely affect Polestar’s business, operations and financial condition.

Since Polestar is subject to the supervision of relevant data protection authorities under both the GDPR and the UK GDPR, Polestar could be fined under each of those regimes independently in respect of the same breach. Penalties for certain breaches are up to the greater of EUR 20 million/GBP 17.5 million or 4% of Polestar’s global annual turnover. In addition to fines, a breach of the GDPR may result in regulatory investigations, reputational damage, orders to cease/change Polestar’s data processing activities, enforcement notices, assessment notices (for a compulsory audit) and/ or civil claims (including class actions).

Polestar is also subject to evolving EU and UK privacy laws. Recent European court and regulator decisions are driving increased attention to cookies and tracking technologies. In light of the complex and evolving nature of EU, EU Member State and UK privacy laws in this area, there can be no assurances that Polestar will be successful in its efforts to comply with such laws; violations of such laws could result in regulatory investigations, fines, orders to cease/ change Polestar’s use of such technologies, as well as civil claims including class actions, and reputational damage.

The CCPA establishes a privacy framework for covered businesses, including an expansive definition of personal information and data privacy rights for California residents. The CCPA includes a framework with potentially severe statutory damages for violations and a private right of action for certain data breaches. The CCPA requires covered businesses to provide California residents with new privacy-related disclosures and new ways to opt-out of certain uses and disclosures of personal information. As Polestar expands its operations, the CCPA may increase its compliance costs and potential liability. Some observers have noted that the CCPA could mark the beginning of a trend toward more stringent privacy legislation in the United States.

Additionally, effective in most respects on January 1, 2023, the California Privacy Rights Act (“CPRA”) has significantly modified the CCPA, including by expanding California residents’ rights with respect to certain

 

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sensitive personal information. The CPRA also creates a new state agency that will be vested with authority to implement and enforce the CCPA and the CPRA. Other US states have implemented or are implementing comprehensive privacy statutes that share similarities with the CCPA. For example, such laws have been enacted in Virginia, Colorado, Connecticut and Utah, and come into force in 2023. Additionally, Polestar may be subject to certain laws and regulations, e.g., “Right to Repair” laws, that require Polestar to provide third-party access to its network and/or vehicle systems.

Other jurisdictions have begun to propose similar laws. Compliance with applicable privacy and data security laws and regulations is a rigorous and time-intensive process, and Polestar may be required to put in place additional mechanisms to comply with such laws and regulations, which could cause Polestar to incur substantial costs or require Polestar to change its business practices, including its data practices, in a manner adverse to its business. In particular, certain emerging privacy laws are still subject to a high degree of uncertainty as to their interpretation and application. Failure to comply with applicable laws or regulations or to secure personal information could result in investigations, enforcement actions and other proceedings against Polestar, which could result in substantial fines, damages and other liability as well as damage to Polestar’s reputation and credibility, which could have a negative impact on revenues and profits.

There are also ongoing complex, uncertain, rapid development and changes of data privacy and security related laws in China. Polestar and its business partners in China could be affected by intervention by the Chinese government relating to, for example, information-sharing and cybersecurity matters. The risk of such interventions could be heightened in connection with a listing of shares of Polestar or any of its business partners, and could result in prohibitions of the sale and/or marketing of certain products. For example, on December 28, 2021, the CAC published the Cybersecurity Review Measures, which came into effect on February 15, 2022, specifying that the cybersecurity review must be conducted in the event the data processing operators in possession of personal information of over 1 million users intend to list their securities in a foreign country. Polestar has not exceeded this threshold as of the date of this prospectus. However, under the Cybersecurity Review Measure, the CAC could also initiate cybersecurity review under certain situations, for example, if a regulatory agency within the cyber-security review coordination mechanism believes a network product or service, data processing activity impacts or might impact Chinese national security. If Polestar would be subject to such review and be found to be non-compliant with applicable data protection laws, Polestar may face administrative fines up to CNY 10 million. Additionally, significant restrictions may be imposed on Polestar’s operation in China, or relevant Chinese licenses may be completely or partially revoked. Also, other Chinese regulatory agencies might examine Polestar with regulatory scrutiny and enact sanctions. Finally, Polestar may suffer significant public opinion damage, and there is a risk that its reputation may be materially harmed. Any of these events could have a material and adverse effect on Polestar’s results of operations and financial position as well as on its possibilities to carry out business in China.

Polestar posts public privacy policies on its websites and provides privacy notices to the categories of persons whose personal information it collects, processes, uses or discloses. Although Polestar endeavors to comply with its published policies and other documentation, Polestar may at times fail to do so or may be perceived to have failed to do so. Moreover, despite its efforts, Polestar may not be successful in achieving compliance if its employees, contractors, service providers, vendors or other third parties fail to comply with its published policies and documentation. Such failures could carry similar consequences or subject Polestar to potential international, local, state and federal action if they are found to be deceptive, unfair or misrepresentative of Polestar’s actual practices. Claims that Polestar has violated individuals’ privacy rights or failed to comply with data protection laws, regulations or applicable privacy notices could, even if Polestar is not found liable, be expensive and time-consuming to defend and could result in adverse publicity that could harm its business.

Most jurisdictions have enacted laws or regulations requiring companies to notify individuals, regulatory authorities and other third parties of security breaches involving certain types of data. Such laws or regulations may be inconsistent or may change or additional laws or regulations may be adopted. In addition, Polestar’s agreements with certain customers may require it to notify them in the event of a security breach. Such

 

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mandatory disclosures are costly, could lead to negative publicity, penalties or fines, litigation and Polestar’s customers losing confidence in the effectiveness of its security measures, and could require it to expend significant capital and other resources to respond to or alleviate problems caused by the actual or perceived security breach. Any of the foregoing could materially and adversely affect Polestar’s business, prospects, results of operations and financial condition.

Risks Related to Polestar’s Employees and Human Resources

Polestar’s ability to effectively manage its growth relies on the performance of highly skilled personnel, including its Chief Executive Officer, Thomas Ingenlath, its senior management team and other key employees, and Polestar’s ability to recruit and retain key employees. The loss of key personnel or an inability to attract, retain and motivate qualified personnel may impair Polestar’s ability to expand its business.

Polestar’s success is substantially dependent upon the continued service and performance of its senior management team and key personnel with digital, technical and automotive expertise. Although Polestar anticipates that its management and key personnel will remain in place for the foreseeable future, it is possible that Polestar could lose some key personnel. For example, Polestar is highly dependent on the services of Thomas Ingenlath, its Chief Executive Officer. Mr. Ingenlath has a significant influence on and is a driver of Polestar’s business plan and business, design and technology development. If Mr. Ingenlath were to discontinue his service to Polestar, Polestar would be significantly disadvantaged. The replacement of any members of Polestar’s senior management team or other key personnel likely would involve significant time and costs and may significantly delay or prevent the achievement of Polestar’s business objectives.

Polestar’s future success also depends, in part, on its ability to continue to attract, integrate and retain highly skilled personnel. Competition for highly skilled personnel is frequently intense. As with any company, there can be no guarantee that Polestar will be able to attract such individuals or that the presence of such individuals will necessarily translate into Polestar’s profitability. Because Polestar operates in a newly emerging industry, there may also be limited personnel available with relevant business experience, and such individuals may be subject to non-competition and other agreements that restrict their ability to work for Polestar. Polestar’s inability to attract and retain key personnel may materially and adversely affect Polestar’s business operations. Any failure by Polestar’s management to effectively anticipate, implement and manage the changes required to sustain Polestar’s growth would have a material and adverse effect on its business, financial condition and results of operations.

Polestar’s manufacturing partners will need to hire and train a significant number of employees to engage in full-scale operational and commercial operations, and Polestar’s business could be adversely affected by labor and union activities.

Polestar’s manufacturing partners will need to hire and train a significant number of employees to engage in full-scale operational and commercial operations. There are various risks and challenges associated with hiring, training and managing a large workforce. If Polestar’s manufacturing partners are unsuccessful in hiring and training a workforce in a timely and cost-effective manner, Polestar’s business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

Furthermore, it is common throughout the automobile industry generally for many employees at automobile companies to belong to a union, which can result in higher employee costs and increased risk of work stoppages. Moreover, regulations in some jurisdictions outside of the U.S. mandate employee participation in industrial collective bargaining agreements and work councils with certain consultation rights with respect to the relevant companies’ operations. Approximately 51% of Polestar’s workforce is covered by collective bargaining agreements. Polestar has collective agreements in Austria, Belgium, Finland, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain and Sweden. Labor unions or labor organizations could also seek to organize some or all of Polestar’s non-unionized workforce. Future negotiations with the union or other certified bargaining representatives could

 

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divert management attention and disrupt operations, which may result in increased operating expenses and lower net income. Additionally, if Polestar is unable to reach labor agreements with any current or future unionized work groups, it may be subject to work interruptions or stoppages, which may adversely affect its ability to conduct its operations. Moreover, future agreements with unionized and non-unionized employees may be on terms that are not as attractive as Polestar’s current agreements or comparable to agreements entered into by Polestar’s competitors. Furthermore, Polestar may be directly or indirectly dependent upon companies, such as parts suppliers and trucking and freight companies, with unionized work forces, and work stoppages or strikes organized by such unions could have a material adverse impact on Polestar’s business, financial condition or results of operations. If a work stoppage occurs, it could delay the manufacture and sale of Polestar’s products and have a material and adverse effect on its business, prospects, results of operations or financial condition.

Misconduct by Polestar’s employees and independent contractors during and before their employment with Polestar could expose Polestar to potentially significant legal liabilities, reputational harm and/or other damages to its business.

Many of Polestar’s employees play critical roles in ensuring the safety and reliability of its vehicles and/or its compliance with relevant laws and regulations. Certain of Polestar’s employees have access to sensitive information and/or proprietary technologies and know-how. While Polestar has adopted a code of conduct for all of its employees and implemented policies relating to intellectual property, confidentiality and the protection of company assets, Polestar cannot assure you that its employees will always abide by the codes, policies and procedures, nor that the precautions Polestar takes to detect and prevent employee misconduct will always be effective. If any of Polestar’s employees engages in any misconduct, illegal or suspicious activities, including but not limited to misappropriation or leakage of sensitive customer information or proprietary information, Polestar and such employees could be subject to legal claims and liabilities and Polestar’s reputation and business could be adversely affected as a result.

In addition, while Polestar has screening procedures during the recruitment process, Polestar cannot assure you that it will be able to uncover misconduct of job applicants that occurred before Polestar offered them employment, or that Polestar will not be affected by legal proceedings against its existing or former employees as a result of their actual or alleged misconduct. Any negative publicity surrounding such cases, especially in the event that any of Polestar’s employees is found to have committed any wrongdoing, could negatively affect Polestar’s reputation and may have an adverse impact on its business.

Furthermore, Polestar faces the risk that its employees and independent contractors may engage in other types of misconduct or other illegal activity, such as intentional, reckless or negligent conduct that violates production standards, workplace health and safety regulations, fraud, abuse or consumer protection laws, other similar non-U.S. laws or laws that require the true, complete and accurate reporting of financial information or data. It is not always possible to identify and deter misconduct by employees and other third parties, and the precautions Polestar takes to detect and prevent this activity may not be effective in controlling unknown or unmanaged risks or losses or in protecting Polestar from governmental investigations or other actions or lawsuits stemming from a failure to be in compliance with such laws or regulations. In addition, Polestar is subject to the risk that a person or government could allege fraud or other misconduct, even if none occurred. If any such actions are instituted against Polestar and Polestar is not successful in defending itself or asserting its rights, those actions could have a significant impact on Polestar’s business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations, including, without limitation, the imposition of significant civil, criminal and administrative penalties, damages, monetary fines, disgorgement, integrity oversight and reporting obligations to resolve allegations of non-compliance, imprisonment, other sanctions, contractual damages, reputational harm, diminished profits and future earnings and curtailment of Polestar’s operations, any of which could adversely affect its business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.

 

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Risks Related to Litigation and Regulation

Polestar is subject to evolving laws and regulations that could impose substantial costs, legal prohibitions or unfavorable changes upon its operations or products, and any failure to comply with these laws and regulations, including as they evolve, could result in litigation and substantially harm its business and results of operations.

Polestar is or will be subject to complex environmental, manufacturing, and health and safety laws and regulations at numerous jurisdictional levels, including laws relating to the use, handling, storage, recycling, disposal, release of and exposure to hazardous materials and with respect to constructing, expanding and maintaining its facilities. For example, Polestar is subject to laws, regulations and regulatory agencies like EU Regulation 2018/858 in the EU, the Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”) and NHTSA in the United States and the Provisions on the Administration of Investments in the Automotive Industry in China. The costs of compliance, including remediating contamination if any is found on Polestar’s properties and any changes to Polestar’s operations mandated by new or amended laws, may be significant and such costs may increase in the event of new, or changes to existing, environmental or climate change laws, regulations or rules. Polestar may also face unexpected delays in obtaining permits and approvals required by such laws in connection with the manufacturing and sale of its vehicles, which would hinder its ability to conduct its operations. Such costs and delays may adversely impact its business prospects and results of operations. Furthermore, any violations of these laws may result in litigation, substantial fines and penalties, remediation costs, third party damages or a suspension or cessation of Polestar’s operations.

In addition, motor vehicles are subject to substantial regulation under international, federal, state and local laws. Polestar has incurred, and expects to continue to incur, significant costs in complying with these regulations. Any failures to comply could result in litigation, significant expenses, delays or fines. Generally, vehicles must meet or exceed mandated motor vehicle safety standards to be certified under applicable regulations. Rigorous testing and the use of approved materials and equipment are among the requirements for achieving certification. Any future vehicles will be subject to substantial regulation under federal, state and local laws and standards. These regulations include those promulgated by the EPA, NHTSA, other federal agencies, various state agencies and various state boards (including the California Air Resources Board (“CARB”)), and compliance certification is required for each new model year and changes to the model within a model year. These laws and standards are subject to change from time to time, and Polestar could become subject to additional regulations in the future, which would increase the effort and expense of compliance. In addition, federal, state and local laws and industrial standards for electric vehicles are still developing, and Polestar faces risks associated with changes to these regulations, which could have an impact on the acceptance of its electric vehicles, and increased sensitivity by regulators to the needs of established automobile manufacturers with large employment bases, high fixed costs and business models based on the internal combustion engine, which could lead them to pass regulations that could reduce the compliance costs of such established manufacturers or mitigate the effects of government efforts to promote electric vehicles. Compliance with these regulations is challenging, burdensome, time consuming and expensive. If compliance results in litigation, delays or substantial expenses, Polestar’s business could be adversely affected.

Polestar is also subject to laws and regulations applicable to the supply, manufacture, import, sale and service of automobiles internationally, including in Europe, North America and Asia Pacific. Regulations such as standards relating to vehicle safety, fuel economy and emissions, among other things, often vary materially from country to country and compliance with such regulations will therefore require additional time, effort and expense to ensure regulatory compliance in those countries. This process may include official review and certification of Polestar’s vehicles by foreign regulatory agencies prior to market entry, as well as compliance with foreign reporting and recall management systems requirements. The costs of achieving international regulatory compliance or the failure to achieve international regulatory compliance could harm Polestar’s business, prospects, results of operations and financial condition.

 

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Polestar may face regulatory limitations on its ability to sell vehicles directly, which require Polestar to implement alternative consumer approaches through dealers or importers.

Polestar’s business model includes the direct sale of vehicles to retail consumers. The laws governing licensing of dealers and sales of motor vehicles vary from country to country and, within a country, from state to state, and the application of these local laws to Polestar’s operations can be difficult to predict. Certain jurisdictions require a dealer license to sell new motor vehicles within the country or state. Where required, Polestar anticipates that it can become a licensed dealer in certain countries.

In countries where Polestar is required to resort to dealers, other challenges may arise. In the United States, for example, some automobile dealers have brought a claim before the Illinois Motor Vehicle Review Board claiming that they have a right to sell Polestar vehicles because of their franchise with Volvo Cars and in accordance with the Illinois Motor Vehicle Franchise Act. Further, even in jurisdictions where Polestar believes applicable laws and regulations do not currently prohibit its direct sales model, legislatures may impose additional requirements. Because the laws vary from country to country, and, within a country, from state to state, Polestar’s distribution model and its sales and service processes is continually monitored and adapted for compliance with the various jurisdictional requirements and may change from time to time. Regulatory compliance and likely challenges to the distribution model may add to the cost of Polestar’s business.

Polestar has undertaken, and in the future may choose to or be compelled to undertake, product recalls or to take other actions that could result in litigation and adversely affect its business, prospects, results of operations, reputation and financial condition.

As of the date of this prospectus, Polestar has issued a number of recalls of its vehicles and expects more will be issued in the future. Examples of some of these recalls were due to (i) a risk of certain high voltage battery cells overheating when the battery is fully charged, which could lead to a thermal event inside the battery, increasing the risk of fire, (ii) the mal-production of seatbelts which could result in the early activation of the locking feature used to tightly secure a child restraint system, (iii) the too high adjustment of headlamps which could result in excessive glare for oncoming traffic, (iv) a software error causing an internal reset in the Battery Energy Control Module, resulting in the control unit opening the high voltage connectors during driving (which caused two recalls), (v) a supplier design issue known as “tin whiskers,” which caused a short circuit inside the front and rear inverters, (vi) an error resulting in displayed velocity of the vehicle being lower than the actual velocity, and (vii) an incorrect message shown on display when the vehicle is placed in reverse mode. Product recalls in the future may result in litigation and adverse publicity and may damage Polestar’s reputation and adversely affect its business, prospects, results of operations and financial condition. In the future, Polestar may, voluntarily or involuntarily, initiate a recall if any of its electric vehicles or components (including its battery cells) prove to be defective or noncompliant with applicable federal motor vehicle safety standards. If a large number of vehicles are the subject of a recall or if needed replacement parts are not in adequate supply, Polestar may be unable to service and repair recalled vehicles for a significant period of time. These types of disruptions could jeopardize Polestar’s ability to fulfill existing contractual commitments or satisfy demand for its electric vehicles and could also result in the loss of business to its competitors. Such recalls, whether caused by systems or components engineered or manufactured by Polestar or its suppliers, would involve significant expense and diversion of management’s attention and other resources, which could adversely affect Polestar’s brand image in its target market and its business, prospects, results of operations and financial condition.

Polestar may in the future be subject to legal proceedings, regulatory disputes and governmental inquiries that could cause it to incur significant expenses, divert its management’s attention and materially harm its business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.

From time to time, Polestar may be subject to claims, lawsuits, government investigations and other proceedings involving product liability, consumer protection, competition and antitrust, intellectual property, privacy, securities, tax, labor and employment, health and safety, its direct distribution model, environmental

 

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claims, commercial disputes, corporate and other matters that could adversely affect its business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition. In the ordinary course of business, Polestar has been the subject of complaints or litigation, including claims related to consumer complaints and intellectual property matters.

Litigation and regulatory proceedings may be protracted and expensive, and the results are difficult to predict. Additionally, Polestar’s litigation costs could be significant, even if it achieves favorable outcomes. Adverse outcomes with respect to litigation or any of these legal proceedings may result in significant settlement costs or judgments, penalties and fines, or require Polestar to modify, make temporarily unavailable or stop manufacturing or selling its vehicles in some or all markets, all of which could negatively affect its sales and revenue growth and adversely affect its business, prospects, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.

The results of litigation, investigations, claims and regulatory proceedings cannot be predicted with certainty, and determining reserves for pending litigation and other legal and regulatory matters requires significant judgment. There can be no assurances that Polestar’s expectations will prove correct, and even if these matters are resolved in Polestar’s favor or without significant cash settlements, these matters, and the time and resources necessary to litigate or resolve them, could harm Polestar’s business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition. In addition, the threat or announcement of litigation or investigations by governmental authorities or other parties, irrespective of the merits of the underlying claims, may itself have an adverse impact on the trading price of the Company’s securities.

Polestar may become subject to product liability claims, which could harm its financial condition and liquidity if it is not able to successfully defend or insure against such claims.

Polestar may become subject to product liability claims, which could harm its business, prospects, results of operations and financial condition. The automotive industry experiences significant product liability claims, and Polestar faces inherent risks of exposure to claims in the event its vehicles do not perform or are claimed not to perform as expected or malfunction, resulting in property damage, personal injury or death. Polestar also expects that, as is true for other automakers, Polestar’s vehicles will be involved in crashes resulting in death or personal injury, and even if not caused by the failure of its vehicles, Polestar may face product liability claims and adverse publicity in connection with such incidents. In addition, Polestar may face claims arising from or related to failures, claimed failures or misuse of new technologies that Polestar expects to offer, including ADAS/AD features and future upgrades in its vehicles. In addition, the battery packs that Polestar utilizes make use of lithium-ion cells. On rare occasions, lithium-ion cells can rapidly release the energy they contain by venting smoke and flames in a manner that can ignite nearby materials as well as other lithium-ion cells (see “—Risks Related to Polestar’s Business and Industry—Polestar’s vehicles make use of lithium-ion battery cells, which have been observed to catch fire or vent smoke and flame.”). Any such events or failures of Polestar’s vehicles, battery packs or warning systems could subject it to lawsuits, product recalls or redesign efforts, all of which would be time consuming and expensive.

A successful product liability claim against Polestar could require it to pay a substantial monetary award. Moreover, a product liability claim against Polestar or its competitors could generate substantial negative publicity about its vehicles and business and inhibit or prevent commercialization of its future vehicles, which would have material and adverse effects on its brand, business, prospects and results of operations. Polestar’s insurance coverage might not be sufficient to cover all potential product liability claims, and insurance coverage may not continue to be available to Polestar or, if available, may be at a significantly higher cost. Any lawsuit seeking significant monetary damages or other product liability claims may have a material and adverse effect on Polestar’s reputation, business and financial condition.

 

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Polestar’s manufacturing partners may be exposed to delays, limitations and risks related to the environmental permits and other operating permits required to operate manufacturing facilities for its vehicles.

Operation of an automobile manufacturing facility requires land use and environmental permits and other operating permits from federal, state and local government entities. Polestar plans to expand its manufacturing capacities by entering into additional agreements with its manufacturing partners over time to achieve a future target production capacity and will be required to apply for and secure various environmental (including wastewater) and land use permits and certificates of occupancy necessary for the commercial operation and occupation of such expanded and additional facilities and will also rely on its partners’ ability to apply for and secure various environmental and land use permits and certificates of occupancy necessary for the commercial operation and occupation of such expanded and additional facilities. Delays, denials or restrictions on any of the applications for or assignment of the permits to operate Polestar’s manufacturing facilities could adversely affect its ability to execute on its business plans and objectives based on its current target production capacity or its future target production capacity.

Polestar and its manufacturing partners are and will be subject to various environmental, health and safety laws and regulations that could impose substantial costs on it and cause delays in expanding its production capabilities.

Polestar and its manufacturing partners’ operations are subject to federal, state and local environmental laws and regulations in different jurisdictions and are and will be subject to international environmental laws, including laws relating to the use, handling, storage, disposal of and human exposure to hazardous materials. Environmental, health and safety laws and regulations are complex and continuously evolving, and Polestar’s compliance obligations under such laws are still relatively new. Moreover, Polestar and its manufacturing partners may be affected by future amendments to such laws or other new environmental, health and safety laws and regulations which may require it to change or otherwise adapt its operations in order to comply, potentially resulting in a material and adverse effect on its business, prospects, results of operations and financial condition. These laws can give rise to liability for administrative oversight costs, cleanup costs, property damage, bodily injury, fines and penalties. Capital and operating expenses needed to comply with environmental laws and regulations can be significant, and violations could result in litigation and substantial fines and penalties, third-party damages, suspension of production, cessation of operations or negative reputational concerns, any of which could adversely affect Polestar’s business, prospects, results of operations and financial condition.

Polestar is planning to introduce ADAS/AD technology, which is subject to uncertain and evolving regulations.

Polestar expects to introduce new ADAS/AD technologies into its vehicles over time. ADAS/AD technology is subject to considerable regulatory uncertainty as the law in different jurisdictions evolves to catch up with the rapidly evolving nature of the technology itself, all of which is beyond Polestar’s control. There is a variety of international, federal and state regulations that may apply to self-driving and driver-assisted vehicles, which include many existing vehicle standards that were not originally intended to apply to vehicles that may not have a driver. There are currently no federal U.S. regulations pertaining to the safety of self-driving vehicles; however, NHTSA has established recommended guidelines. Certain states have legal restrictions on self-driving vehicles, and many other states are considering them. In Europe, certain vehicle safety regulations apply to self-driving braking and steering systems, and certain treaties also restrict the legality of certain higher levels of self-driving vehicles. Self-driving laws and regulations are expected to continue to evolve in numerous jurisdictions in the U.S. and foreign countries, which increases the likelihood of a patchwork of complex or conflicting regulations that may delay products or restrict self-driving features and availability, which could adversely affect Polestar’s business. Polestar’s vehicles may not achieve the requisite level of autonomy that may be required in some countries or jurisdictions for certification and rollout to consumers or may not satisfy changing regulatory requirements which could require Polestar to redesign, modify or update its ADAS/AD hardware and related software systems. Any such requirements or limitations could impose significant expense or delays and could

 

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harm its competitive position, which could adversely affect Polestar’s business, prospects, results of operations and financial condition.

Polestar is and will be subject to anti-corruption, anti-bribery, anti-money laundering, financial and economic sanctions and similar laws, and noncompliance with such laws can subject Polestar to administrative, civil and criminal penalties, collateral consequences, remedial measures and legal expenses, all of which could adversely affect its business, results of operations, financial condition and reputation.

Polestar is and will be subject to anti-corruption, anti-bribery, anti-money laundering, financial and economic sanctions, and similar laws and regulations in various jurisdictions in which it conducts activities, including the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (“FCPA”), the United Kingdom Bribery Act 2010 (“Bribery Act”) and other applicable anti-corruption laws and regulations. These applicable anti-corruption laws and regulations, among other things, prohibit Polestar and its officers, directors, employees and relevant other persons acting on its behalf, from corruptly offering, promising, authorizing or providing anything of value to a “foreign official” for the purposes of influencing official decisions or obtaining or retaining business or otherwise obtaining favorable treatment. These laws and regulations apply worldwide. The FCPA also requires companies to make and keep books, records and accounts that accurately reflect transactions and dispositions of assets and to maintain a system of adequate internal accounting controls. Similarly, it is a defense under section 7 of the Bribery Act if a company has implemented “adequate procedures” designed to ensure compliance with the provisions of the Bribery Act. A violation of these laws or regulations could adversely affect Polestar’s business, reputation, financial condition and results of operations.

Polestar has direct or indirect interactions with officials and employees of government agencies and state-owned affiliated entities in the ordinary course of business. It also has business collaborations with government agencies and state-owned affiliated entities. These interactions subject Polestar to an increasing level of compliance-related concerns. Polestar has implemented policies and procedures designed to ensure compliance by Polestar and its directors, officers, employees, representatives, consultants, agents and business partners with applicable anti-corruption, anti-bribery, anti-money laundering, financial and economic sanctions and similar laws and regulations, including the FCPA and the Bribery Act. However, its policies and procedures may not be sufficient and its directors, officers, employees and relevant other persons acting on its behalf could engage in improper conduct for which Polestar may be held responsible.

Non-compliance with anti-corruption, anti-bribery, anti-money laundering or financial and economic sanctions laws could subject Polestar to whistleblower complaints, adverse media coverage, investigations and severe administrative, civil and criminal sanctions, collateral consequences, remedial measures and legal expenses, all of which could materially and adversely affect Polestar’s business, reputation, financial condition and results of operations.

The unavailability, reduction, elimination or the conditionality of certain government and economic programs could have a material and adverse effect on Polestar’s business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.

Polestar has benefited from government subsidies, economic incentives and government policies that support the growth of electric vehicles. These government and economic programs are subject to certain limits as well as changes that are beyond Polestar’s control, and Polestar cannot assure you that future changes, if any, would be favorable to its business and could result in margin pressures. For example, recent U.S. legislative efforts, including the Inflation Reduction Act of 2022 (“IRA”), may reduce or eliminate federal tax incentives available for purchasers of Polestar vehicles, thereby diminishing the competitiveness of Polestar in the U.S. market. Further, any uncertainty or delay in collection of the government subsidies may also have an adverse impact on Polestar’s financial condition. In addition, Polestar may not be able to obtain or agree on acceptable terms and conditions for all or a significant portion of the government grants, loans and other incentives for which it may apply. Any of the foregoing could materially and adversely affect Polestar’s business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

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The IRA, which was enacted into law on August 16, 2022, modifies the tax credit taxpayers are eligible to claim pursuant to Section 30D of the Code (the “30D tax credit”) for electric vehicle purchases on or after January 1, 2023 until December 31, 2032. The IRA placed certain restrictions on both taxpayers eligible to claim such credit via maximum income restrictions and the type of electric vehicles for which the credit may be claimed. Electric vehicles eligible for the 30D tax credit must, among other requirements, (i) be priced below $55,000 (or $80,000 in the case of vans, sport utility vehicles and pickup trucks), (ii) finally assembled in North America and (iii) meet certain assembly and sourcing requirements for both the vehicle itself and the battery, including final assembly of the vehicle and sourcing of a percentage of battery components in North America. Although the IRS is continuing to release guidance on the new requirements imposed by the IRA, Polestar’s vehicles are not presently assembled in North America and do not meet other 30D tax credit eligibility requirements, and its vehicles may suffer a price disadvantage in the U.S. market as compared to electric vehicles of certain competitors that meet all of the requirements for eligibility under the 30D tax credit. Polestar has entered into an agreement with the IRS to become a “qualified manufacturer,” but as described in the previous sentence, does not currently have specific makes or models of eligible vehicles listed with the IRS. Given the importance of the U.S. market to Polestar’s future business plans, a prolonged or permanent inability to offer electric vehicles that are eligible for the 30D tax credit could materially and adversely affect Polestar’s business, financial condition and results of operations.

Although the audit report included in this prospectus is prepared by auditors who are currently inspected fully by the United States Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (the “PCAOB”), there is no guarantee that future audit reports will be prepared by auditors that are completely inspected by the PCAOB and, as such, future investors may be deprived of such inspections, which could result in limitations or restrictions to the Company’s access to U.S. capital markets. Furthermore, trading in the Company’s securities on any U.S. stock exchange may be prohibited under the HFCAA or the Accelerating Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act if the SEC subsequently determines that the Company’s audit work is performed by auditors that the PCAOB is unable to inspect or investigate completely and, as a result, U.S. national securities exchanges, such as Nasdaq, may determine to delist the Company’s securities. Furthermore, the Accelerating Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act, amends the HFCAA and requires the SEC to prohibit an issuer’s securities from trading on any U.S. stock exchange if its auditor is not subject to PCAOB inspections for two consecutive years instead of three.

As an auditor of companies that are registered with the SEC and publicly traded in the United States and a firm registered with the PCAOB, Deloitte is required under the laws of the United States to undergo regular inspections by the PCAOB to assess their compliance with the laws of the United States and professional standards. Although Polestar relies on its and its partners’ operations within China, a jurisdiction where the PCAOB is currently unable to conduct inspections without the approval of the Chinese government authorities, Deloitte is currently inspected fully by the PCAOB.

Inspections of other auditors conducted by the PCAOB outside China have at times identified deficiencies in those auditors’ audit procedures and quality control procedures, which may be addressed as part of the inspection process to improve future audit quality. The lack of PCAOB inspections of audit work undertaken in China prevents the PCAOB from regularly evaluating auditors’ audits and their quality control procedures. As a result, to the extent that any component of Deloitte’s work papers are or become located in China, such work papers will not be subject to inspection by the PCAOB. As a result, investors would be deprived of such PCAOB inspections, which could result in limitations or restrictions to the Company’s access of the U.S. capital markets.

Further, U.S. legislators and regulators have in recent years voiced concerns about risks associated with investing in companies that are based in or have substantial operations in emerging markets, including China. In particular, lawmakers have highlighted the increased risks associated with companies whose independent auditors are unable to be inspected by the PCAOB. As part of this continued focus in the United States on access to audit and other information currently protected by national law, in particular China’s, on December 18, 2020, the U.S. president signed into law the HFCAA which includes requirements for the SEC to identify issuers whose

 

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audit work is performed by auditors that the PCAOB is unable to inspect or investigate completely because of a restriction imposed by a non-U.S. authority in the auditor’s local jurisdiction.

On March 24, 2021, the SEC adopted interim final rules relating to the implementation of certain disclosure and documentation requirements of the HFCAA. The Company will be required to comply with these rules if the SEC identifies it as having a “non-inspection” year (as defined in the interim final rules) under a process to be subsequently established by the SEC. The SEC is assessing how to implement other requirements of the HFCAA, including listing and trading prohibition requirements. Under the HFCAA, the Company’s securities may be prohibited from trading on Nasdaq or other U.S. stock exchanges if its auditor is not inspected by the PCAOB for three consecutive years, and this ultimately could result in the Company’s securities being delisted.

On September 22, 2021, the PCAOB adopted a final rule implementing the HFCAA, which provides a framework for the PCAOB to use when determining, as contemplated under the HFCAA, whether the PCAOB is unable to inspect or investigate completely registered public accounting firms located in a foreign jurisdiction because of a position taken by one or more authorities in that jurisdiction.

On December 2, 2021, the SEC issued amendments to finalize rules implementing the submission and disclosure requirements in the HFCAA. The rules apply to registrants that the SEC identifies as having filed an annual report with an audit report issued by a registered public accounting firm that is located in a foreign jurisdiction and that PCAOB is unable to inspect or investigate completely because of a position taken by an authority in foreign jurisdictions.

On December 16, 2021, the SEC announced that the PCAOB designated China and Hong Kong as the jurisdictions where the PCAOB is not allowed to conduct full and complete audit inspections as mandated under the HFCAA.

On August 26, 2022, the PCAOB announced that it had signed a Statement of Protocol (the “Protocol”) with the CSRC and the Ministry of Finance (“MOF”) of the People’s Republic of China, which governs inspections and investigations of audit firms based in mainland China and Hong Kong. The Protocol establishes a specific, accountable framework to make possible complete inspections and investigations by the PCAOB of audit firms based in mainland China and Hong Kong, as required under U.S. law.

On December 15, 2022, the PCAOB announced that it has completed a test inspection of two selected auditing firms in mainland China and Hong Kong and has voted to vacate its previous Determination Report, which concluded in December 2021 that it could not inspect or investigate completely registered public accounting firms based in mainland China or Hong Kong. Moving forward, the PCAOB will continue to demand complete access in mainland China and Hong Kong. Despite the PCAOB’s announcement, Chinese authorities will need to ensure that the PCAOB continues to have full access for inspections and investigations in 2023 and beyond, or the threat for Chinese companies listed on U.S. stock exchanges has not been relieved. The PCAOB has also indicated that it will act immediately to consider the need to issue new determinations with the HFCAA if needed.

The Accelerating Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act was enacted in December 2022 and amends the HFCAA and requires the SEC to prohibit an issuer’s securities from trading on any U.S. stock exchange if its auditor is not subject to PCAOB inspections for two consecutive years instead of three.

There can be no assurance that the Company will be able to comply with requirements imposed by U.S. regulators. The market price of the Company’s securities could be adversely affected as a result of anticipated negative impacts of these executive or legislative actions upon, as well as negative investor sentiment towards, companies reliant upon operations in China that are listed in the United States, regardless of whether these executive or legislative actions are implemented and regardless of the Company’s actual operating performance.

 

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Risks Related to Intellectual Property

Much of the intellectual property pertaining to Polestar’s vehicles is owned by Volvo Cars and Geely and licensed, in some cases on a non-exclusive basis, to Polestar. Accordingly, Polestar may lack certain advantages that competitors or owners of intellectual property, as opposed to licensees, typically have, with respect to some of such intellectual property, such as the ability to enforce intellectual property rights against infringers or the ability to effectively defend against infringement suits that may be initiated against Polestar.

Polestar licenses much of the intellectual property that relates to its vehicles from Volvo Cars and Geely. Thus, in instances where license agreements do not give Polestar the right to defend the intellectual property, Volvo Cars or Geely rather than Polestar enjoys the rights intellectual property owners typically enjoy for certain of such intellectual property, such as the right to bring a lawsuit against a suspected infringer, the right to grant licenses to third parties, and the right to prosecute patent applications. If Polestar suspected such intellectual property were being infringed, e.g., by a competitor, in some cases, it would not be able to stop the infringement without Volvo Cars’ or Geely’s cooperation, which it may or may not at the relevant time be in Volvo Cars’ or Geely’s interest to provide. Some of the intellectual property Polestar licenses from Volvo Cars is licensed on a non-exclusive basis. This means that in principle Volvo Cars or Geely could use the same intellectual property itself, for its own account, and grant licenses to such intellectual property to third parties. Moreover, license agreements such as those with Volvo Cars or Geely may be subject to termination in certain instances. In any event, in such cases, Volvo Cars or Geely and not Polestar would have the right to obtain, maintain, enforce, and protect much of Volvo Cars’ or Geely’s intellectual property pertaining to Polestar’s business.

Polestar may fail to adequately obtain, maintain, enforce and protect relevant intellectual property and licensing rights, and may not be able to prevent third parties from unauthorized use of such intellectual property and related technology. If Polestar is unsuccessful in any of the foregoing, its competitive position could be harmed and it could be required to incur significant expenses to enforce its rights.

Polestar’s ability to compete effectively is dependent in part upon its ability to obtain, maintain, enforce and protect its intellectual property, proprietary technology and licensing rights, but it may not be able to prevent third parties from the unauthorized use of its intellectual property and proprietary technology (or its licensors’ intellectual property and proprietary technology, including Volvo Cars’ or Geely’s), which could harm its business and competitive position. Polestar establishes and protects its intellectual property and proprietary technology through a combination of licensing agreements, nondisclosure and confidentiality agreements and other contractual provisions, as well as through patent, trademark, copyright and trade secret laws in the United States and other jurisdictions. In addition, Polestar licenses material intellectual property from Volvo Cars and Geely. Despite Polestar’s efforts to obtain and protect intellectual property rights, there can be no assurance that these protections will be available in all cases or will be adequate or timely to prevent Polestar’s competitors or other third parties from copying, reverse engineering or otherwise obtaining and using Polestar’s or its licensors’ (including Volvo Cars’ or Geely’s) technology or seeking court declarations that they do not infringe, misappropriate or otherwise violate Polestar’s or its licensors’ (including Volvo Cars’ or Geely’s) intellectual property. Failure to adequately obtain, maintain, enforce and protect Polestar’s intellectual property could result in its competitors offering identical or similar products, potentially resulting in the loss of Polestar’s competitive advantage and a decrease in its revenue, which would adversely affect its business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.

The measures Polestar takes to obtain, maintain, protect and enforce intellectual property rights, including preventing unauthorized use by third parties, may not be effective for various reasons, including the following:

 

   

Polestar’s licensors (including Volvo Cars and Geely) may have developed and may own the intellectual property, and Polestar may enjoy only a license to it without rights to prosecute patent applications, maintain patents, defend the validity of the intellectual property against challenges, or assert the intellectual property against suspected infringers;

 

   

any patent application Polestar or its licensors (including Volvo Cars and Geely) files may not result in the issuance of a patent;

 

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Polestar or its licensors (including Volvo Cars and Geely) may not be the first inventor of the subject matter to which it has filed a particular patent application, and/or it may not be the first party to file such a patent application;

 

   

the scope of issued patents may not be sufficient to protect the inventions and technology;

 

   

issued patents may be challenged by its competitors or other third parties and invalidated by courts or other tribunals;

 

   

patents have a finite term, and competitors and other third parties may offer identical or similar products after the expiration of patents that cover such products;

 

   

employees, contractors or business partners (and the employees and contractors of business partners such as Volvo Cars and Geely) may breach their confidentiality, non-disclosure and non-use obligations;

 

   

competitors and other third parties may independently develop technologies that are the same or similar to Polestar’s or its licensors (including Volvo Cars and Geely);

 

   

the costs associated with enforcing patents or other intellectual property rights, or confidentiality and invention assignment agreements may make enforcement impracticable; and

 

   

competitors and other third parties may circumvent or otherwise design around Polestar’s or its licensors (including Volvo Cars’ and Geely’s) patents or other intellectual property.

Patent, trademark, copyright and trade secret laws vary significantly throughout the world. The laws of some countries, including countries in which Polestar’s products are or will be sold, may not be as protective of intellectual property rights as those in the United States or Sweden, and mechanisms for obtaining and enforcing intellectual property rights may be ineffectual or inadequate. Therefore, Polestar’s and its licensors’ (including Volvo Cars’ and Geely’s) intellectual property may not be as strong or as predictably obtained or enforced outside of the United States or Sweden. Further, policing the unauthorized use of Polestar’s and its licensors’ (including Volvo Cars’ and Geely’s) intellectual property in some jurisdictions may be difficult or too expensive to be practical. In addition, third parties may seek to challenge, invalidate or circumvent patents, trademarks, copyrights, trade secrets or other intellectual property, or applications for any of the foregoing, which could permit Polestar’s competitors or other third parties to develop and commercialize products and technologies that are the same or similar to Polestar’s or its licensors’ (including Volvo Cars’ and Geely’s).

While Polestar has registered and applied for registration of trademarks in an effort to protect its brand and goodwill with customers, competitors or other third parties have in the past and may in the future oppose its trademark applications or otherwise challenge Polestar’s use of the trademarks and other brand names in which it has invested. Such oppositions and challenges can be expensive and may adversely affect Polestar’s ability to maintain the goodwill gained in connection with a particular trademark. In addition, Polestar may lose its trademark rights if it is unable to submit specimens or other evidence of use by the applicable deadline to perfect such trademark rights.

It is Polestar’s policy to enter into confidentiality and invention assignment agreements with its employees and contractors that have developed material intellectual property for Polestar, but these agreements may not be self-executing and may not otherwise adequately protect Polestar’s intellectual property, particularly with respect to conflicts of ownership relating to work product generated by the employees and contractors. Furthermore, Polestar cannot be certain that these agreements will not be breached and that third parties will not improperly gain access to its trade secrets, know-how and other proprietary technology. Third parties may also independently develop the same or substantially similar proprietary technology. Monitoring unauthorized use of Polestar’s and its licensors’ (including Volvo Cars’ and Geely’s) intellectual property is difficult and costly, as are the steps Polestar has taken or will take to prevent misappropriation.

Polestar has acquired or licensed, and plans to further acquire licenses, patents and other intellectual property from third parties, including suppliers and service providers, and it may face claims that its use of this

 

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acquired or in-licensed technology infringes, misappropriates or otherwise violates the intellectual property rights of third parties. In such cases, Polestar will seek indemnification from its licensors or other applicable entities. However, Polestar’s rights to indemnification may be unavailable or insufficient to cover its costs and losses. Furthermore, disputes may arise with Polestar’s licensors or other applicable entities regarding the intellectual property subject to, and any of Polestar’s rights and obligations under, any license or other commercial agreement.

To prevent the unauthorized use of Polestar’s or its licensors’ (including Volvo Cars’ and Geely’s) intellectual property, it may be necessary to prosecute actions for infringement, misappropriation or other violation against third parties. Any such action could result in significant costs and diversion of Polestar’s resources and management’s attention, and there can be no assurances that Polestar will be successful in any such action or that its licensors (including Volvo Cars and Geely) will consent to institute or participate in such an action. Any such action may result in a loss of intellectual property rights. Furthermore, many of Polestar’s current and potential competitors have the ability to dedicate substantially greater resources to enforce their intellectual property rights than Polestar currently does. Accordingly, despite its efforts, Polestar may not be able to prevent third parties from infringing, misappropriating or otherwise violating intellectual property. Any of the foregoing could adversely affect Polestar’s business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.

Polestar uses other parties’ software and other intellectual property in its proprietary software, including “open source” software. Any inability to continuously use such software or other intellectual property in the future could have a material adverse impact on Polestar’s business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Polestar uses open source software in its products and anticipates using open source software in the future. Some open source software licenses require those who distribute open source software as part of their own software product to publicly disclose all or part of the source code to such software product or to make available any derivative works of the open source code on unfavorable terms or at no cost, and Polestar may be subject to such terms. The terms of many open source licenses to which Polestar is subject have not been interpreted by U.S. or other courts, and there is a risk that open source software licenses could be construed in a manner that imposes unanticipated conditions or restrictions on Polestar’s ability to provide or distribute its products or services. Any actual or claimed requirement to disclose Polestar’s proprietary source code or pay damages for breach of contract or copyright infringement could harm Polestar’s business and could help third parties, including Polestar’s competitors, develop products and services that are similar to or better than Polestar’s. While Polestar monitors its use of open source software and tries to ensure that none is used in a manner that would require it to disclose its proprietary source code or that would otherwise breach the terms of an open source agreement, such use could inadvertently occur, or could be claimed to have occurred. Additionally, Polestar could face claims from third parties claiming ownership of, or demanding release of, the open source software or derivative works that it developed using such software, which could include its proprietary source code, or otherwise seeking to enforce the terms of the applicable open source license. These claims could result in litigation and could require Polestar to make its software source code freely available, purchase a costly license or cease offering the implicated products or services unless and until it can re-engineer them to avoid infringement, which may be a costly and time-consuming process, and Polestar may not be able to complete the re-engineering process successfully.

Additionally, the use of certain open source software can lead to greater risks than use of other parties’ commercial software, as open source licensors generally do not provide warranties or controls on the origin of software. There is typically no support available for open source software, and Polestar cannot ensure that the authors of such open source software will implement or push updates to address security risks or will not abandon further development and maintenance. Many of the risks associated with the use of open source software, such as the lack of warranties or assurances of title or performance, cannot be eliminated, and could, if not properly addressed, negatively affect Polestar’s business. Any of these risks could be difficult to eliminate or manage and, if not addressed, could have a material and adverse effect on Polestar’s business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

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Polestar may become subject to claims of intellectual property infringement by third parties which, regardless of merit, could be time-consuming and costly and result in significant legal liability, and could negatively impact Polestar’s business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Polestar’s competitors or other third parties may hold or obtain patents, copyrights, trademarks or other proprietary rights that could prevent, limit or interfere with Polestar’s ability to make, use, develop, sell or market Polestar’s products and services, which could make it more difficult for Polestar to operate. From time to time, the holders of such intellectual property rights may assert their rights and urge Polestar to take licenses and/ or may bring suits alleging infringement or misappropriation of such rights, which could result in substantial costs, negative publicity and management attention, regardless of merit. While Polestar endeavors to obtain and protect the intellectual property rights that it expects will allow it to retain or advance its strategic initiatives, there can be no assurance that it will be able to adequately identify and protect the portions of intellectual property that are strategic to its business, or mitigate the risk of potential suits or other legal demands by its competitors. Accordingly, Polestar may consider entering into licensing agreements with respect to such rights, although no assurance can be given that such licenses can be obtained on acceptable terms or that litigation will not occur, and such licenses and associated litigation could significantly increase Polestar’s operating expenses. In addition, if Polestar is determined to have or believes there is a high likelihood that it has infringed upon a third party’s intellectual property rights, it may be required to cease making, selling or incorporating certain components or intellectual property into its goods and services, to pay substantial damages and/or license royalties, to redesign its products and services and/or to establish and maintain alternative branding for its products and services. In the event that Polestar is required to take one or more such actions, its brand, business, financial condition and operating results may be harmed.

Risks Related to Tax

Unanticipated tax laws, changes in the application or interpretation of existing tax laws to Polestar or Polestar’s customers, changes to tax rates or challenges to Polestar’s tax positions may adversely impact its profitability and business.

Polestar operates and is subject to income and other taxes in Sweden, China, the United Kingdom, the United States and a growing number of other jurisdictions throughout the world. Existing domestic and foreign tax laws, statutes, rules, regulations or ordinances could be interpreted, changed, modified or applied adversely to Polestar (possibly with retroactive effect), which could require Polestar to change its transfer pricing policies and pay additional tax amounts, fines or penalties, surcharges and interest charges for past amounts due, the amounts and timing of which are difficult to discern. This is also the case with regard to the application of transfer pricing rules to transactions or other provisions between Polestar entities. Existing tax laws, statutes, rules, regulations or ordinances could also be interpreted, changed, modified or applied adversely to Polestar’s customers (possibly with retroactive effect) and, if Polestar’s customers are required to pay additional surcharges, it could adversely affect demand for Polestar’s vehicles. Furthermore, changes to tax laws on income, sales, use, import/export, indirect or other tax laws, statutes, rules, regulations or ordinances on multinational corporations continue to be considered by countries in the European Union, the United States and other countries where Polestar currently operates or plans to operate. These contemplated tax initiatives, if finalized and adopted by countries, and the other tax issues described above may materially and adversely impact Polestar’s operating activities, effective tax rate, deferred tax assets, operating income and cash flows. Polestar often relies on generally available interpretations of applicable tax laws and regulations. There cannot be certainty that the relevant tax authorities are in agreement with Polestar’s interpretation of these laws. If Polestar’s tax positions are challenged by relevant tax authorities, the imposition of additional taxes could require Polestar to pay taxes that it currently does not collect or pay or increase the costs of Polestar’s services to track and collect such taxes, which could increase Polestar’s costs of operations or Polestar’s effective tax rate and have a negative effect on Polestar’s business, financial condition and results of operations. The occurrence of any of the foregoing tax risks could have a material adverse effect on Polestar’s business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

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Transfers of ADSs or the underlying Company securities may be subject to stamp duty or stamp duty reserve tax in the U.K., which would increase the cost of dealing in the Company’s securities.

Stamp duty or stamp duty reserve tax (“SDRT”) is imposed in the U.K. on certain transfers of chargeable securities (which include securities in companies incorporated in the U.K.) at a rate of 0.5% of the consideration paid for the transfer. Certain issues or transfers of securities to depositories or into clearance systems may be charged at a higher rate of 1.5%, unless an election has been made and maintained by the depository or clearance system under section 97A of the UK Finance Act 1986. Polestar is not aware of any such election having been made. Under current case law and HMRC published practice, no UK stamp duty or SDRT should arise in respect of an issue or transfer of ordinary shares into a depository or clearance system where it forms part of an integral part of capital raising.

Any stamp duty or SDRT payable on a transfer of the underlying Company securities to a depository or a clearance system will in practice generally be paid by the transferors or participants in the depository or a clearance system.

Transfers of ADSs representing underlying Company securities that have been deposited with the depository, which will take place in book entry form through the Depository Trust Company (“DTC”), currently do not attract a charge to stamp duty or SDRT in the U.K., provided no written instrument of transfer is used to effect the transfer. If, following a change in law, transfers of Company securities effected through DTC attracted a charge to SDRT or stamp duty, then this would increase the cost of dealing in the Company securities.

A transfer of title in the underlying Company securities from the depository to another person and any subsequent transfers of title in the Company securities will generally attract a charge to stamp duty or SDRT at a rate of 0.5% of any consideration, which is generally payable by the transferee of the underlying Company securities. To the extent such transfer is effected by a written instrument of transfer, then any such duty must be paid (and the relevant instrument of transfer stamped by HM Revenue & Customs (“HMRC”)) before the transfer can be registered in the register of members of the Company. However, if those underlying Company securities are redeposited with the depository, the redeposit is expected to attract stamp duty or SDRT at the rate of 1.5% of the value of the Company securities, which will, in practice, be required to be paid by the transferor.

The Company may be classified as a passive foreign investment company for U.S. federal income tax purposes, which could result in adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences to U.S. Holders of ADSs.

A foreign corporation will be treated as a “passive foreign investment company,” or “PFIC,” for U.S. federal income tax purposes if either (i) 75% or more of the gross income for a taxable year constitutes passive income for purposes of the PFIC rules, or (ii) 50% or more of such foreign corporation’s assets in any taxable year is attributable to assets, including cash, that produce passive income or are held for the production of passive income. Passive income generally includes dividends, interest, royalties and certain rents. U.S. shareholders of a PFIC are subject to a disadvantageous U.S. federal income tax regime with respect to the income derived by the PFIC, the distributions they receive from the PFIC, and the gain, if any, they derive from the sale or other disposition of their interests in the PFIC.

Based on the current and projected composition of the Company’s income and assets, the Company does not believe it was classified as a PFIC for its most recent taxable year ended on December 31, 2022 and does not expect to be classified as a PFIC for the current taxable year or, to the best of its current estimates, for subsequent taxable years. However, the application of the PFIC rules is subject to uncertainty as the composition of the Company’s income and assets may change in the future and, therefore, no assurances can be provided that the Company will not be a PFIC for the current taxable year or in a future year. It is also possible that the IRS would not agree with the Company’s conclusion, or that U.S. tax laws could change significantly. For additional information, see “Taxation—Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations.”

 

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As a result of the Business Combination, the IRS may not agree that the Company is a foreign corporation for U.S. federal tax purposes.

A corporation generally is considered to be a tax resident for U.S. federal income tax purposes in the jurisdiction of its organization or incorporation. Accordingly, under the generally applicable U.S. federal income tax rules, the Company, which is incorporated under the laws of the U.K., would be classified as a non-U.S. corporation (and, therefore, not a U.S. tax resident) for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Section 7874 of the Code provides an exception to this general rule under which a non-U.S. incorporated entity may, in certain circumstances, be treated as a U.S. corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes. If the Company were to be treated as a U.S. corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes as a result of the Business Combination, it could be subject to substantial liability for additional U.S. income taxes. However, dividend payments to U.S. Holders (as defined below) would generally constitute “qualified dividends” and be subject to tax at the rates accorded to long-term capital gains. In addition, even if the Company is not treated as a U.S. corporation, it may be subject to unfavorable treatment as a “surrogate foreign corporation” in the event that, following the Business Combination, ownership attributable to former GGI stockholders exceeded a threshold amount. If it were determined that the Company is treated as a surrogate foreign corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes under Section 7874 of the Code and the Treasury regulations promulgated thereunder, dividends paid by the Company would not qualify for “qualified dividend income” treatment, and U.S. affiliates of the Company could be subject to increased taxation under the inversion gain rules and the “base erosion anti-abuse tax” of Section 59A of the Code. Furthermore, the ability of the U.S. subsidiaries of the Company to utilize certain U.S. tax attributes against income or gain recognized pursuant to certain transactions could be limited.

Polestar does not expect the Company to be treated as a U.S. corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes or otherwise be subject to unfavorable treatment as a surrogate foreign corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes as a result of the Business Combination. However, the rules for determining ownership under Section 7874 of the Code are complex and unclear and there is no assurance the IRS may agree with Polestar’s determination of ownership of the Company for purposes of Section 7874 of the Code. For additional discussion of the U.S. federal income tax treatment of the Company, see “Taxation—Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations.”

Polestar may be unable to utilize certain of its deferred tax assets, which could increase its future tax expenses.

Due to Polestar scaling its headcount and research and development expenses to meet the demands of its growing operations, it has generated tax losses since inception. As of December 31, 2022, Polestar had cumulative carryforward losses of $2,202 million. While tax losses in Sweden have an indefinite carryforward period, the carryforward period in China, where Polestar had a carryforward balance of $585 million as of December 31, 2022, is only five years. As a consequence, the ability of Polestar to utilize certain portions of its deferred tax assets to reduce taxes payable on future Polestar profits, should such profits ever arise, may be limited.

Risks Related to Financing and Strategic Transactions

Polestar will require additional capital to support business growth, and this capital might not be available on commercially reasonable terms, or at all.

Polestar anticipates that it will need to raise additional funds through equity or debt financings. Polestar’s business is capital-intensive, and Polestar expects that the costs and expenses associated with its planned operations will continue to increase in the near term. Polestar does not expect to achieve positive cash flow from operations for several years, if at all. Polestar’s plan to grow its business is dependent upon the timely availability of funds and further investment in development, component procurement, testing and the build-out of manufacturing capabilities. In addition, the fact that Polestar has a limited operating history means that it has limited historical data on the demand for its vehicles. As a result, Polestar’s future capital requirements are uncertain, and actual capital requirements may be greater than what it currently anticipates.

 

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If Polestar raises additional funds through further issuances of equity or convertible debt securities, Polestar’s shareholders could suffer significant dilution and economic loss, and any new equity securities Polestar issues could have rights, preferences and privileges superior to those of holders of Polestar’s current equity securities. Any debt financing in the future could involve additional restrictive covenants relating to Polestar’s capital raising activities and other financial and operational matters, which may make it more difficult for Polestar to obtain additional capital and to pursue business opportunities, including potential acquisitions.

Polestar may not be able to obtain additional financing on terms favorable to it, if at all. Polestar’s ability to raise additional capital through the sale of equity or equity-linked securities could be significantly impacted by the resale of the Resale Securities by the Selling Securityholders pursuant to this prospectus which could result in a significant decline in the trading price of Polestar’s ADSs and thereby potentially hinder Polestar’s ability to raise capital at terms that are acceptable to Polestar, or at all. Further, Polestar’s ability to obtain such financing could be adversely affected by a number of other factors, including general conditions in the global economy and in the global financial markets, including recent volatility and disruptions in the capital and credit markets, including as a result of a worsening of the COVID-19 pandemic, inflation, interest rate changes and the ongoing conflict between Ukraine and Russia, or investor acceptance of its business model. For more information, also see “—Risks Related to Polestar’s Business and Industry—Changes in foreign currency rates, interest rate risks, or inflation could materially affect Polestar’s results of operations,” “Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Key factors affecting performance—Impact of COVID-19 and the Russo-Ukrainian War,” and “Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Key factors affecting performance—Inflation.” These factors may make the timing, amount, terms and conditions of such financing unattractive or unavailable to Polestar. If Polestar is unable to obtain adequate financing or financing on terms satisfactory to it, when it requires it, Polestar will have to significantly reduce its spending, delay or cancel its planned activities or substantially change its corporate structure, and it might not have sufficient resources to conduct or support its business as projected, which would have a material and adverse effect on its results of operations, prospects and financial condition.

Polestar’s financial results may vary significantly from period to period due to fluctuations in its operating costs, product demand and other factors.

Polestar expects its period-to-period financial results to vary based on its operating costs and product demand, which it anticipates will fluctuate as it continues to design, develop and manufacture new vehicles, increase production capacity and establish or expand design, research and development, production, sales and service facilities. Polestar’s revenues from period to period may fluctuate as it identifies and investigates areas of demand, adjusts volumes and adds new product derivatives based on market demand and margin opportunities, develops and introduces new vehicles or introduces existing vehicles to new markets for the first time. In addition, automotive manufacturers typically experience significant seasonality, with comparatively low sales in the first quarter and comparatively high sales in the fourth quarter. Polestar’s period-to-period results of operations may also fluctuate because of other factors including labor availability and costs for hourly and management personnel; profitability of its vehicles, especially in new markets; changes in interest rates; impairment of long-lived assets; macroeconomic conditions, both internationally and locally; negative publicity relating to its vehicles; changes in consumer preferences and competitive conditions; or investment in expansion into new markets. As a result of these factors, Polestar believes that period-to-period comparisons of its financial results, especially in the short term, may have limited utility as an indicator of future performance. Significant variation in Polestar’s quarterly performance could significantly and adversely affect the trading price of the ADSs.

 

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Risks Related to Ownership of Polestar’s Securities

If the Business Combination’s benefits do not meet the expectations of investors, stockholders or financial analysts, the market price of the ADSs may decline.

An active trading market for Polestar’s ADSs has existed for only a short period since the closing of the Business Combination on June 23, 2022, and it may not be sustained. You may be unable to sell your ADSs if an active trading market cannot be sustained. Fluctuations in the price of the ADSs could contribute to the loss of all or part of your investment. The trading price of the ADSs could be volatile and subject to wide fluctuations in response to various factors, some of which are beyond Polestar’s control. Any of the factors listed below could have a material and adverse effect on the trading price of the ADSs, which may trade at prices significantly below the price you paid (which includes the prices paid by ADS holders who acquired their securities through a conversion of GGI Class A Common Stock in the Business Combination). In such circumstances, the trading price of the ADSs may not recover and may experience a further decline.

Factors affecting the trading price of the ADSs may include:

 

   

actual or anticipated fluctuations in Polestar’s periodic financial results or the periodic financial results of companies perceived to be similar to Polestar;

 

   

changes in the market’s expectations about Polestar’s operating results;

 

   

the public’s reaction to Polestar’s press releases, other public announcements and filings with the SEC;

 

   

speculation in the press or investment community;

 

   

success of competitors;

 

   

Polestar’s operating results failing to meet the expectation of securities analysts or investors in a particular period;

 

   

changes in financial estimates and recommendations by securities analysts concerning Polestar or the market in general;

 

   

operating and stock price performance of other companies that investors deem comparable to Polestar;

 

   

Polestar’s ability to market new and enhanced features or services on a timely basis;

 

   

changes in laws and regulations affecting Polestar’s business;

 

   

commencement of, or involvement in, litigation involving Polestar;

 

   

changes in Polestar’s capital structure, such as future issuances of securities or the incurrence of additional debt;

 

   

the volume of ADSs available for public sale;

 

   

trading volume of the ADSs on Nasdaq;

 

   

any major change in the Board or management;

 

   

sales of substantial amounts of ADSs by Polestar’s directors, officers or significant stockholders or the perception that such sales could occur;

 

   

the realization of any of the risk factors presented in this prospectus;

 

   

additions or departures of key personnel;

 

   

failure to comply with the requirements of Nasdaq;

 

   

failure to comply with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act or other laws or regulations;

 

   

actual, potential or perceived control, accounting or reporting problems;

 

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changes in accounting principles, policies and guidelines; and

 

   

general economic and political conditions such as recessions, interest rates, international currency fluctuations and health epidemics and pandemics (including the COVID-19 pandemic), inflation, changes in diplomatic and trade relationships and acts of war or terrorism.

Broad market and industry factors may materially harm the market price of the ADSs irrespective of Polestar’s operating performance. The stock market in general and Nasdaq have experienced price and volume fluctuations that have often been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of the particular companies affected. The trading prices and valuations of these stocks, and of Polestar’s securities, may not be predictable. A loss of investor confidence in the market for the stocks of other companies that investors perceive to be similar to Polestar could depress the price of ADSs regardless of Polestar’s business, prospects, financial conditions or results of operations. A decline in the market price of the ADSs also could adversely affect its ability to issue additional securities and obtain additional financing in the future.

In the past, securities class action litigation has often been initiated against companies following periods of volatility in their stock price. This type of litigation could result in substantial costs and divert management’s attention and resources, and could also require Polestar to make substantial payments to satisfy judgments or to settle litigation.

The grant and future exercise of registration rights may adversely affect the market price of the ADSs.

Pursuant to the Registration Rights Agreement, the Registration Rights Holders can each demand that Polestar register their registrable securities under certain circumstances and will each also have piggyback registration rights for these securities in connection with certain registrations of securities that Polestar undertakes. In addition, Polestar is required to file and maintain an effective registration statement under the Securities Act covering such securities and certain other securities of Polestar.

The registration of the resale of these securities will permit the public sale of such securities. The registration and availability of such a significant number of securities for trading in the public market may have an adverse effect on the market price of ADSs.

The Class C ADSs will be exercisable for the Class A ADSs, which would increase the number of AD securities eligible for future resale in the public market and result in dilution to its shareholders.

GGI issued GGI Public Warrants to purchase 16,000,000 shares of GGI Class A Common Stock as part of the GGI initial public offering, consummated on March 25, 2021, and, on the closing date of the GGI initial public offering, GGI issued Private Placement Warrants to the GGI Sponsor to purchase 9,000,000 shares of GGI Class A Common Stock, in each case at $11.50 per share. The GGI Private Placement Warrants were identical to the GGI Public Warrants sold as part of the GGI public units (consisting of one share of GGI Class A Common Stock and one-fifth of one GGI Public Warrant) except that, so long as they are held by the GGI Sponsor or its permitted transferees: (i) they may not be redeemable by GGI, except as described in the SPAC Warrant Agreement; (ii) they (including the GGI Class A Common Stock issuable upon exercise of these warrants) may not, subject to certain limited exceptions, be transferred, assigned or sold by the GGI Sponsor until 30 days after the completion of an initial business combination involving GGI and one or more businesses; (iii) they may be exercised by the holders on a cashless basis; and (iv) they are subject to registration rights. The GGI Warrants were exercisable on the later of 30 days after the consummation of the Business Combination.

In connection with the Business Combination, each GGI Warrant converted into a Class C ADS, of which the underlying Class C Share is exercisable for a Class A ADS representing one Class C Share and subject to substantially the same terms as were applicable to the GGI Warrants under the SPAC Warrant Agreement. Please see the sections entitled “Description of Share Capital and Articles of Association” and “Description of

 

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American Depositary Shares.” The Class A ADSs issued upon exercise of the Class C ADSs will result in dilution to then existing Company shareholders and increase the number of AD securities eligible for resale in the public market. Sales of substantial numbers of such shares in the public market could adversely affect the market price of Class A ADSs.

There is no guarantee that the Class C ADSs will ever be in the money, and they may expire worthless.

The exercise price for the Class C ADSs is $11.50 per Class C ADS (excluding any fees due to the depository in connection with the conversion of the Class C ADSs and the issuance of the Class A ADSs). There is no guarantee that the Class C ADS will ever be in the money prior to their expiration, and as such, the Class C ADSs may expire worthless.

Polestar may amend the terms of the Class C ADSs in a manner that may be adverse to holders. As a result, the exercise price of your Class C ADSs could be increased, the exercise period could be shortened and the number of Class A ADSs purchasable upon exercise of a Class C ADS could be decreased, all without your approval. With respect to the Class C-1 ADSs, in accordance with the U.K. Companies Act 2006 (the “Companies Act”) and the Polestar Articles, such amendment would require (i) in order to amend the relevant provisions in the Polestar Articles, a special resolution (requiring approval by at least 75% of members entitled to vote at a meeting of members of Polestar) and (ii) written consent to such amendment by holders of at least 75% of the then-outstanding Class C-1 ADSs.

Polestar may redeem unexpired Class C-1 ADSs prior to their exercise at a time that is disadvantageous to holders, thereby making their Class C-1 ADSs worthless.

Polestar has the ability to redeem outstanding Class C-1 ADSs at any time prior to their expiration, at a price of $0.01 per Class C-1 ADS; provided that the last reported sales price of Class A ADSs equals or exceeds $18.00 per share for any 20 trading days within a 30 trading-day period ending on the third trading day prior to the date on which Polestar gives proper notice of such redemption to the holders of Class C-1 ADSs and provided certain other conditions are met. Polestar will not redeem the Class C-1 ADSs unless an effective registration statement under the Securities Act covering the issuance of the Class A ADSs issuable upon exercise of the Class C-1 ADSs is effective and a current prospectus relating to those Class C-1 ADSs is available throughout the 30-day redemption period, except if the Class C-1 ADSs may be exercised on a cashless basis and such cashless exercise is exempt from registration under the Securities Act. If and when the Class C-1 ADSs become redeemable by Polestar, Polestar may exercise its redemption right even if Polestar is unable to register or qualify the underlying securities for sale under all applicable state securities laws. Redemption of the outstanding Class C-1 ADSs could force the holders of such Class C-1 ADSs: (i) to exercise their Class C-1 ADSs and pay the exercise price therefor at a time when it may be disadvantageous for them to do so; (ii) to sell their Class C-1 ADSs at the then-current market price when they might otherwise wish to hold their Class C-1 ADSs; or (iii) to accept the nominal redemption price which, at the time the outstanding Class C-1 ADSs are called for redemption, is likely to be substantially less than the market value of their Class C-1 ADSs. Additionally, if a significant number of holders of Class C-1 ADSs exercise their Class C-1 ADSs instead of accepting the nominal redemption price, the issuance of these Class A ADSs would dilute other equity holders, which could reduce the market price of Class A ADSs. As of the date of this prospectus, the Class A ADSs have never traded above $18.00 per share.

In addition, Polestar may redeem Class C-1 ADSs for a number of Class A ADSs determined based on the redemption date and the fair market value of Class A ADSs, starting at a trading price of $10.00. Any such redemption may have similar consequences to a cash redemption described above. In addition, such redemption may occur at a time when the Class C-1 ADSs are “out-of-the-money,” in which case holders of Class C-1 ADSs would lose any potential embedded value from a subsequent increase in the value of the Class A ADSs had such holders’ Class C-1 ADSs remained outstanding. None of the Class C-2 ADSs will be redeemable by Polestar (except as set forth in the Polestar Articles) so long as they are held by the GGI Sponsor or its permitted transferees. The Class A ADSs currently trade below $10.00.

 

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In the event Polestar elects to redeem the outstanding Class C-1 ADSs, Polestar will fix a date for the redemption (the “Class C Redemption Date”) and provide notice of the redemption to be mailed by first class mail, postage prepaid by Polestar not less than 30 days prior to the Class C Redemption Date to the registered holders of the Class C-1 ADSs (who will, in turn, notify the beneficial holders thereof). For addition information regarding the Class C-2 ADSs and the Class C-1 ADSs, please see the applicable sections in the Polestar Articles.

Polestar may issue additional equity securities or convertible debt securities without the approval of the holders of the ADSs, which would dilute ownership interests and may depress the market price of the ADSs.

Polestar will continue to require significant capital investment to support its business, and Polestar may issue additional equity securities or convertible debt securities of equal or senior rank in the future without approval of the holders of the ADSs in certain circumstances.

Polestar’s issuance of additional equity securities or convertible debt securities of equal or senior rank may have the following effects: (i) Polestar’s shareholders’ proportionate ownership interest in Polestar may decrease; (ii) the amount of cash available per share, including for payment of dividends in the future, may decrease; (iii) the relative voting power of each previously outstanding Class A ADS may be diminished; and (iv) the market price of ADSs may decline.

Furthermore, certain employees of Polestar and its subsidiaries have been granted equity awards under the Equity Plan, and it is anticipated that certain employees of Polestar and its subsidiaries may receive future grants of equity awards under the Equity Plan and/or may be eligible to participate in the Employee Stock Purchase Plan and the Share Matching Plan. Holders of ADSs will experience additional dilution when those equity awards become vested and settled or exercised, as applicable, for Company securities. See “Compensation—Compensation Arrangements after the Business Combination.”

The market price and trading volume of the ADSs may be volatile and could decline significantly.

The stock markets, including Nasdaq, on which Polestar has listed the Class A ADSs and the Class C-1 ADSs under the symbols “PSNY” and “PSNYW,” respectively, have from time to time experienced significant price and volume fluctuations. An active, liquid and orderly trading market may not be sustained for the ADSs, and the market price of the ADSs may be volatile and could decline significantly. In addition, the trading volume in the ADSs may fluctuate and cause significant price variations to occur. If the market price of the ADSs declines significantly, you may be unable to resell your Company securities and ADSs at or above the market price you paid. Polestar cannot assure you that the market price of the ADSs will not fluctuate widely or decline significantly in the future in response to a number of factors, including, among others, the following:

 

   

the realization of any of the risk factors presented in this prospectus;

 

   

actual or anticipated differences in Polestar’s estimates, or in the estimates of analysts, for Polestar’s revenues, results of operations, level of indebtedness, liquidity or financial condition;

 

   

additions and departures of key personnel;

 

   

failure to comply with the requirements of Nasdaq;

 

   

failure to comply with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act or other laws or regulations;

 

   

future issuances, sales, resales or repurchases or anticipated issuances, sales, resales or repurchases, of Company securities;

 

   

publication of research reports about Polestar;

 

   

the performance and market valuations of other similar companies;

 

   

commencement of, or involvement in, litigation involving Polestar;

 

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broad disruptions in the financial markets, including sudden disruptions in the credit markets;

 

   

speculation in the press or investment community;

 

   

actual, potential or perceived control, accounting or reporting problems;

 

   

changes in accounting principles, policies and guidelines; and

 

   

other events or factors, including those resulting from infectious diseases, health epidemics and pandemics (including the COVID-19 pandemic), natural disasters, war, acts of terrorism or responses to these events.

In the past, securities class-action litigation has often been instituted against companies following periods of volatility in the market price of their shares. This type of litigation could result in substantial costs and divert Polestar’s management’s attention and resources, which could have a material and adverse effect on Polestar.

Nasdaq may not continue to list the Class A ADSs and Class C-1 ADSs, which could limit investors’ ability to make transactions in the Company’s securities and subject the Company to additional trading restrictions.

The Class A ADSs and Class C-1 ADSs are currently listed on Nasdaq. There can be no assurance that the Company will be able to comply with the continued listing standards of Nasdaq. If Nasdaq delists the Class A ADSs or Class C-1 ADSs from trading on its exchange for failure to meet the listing standards, holders of the Company’s securities could face significant material adverse consequences including:

 

   

a limited availability of market quotations for the Company’s securities;

 

   

reduced liquidity for the Company’s securities;

 

   

a determination that the Class A ADSs are a “penny stock” which will require brokers trading in the Class A ADSs to adhere to more stringent rules and possibly result in a reduced level of trading activity in the secondary market for the Company’s securities; and

 

   

a limited amount of news and analyst coverage.

Further consequences of any delisting of the Class A ADS or Class C-1 ADS would include a decreased ability for Polestar to issue additional securities or to obtain additional financing in the future.

The securities being offered in this prospectus represent a substantial percentage of the outstanding Class A ADSs, and the sales of such securities, or the perception that these sales could occur, could cause the market price of the securities of the Company to decline significantly and certain Selling Securityholders still may receive significant proceeds.

This prospectus relates to the offer and sale from time to time by the Selling Securityholders of up to (a) 2,228,977,574 Class A ADSs and (b) 9,000,000 Class C-2 ADSs. The Class A ADSs described in clause (a) of the prior sentence include (i) 294,877,349 Class A ADSs issued to Former Parent as merger consideration in connection with the Business Combination at an equity consideration value of $10.00 per share, (ii) up to 24,078,638 Class A ADSs which are issuable to the Former Parent Shareholders as earn out consideration (valued as $10.00 per Class A ADS at the time of the Business Combination) upon the achievement of certain price thresholds for the Class A ADSs, as further described in this prospectus, (iii) up to 1,776,332,546 Class A ADSs issuable upon conversion of Class B ADSs, including up to 134,098,971 Class B ADSs which are issuable to the Former Parent Shareholders as earn out consideration (valued as $10.00 per Class B ADS at the time of the Business Combination) upon the achievement of certain price thresholds for the Class A ADSs, as further described in this prospectus, (iv) 18,459,165 Class A ADSs issued to the GGI Sponsor in connection with the Business Combination in exchange for the 18,459,165 shares of GGI Class F Common Stock that the GGI Sponsor initially purchased at $0.001 per share of GGI Class F Common Stock and that the GGI Sponsor retained after forfeiture of 1,540,835 shares of GGI Class F Common Stock; (v) 26,540,835 Class A ADSs issued

 

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to GGI Sponsor, the PIPE Investors and Snita pursuant to the Sponsor Subscription Agreement, the PIPE Subscription Agreements and the Volvo Cars PIPE Subscription Agreement, respectively, at an average cash price of $9.42 per Class A ADS, (vi) 58,882,610 Class A ADSs issued to Snita upon conversion of the Volvo Cars Preference Subscription Shares at the time of the Business Combination at a $10.00 conversion price, (vii) 4,306,466 Class A ADSs that were issued to Former Parent Convertible Notes Holders upon conversion of the Former Parent Convertible Notes at the time of the Business Combination at a conversion price of $8.18, (viii) up to 500,000 Class A ADSs issuable to a service provider in exchange for the performance of marketing consulting services valued at up to $5,000,000, and (ix) up to 24,999,965 Class A ADSs issuable upon conversion of the Class C ADSs, including up to 9,000,000 Class A ADSs issuable upon conversion of the Class C-2 ADSs initially held by the GGI Sponsor in the form of Class C-2 ADSs and which may be converted into Class C-1 ADSs pursuant to the terms of the Class C-2 ADSs. The prospectus also covers any additional securities that may become issuable by reason of share splits, share dividends or similar transactions.

In connection with the Business Combination, holders of 16,265,203 shares of GGI Class A Common Stock, or approximately 20.3% of the issued and outstanding shares of GGI Class A Common Stock, exercised their right to redeem their shares for cash at a redemption price of approximately $10.00 per share, for an aggregate redemption amount of approximately $162,652,030. The Resale Securities represent a substantial percentage of the total outstanding ADSs as of the date of this prospectus. The Class A ADSs being offered in this prospectus represent approximately 476.6% of our current outstanding Class A ADSs, assuming the Earn Out Shares issuable pursuant to the Business Combination Agreement are not outstanding, or approximately 356.1% assuming they are outstanding and converted into Class A ADSs. Additionally, if all the Class C ADSs are exercised and all Class A ADSs are issued to a service provider in exchange for the performance of marketing consulting services, the Selling Securityholders would own an additional 25,093,715 shares of Class A ADSs, representing approximately an additional 5.4% of the current outstanding Class A ADSs. The sale of all the securities being offered in this prospectus, or the perception that these sales could occur, could result in a significant decline in the public trading price of our securities. The contractual lock-up restrictions entered into in connection with the Business Combination have expired. The frequency of any sales could also cause the market price of our securities to decline or increase the volatility in the market price of our securities.

Upon effectiveness of this registration statement, or upon satisfaction of the requirements of Rule 144, certain shareholders of Polestar may sell large amounts of Company securities and AD securities in the open market or in privately negotiated transactions, which could have the effect of increasing the volatility in or putting significant downward pressure on the price of ADSs. In addition, the issuance of any additional Company securities or ADSs may have an adverse effect on the market price of the ADSs.

Polestar may issue up to an aggregate of 158,177,609 additional ADSs to certain Former Parent Shareholders if certain stock price hurdles are achieved over a five-year period from the 180th day following the Business Combination Closing. A significant decline in the public trading price of our Class A ADSs could result in no Earn Out Shares being issued. If Earn Out Shares are issued, the holders thereof may seek to sell some or all of Earn Out Shares, which sales or perception of potential sales could also depress the market price of the securities of the Company.

Despite a significant decline in the public trading price of our securities, the Selling Securityholders may still experience a positive rate of return on the securities they purchased due to the differences in the purchase prices described above and the public trading price of our securities. Based on the closing price of our Class A ADSs of $3.50 as of April 25, 2023, upon the sale of our Class A ADSs, (a) Former Parent Shareholders may experience a potential loss of up to $6.50 per Class A ADS, (b) GGI Sponsor, the PIPE Investors and Snita may experience a potential loss of up to $5.92 per Subscription Share, (c) the GGI Sponsor may experience a potential profit of approximately $3.50 per Class A ADS issued to the GGI Sponsor upon conversion of the shares of GGI Class F Common Stock, (d) Snita may experience a potential loss of up to $6.50 per Class A ADS issued to Snita upon conversion of the Volvo Cars Preference Subscription Shares, (e) the marketing consulting service provider may experience a potential loss of up to $6.50 per Class A ADS, and (f) Former Parent Convertible Notes

 

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Holders may experience a potential loss of up to $4.68 per Class A ADS. Based on the closing price of our Class C-1 ADSs of $0.75 as of April 25, 2023, upon the sale of the Class C-2 ADSs, the GGI Sponsor may experience a potential loss of up to $1.25 per Class C-2 ADS.

Polestar’s management team has limited experience managing a public company.

Most members of Polestar’s management team have limited experience managing a publicly traded company, interacting with public company investors and complying with the increasingly complex laws pertaining to public companies. Polestar’s management team may not successfully or efficiently manage Polestar’s new obligations as a public company, including significant regulatory oversight and reporting obligations under UK companies laws, the federal securities laws and the continuous scrutiny of securities analysts and investors. These new obligations and constituents will require significant attention from Polestar’s senior management and could divert their attention away from the day-to-day management of Polestar’s business, which could adversely affect its business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition. In addition, Polestar expects to hire additional personnel to support its operations as a public company, which will increase its operating costs in future periods.

The requirements of being a public company may strain Polestar’s resources and distract its management, which could make it difficult to manage its business.

Polestar is required to comply with various regulatory and reporting requirements, including those required by UK companies laws and the SEC. Complying with these reporting and other regulatory requirements are time-consuming and will continue to result in increased costs to Polestar and could have a negative effect on Polestar’s results of operations, financial condition or business.

As a public company, Polestar is subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act and the requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, as well as the reporting requirements of the UK companies laws that related to quoted companies. These requirements may place a strain on Polestar’s systems and resources. The Exchange Act and UK companies laws require that Polestar file an annual report with respect to its business and financial condition. In addition, it intends to publish certain results on a quarterly basis as press releases, distributed pursuant to the rules and regulations of Nasdaq. Press releases relating to certain financial results and material events will also be furnished to the SEC on Form 6-K. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires that Polestar implement and maintain effective disclosure controls and procedures and internal controls over financial reporting. To implement, maintain and improve the effectiveness of its disclosure controls and procedures, Polestar will need to commit and has committed significant resources, has hired and will continue to hire additional staff and has provided and will continue to provide additional management oversight. Polestar has implemented and will continue to implement additional procedures and processes for the purpose of addressing the standards and requirements applicable to public companies. Sustaining its growth also will require Polestar to commit additional management, operational and financial resources to identify new professionals to join it and to maintain appropriate operational and financial systems to adequately support expansion. These activities may divert management’s attention from other business concerns, which could have a material and adverse effect on Polestar’s results of operations, financial condition or business.

Polestar’s independent registered public accounting firm will not be required to formally attest to the effectiveness of the combined company’s internal control over financial reporting until its second annual report. Polestar has identified material weaknesses in its internal control over financial reporting related to not maintaining an effective control environment and cannot assure you that there will not be material weaknesses or significant deficiencies in its internal controls in the future.

Polestar expects to incur additional expenses and devote increased management effort toward ensuring compliance with the applicable regulations. Polestar cannot predict or estimate the amount of additional costs Polestar may incur as a result of becoming a public company or the timing of such costs.

 

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Polestar is a foreign private issuer within the meaning of the rules under the Exchange Act and, as such, it is exempt from certain provisions applicable to United States domestic public companies.

Because Polestar qualifies as a foreign private issuer under the Exchange Act, it is exempt from certain provisions of the securities rules and regulations in the United States that are applicable to U.S. domestic issuers, including: (i) the rules under the Exchange Act requiring the filing with the SEC of quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, quarterly certifications by the principal executive and financial officers or current reports on Form 8-K; (ii) the sections of the Exchange Act regulating the solicitation of proxies, consents or authorizations in respect of a security registered under the Exchange Act; (iii) the sections of the Exchange Act requiring insiders to file public reports of their stock ownership and trading activities and liability for insiders who profit from trades made in a short period of time; and (iv) the selective disclosure rules by issuers of material nonpublic information under Regulation FD.

Polestar is required to file an annual report on Form 20-F within four months of the end of each fiscal year. In addition, it intends to publish its results on a quarterly basis as press releases, distributed pursuant to the rules and regulations of Nasdaq. Press releases relating to financial results and material events will also be furnished to the SEC on Form 6-K. However, the information Polestar is required to file with or furnish to the SEC is less extensive and less timely compared to that required to be filed with the SEC by U.S. domestic issuers. For example, U.S. domestic issuers are required to file annual reports within 60 to 90 days from the end of each fiscal year. As a result, there may be less publicly available information concerning Polestar’s business than there would be if Polestar were a U.S. public company, and you may not be afforded the same protections or information that would be made available to you were you investing in a U.S. domestic issuer.

As Polestar is a foreign private issuer and follows certain home country corporate governance practices, its shareholders may not have the same protections afforded to shareholders of companies that are subject to all of Nasdaq’s corporate governance requirements.

As a foreign private issuer, Polestar is subject to different U.S. securities laws than domestic U.S. issuers. As long as Polestar continues to qualify as a foreign private issuer under the Exchange Act, Polestar is exempt from certain provisions of the Exchange Act that are applicable to U.S. domestic public companies, including:

 

   

the sections of the Exchange Act regulating the solicitation of proxies, consents or authorizations in respect of a security registered under the Exchange Act;

 

   

the sections of the Exchange Act requiring insiders to file public reports of their stock ownership and trading activities and liability for insiders who profit from trades made in a short period of time; and

 

   

the rules under the Exchange Act requiring the filing with the SEC of quarterly reports on Form 10-Q containing unaudited financial and other specified information, or current reports on Form 8-K, upon the occurrence of specified significant events.

In addition, Polestar is not required to file annual reports and financial statements with the SEC as promptly as U.S. domestic companies whose securities are registered under the Exchange Act, and is not required to comply with Regulation FD, which restricts the selective disclosure of material information.

Further, Polestar is exempt from certain corporate governance requirements of Nasdaq by virtue of being a foreign private issuer. Although the foreign private issuer status exempts Polestar from most of Nasdaq’s corporate governance requirements, Polestar has decided to voluntarily comply with these requirements, except for the requirement to have a compensation committee and a nominating and governance committee consisting entirely of independent directors.

Furthermore, Nasdaq rules also generally require each listed company to obtain shareholder approval prior to the issuance of securities in certain circumstances in connection with the acquisition of the stock or assets of another company, equity based compensation of officers, directors, employees or consultants, change of control

 

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and certain transactions other than a public offering. As a foreign private issuer, Polestar is exempt from these requirements and may, if not required by the laws of England and Wales, elect not to obtain shareholders’ approval prior to any further issuance of its Class A ADSs or prior to adopting or materially revising equity compensation plans or share incentive plans.

Subject to requirements under the Polestar Articles and Shareholder Acknowledgment Agreement that the Board be comprised of a majority of independent directors for the three years following the Business Combination Closing, Polestar may in the future elect to avail itself of these exemptions or to follow home country practices with regard to other matters. As a result, its shareholders will not have the same protections afforded to shareholders of companies that are subject to all of Nasdaq’s corporate governance requirements.

Further, by virtue of being a controlled company under Nasdaq listing rules, Polestar may elect not to comply with certain Nasdaq corporate governance requirements, including that:

 

   

a majority of the board of directors consist of independent directors (however, pursuant to the Polestar Articles and Shareholder Acknowledgment Agreement, for the three years following the Business Combination Closing, the Board must be comprised of a majority of independent directors);

 

   

the compensation committee be composed entirely of independent directors with a written charter addressing the committee’s purpose and responsibilities;

 

   

the nominating and governance committee be composed entirely of independent directors with a written charter addressing the committee’s purpose and responsibilities; and

 

   

there be an annual performance evaluation of the compensation and nominating and governance committees.

Other than as specified above, Polestar may in the future elect to avail itself of these exemptions. As a result, its shareholders will not have the same protections afforded to shareholders of companies that are subject to all of Nasdaq’s corporate governance requirements.

Polestar may lose its foreign private issuer status in the future, which could result in significant additional costs and expenses.

As discussed above, Polestar is a foreign private issuer, and therefore will not be required to comply with all of the periodic disclosure and current reporting requirements of the Exchange Act and may take advantage of certain exemptions to Nasdaq’s corporate governance rules. The determination of foreign private issuer status is made annually on the last business day of an issuer’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, and, accordingly, the next determination will be made with respect to Polestar on June 30, 2023. In the future, Polestar would lose its foreign private issuer status if (i) more than 50% of its outstanding voting securities are owned by U.S. residents and (ii) a majority of its directors or executive officers are U.S. citizens or residents, or it fails to meet additional requirements necessary to avoid loss of foreign private issuer status. If Polestar loses its foreign private issuer status, it will be required to file with the SEC periodic reports and registration statements on U.S. domestic issuer forms, which are more detailed and extensive than the forms available to a foreign private issuer. Polestar would also have to mandatorily comply with U.S. federal proxy requirements, and its officers, directors and principal shareholders will become subject to the short-swing profit disclosure and recovery provisions of Section 16 of the Exchange Act. In addition, it would lose its ability to rely upon exemptions from certain corporate governance requirements under the listing rules of Nasdaq. As a U.S. listed public company that is not a foreign private issuer, Polestar would incur significant additional legal, accounting and other expenses that it will not incur as a foreign private issuer.

If Polestar no longer qualifies as a foreign private issuer, it may be eligible to take advantage of exemptions from Nasdaq’s corporate governance standards if it continues to qualify as a “controlled company.” Under these rules, a company of which more than 50% of the voting power for the election of directors is held by an

 

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individual, a group or another company is a “controlled company.” Without giving effect to Class C Shares, any issuance of Earn Out Shares and assuming no conversion of the Class C ADSs, PSD Investment Limited and Snita, an affiliate of Volvo Cars, beneficially hold approximately 98.4% of the outstanding voting power of Shares. Mr. Li Shufu controls PSD Investment Limited and directly or indirectly owns approximately 91.9% of equity interests in Geely, which owns approximately 82.0% of equity interests in Volvo Cars. Therefore, Mr. Li Shufu, as a controlling equity interest holder in Geely and PSD Investment Limited, beneficially holds approximately 98.6% of the outstanding voting power of Shares. As a result, Polestar is a “controlled company” within the meaning of Nasdaq rules, which permit a “controlled company” to elect not to comply with certain corporate governance requirements, including:

 

   

the requirement that a majority of its board of directors consist of independent directors (however, pursuant to the Polestar Articles and Shareholder Acknowledgment Agreement, for the three years following the Business Combination Closing, the Board must be comprised of a majority of independent directors);

 

   

the requirement that compensation of its executive officers be determined by a majority of the independent directors of the board or a compensation committee comprised solely of independent directors with a written charter addressing the committee’s purpose and responsibilities; and

 

   

the requirement that director nominees be selected, or recommended for the board’s selection, either by a majority of the independent directors of the board or a nominating committee comprised solely of independent directors with a written charter addressing the committee’s purpose and responsibilities.

Other than as specified above, Polestar may in the future elect to avail itself of these exemptions. As a result, its shareholders will not have the same protections afforded to shareholders of companies that are subject to all of Nasdaq’s corporate governance requirements.

Polestar has identified material weaknesses in its internal control over financial reporting. If Polestar is unable to remediate these material weaknesses or identifies additional material weaknesses, it could lead to errors in Polestar’s financial reporting, which could adversely affect Polestar’s business and the market price of the ADSs.

As a private company, Polestar was not required to document and test its internal controls over financial reporting nor was management required to certify the effectiveness of its internal controls and its auditors were not required to opine on the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting. As a public company, Polestar is subject to the internal control over financial reporting requirements established pursuant to the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and will become subject to the auditor attestation requirements in the year in which it files its second annual report. Polestar may not be able to complete its evaluation, testing and any required remediation in a timely fashion. In addition, Polestar’s current controls and any new controls that Polestar develops may become inadequate because of poor design and changes in its business, including increased complexity resulting from any international expansion. Any failure to implement and maintain effective internal controls over financial reporting could adversely affect the results of assessments by its independent registered public accounting firm and its attestation reports.

Polestar has identified material weaknesses in its internal control over financial reporting. Consequently, Polestar may not be able to detect errors timely, Polestar’s financial statements could be misstated, Polestar could be subject to regulatory scrutiny and a loss of confidence by stakeholders, which could harm Polestar’s business and adversely affect the market price of ADSs.

Polestar has identified material weaknesses in its internal control over financial reporting as well as other control deficiencies. If Polestar fails to develop and maintain an effective system of internal control over financial reporting, it may be unable to accurately report its financial results or prevent fraud.

In the course of auditing Polestar’s financial statements as of and for the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, Polestar and its independent registered public accounting firm identified material weaknesses in

 

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Polestar’s internal control over financial reporting as well as other control deficiencies. As defined in standards established by the PCAOB, a “material weakness” is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting, such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of Polestar’s annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis. In connection with the audit of Polestar’s financial statements as of the year ended December 31, 2022, management concluded that there were four material weaknesses in internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2022: (i) the controlling department does not have a sufficient number of qualified personnel connecting operations and finance and the accounting function does not have fully formalized accounting processes or a sufficient number of personnel with technical accounting and SEC regulatory reporting expertise to perform reviews of financial reporting matters and other key controls, including performing timely reviews of work performed by external advisors, which caused a failure to design and maintain an effective control environment with the appropriate associated control activities; (ii) a lack of appropriate processes and controls to recognize revenue in accordance with IFRS 15; (iii) a lack of appropriate processes and controls to properly recognize intangible assets at period end in accordance with service agreements for upcoming car models; and (iv) insufficient processes and controls over the existence, completeness and valuation of inventory.

All internal control systems, no matter how well designed, have inherent limitations including the possibility of human error and the circumvention or overriding of controls. Further, because of changes in conditions, the effectiveness of internal controls may vary over time. Projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate. Accordingly, even those systems determined to be effective can provide only reasonable assurance with respect to financial statement preparation and presentation.

Polestar cannot be certain that measures it is taking will successfully remediate the material weaknesses or that other material weaknesses will not be discovered in the future. If Polestar’s efforts are not successful or other material weaknesses or control deficiencies occur in the future, Polestar may be unable to report its financial results accurately on a timely basis or help prevent fraud, which could cause its reported financial results to be materially misstated and result in the loss of investor confidence or delisting and cause the market price of Polestar’s AD securities to decline. In addition, it could in turn limit Polestar’s access to capital markets, harm its results of operations and lead to a decline in the trading price of Polestar’s securities. Additionally, ineffective internal control over financial reporting could expose it to increased risk of fraud or misuse of corporate assets and subject it to potential delisting from the stock exchange on which Polestar lists, regulatory investigations and civil or criminal sanctions. Polestar may also be required to restate its financial statements from prior periods.

Polestar, as a U.S. publicly traded company, is subject to the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. While not applicable for this prospectus due to SEC rules allowing for a transition period for newly public companies, Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires public companies to include a report of management on its internal control over financial reporting in certain of its filings. In addition, when Polestar files its second annual report, its independent registered public accounting firm must attest to and report on the effectiveness of Polestar’s internal control over financial reporting. Polestar’s management may conclude that its internal control over financial reporting is not effective. Moreover, even if Polestar’s management concludes that its internal control over financial reporting is effective, its independent registered public accounting firm, after conducting such public accounting firm’s own independent testing, may issue a report that is qualified if it is not satisfied with Polestar’s internal controls or the level at which its controls are documented, designed, operated or reviewed, or if such public accounting firm interprets the relevant requirements differently from Polestar. In addition, as a public company Polestar’s reporting obligations may place a significant strain on its management, operational and financial resources and systems for the foreseeable future. Polestar may be unable to timely complete its evaluation testing and any required remediation.

During the course of documenting and testing its internal control procedures, in order to satisfy the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, Polestar may identify other weaknesses and deficiencies

 

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in its internal control over financial reporting. In addition, if Polestar fails to maintain the adequacy of its internal control over financial reporting, as these standards are modified, supplemented or amended from time to time, it may not be able to conclude on an ongoing basis that it has effective internal control over financial reporting in accordance with Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. Generally, if Polestar fails to achieve and maintain an effective internal control environment, it could suffer material misstatements in its financial statements and fail to meet its reporting obligations, which would likely cause investors to lose confidence in its reported financial information. This could in turn limit Polestar’s access to capital markets, and harm its results of operations. Additionally, ineffective internal control over financial reporting could expose Polestar to increased risk of fraud or misuse of corporate assets and subject it to potential delisting from the stock exchange on which it lists, regulatory investigations and civil or criminal sanctions.

Polestar’s dual-class voting structure may limit your ability to influence corporate matters and could discourage others from pursuing any change of control transactions that holders of the Company securities or ADSs may view as beneficial.

Polestar’s authorized and issued ordinary shares are divided into Class A Shares, Class B Shares and Class C Shares. Each Class A Share and Class C Share is entitled to one vote, while each Class B Share is entitled to 10 votes. Only the Class A ADSs, which represent an underlying Class A Share, and Class C-1 ADSs, which represent an underlying Class C Share, are listed and traded on Nasdaq, and Polestar intends to maintain the dual-class voting structure.

Snita and PSD Investment Limited hold all of the outstanding Class B Shares and have control of the voting power of all outstanding Class B Shares. As a result, without giving effect to Class C Shares, any issuance of Earn Out Shares and assuming no conversion of the Class C ADSs, PSD Investment Limited and Snita, an affiliate of Volvo Cars, control approximately 98.4% of the total voting power of all issued and outstanding Shares voting together as a single class, even though they are only deemed to beneficially own approximately 87.5% of outstanding Shares.

The U.K. City Code on Takeovers and Mergers, or the Takeover Code, may apply to Polestar.

The Takeover Code applies, among other things, to an offer for a public company whose registered office is in the U.K. (or the Channel Islands or the Isle of Man) and whose securities are not admitted to trading on a regulated market in the U.K. (or the Channel Islands or the Isle of Man) if the company is considered by the Panel on Takeovers and Mergers, or the Takeover Panel, to have its place of central management and control in the U.K. (or the Channel Islands or the Isle of Man). This is known as the “residency test.” Under the Takeover Code, the Takeover Panel will determine whether Polestar’s place of central management and control is in the U.K. by looking at various factors, including the structure of the Board, the functions of the directors of the Board and where they are resident.

If at the time of a takeover offer, the Takeover Panel determines that Polestar’s place of central management and control is in the U.K., Polestar would be subject to a number of rules and restrictions, including, but not limited to, the following: (i) Polestar’s ability to enter into deal protection arrangements with a bidder would be extremely limited; (ii) Polestar might not, without the approval of shareholders, be able to perform certain actions that could have the effect of frustrating an offer, such as issuing shares or carrying out acquisitions or disposals; and (iii) Polestar would be obliged to provide equality of information to all bona fide competing bidders.

A majority of the Board resides outside of the U.K., the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man. Accordingly, based upon Polestar’s current Board and management structure and its intended plans for its directors and management, for the purposes of the Takeover Code, Polestar is considered to have its place of central management and control outside the U.K., the Channel Islands or the Isle of Man. The Takeover Code is not expected to apply to Polestar. It is possible that in the future circumstances, and in particular the Board composition, could change which may cause the Takeover Code to apply to Polestar.

 

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If securities or industry analysts do not publish research, publish inaccurate or unfavorable research or cease publishing research about Polestar, the ADS trading prices and trading volumes could decline significantly.

The trading market for the ADSs will depend, in part, on the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about Polestar or its business. Polestar may be unable to sustain coverage by well-regarded securities and industry analysts. If either none or only a limited number of securities or industry analysts maintain coverage of Polestar, or if these securities or industry analysts are not widely respected within the general investment community, the demand for the ADSs could decrease, which might cause the ADSs’ trading price and trading volume to decline significantly. In the event that Polestar obtains securities or industry analyst coverage, if one or more of the analysts who cover Polestar downgrades their assessment of Polestar or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about Polestar’s business, the market price and liquidity for the ADSs could be negatively impacted.

In addition, organizations that provide information to investors on corporate governance and related matters have developed ratings processes for evaluating companies on their approach to environmental, social and governance (“ESG”) matters. Such ratings are used by some investors to inform their investment and voting decisions. Inaccurate or unfavorable ESG ratings could lead to negative investor sentiment towards Polestar, which could have a negative impact on the market price and demand for Polestar’s securities, as well as Polestar’s access to and cost of capital.

You may face difficulties in protecting your interests, and your ability to protect your rights through U.S. courts may be limited, because Polestar is incorporated under the laws of England and Wales and because Polestar conducts substantially all of its operations outside of the United States and a majority of Polestar’s directors and executive officers reside outside of the United States.

Polestar is a public limited company incorporated under the laws of England and Wales, and conducts a majority of its operations outside the United States through Polestar Sweden (which is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Polestar). Substantially all of Polestar’s assets are located outside the United States. A majority of Polestar’s officers and directors reside outside the United States and a substantial portion of the assets of those persons are located outside of the United States. As a result, it could be difficult or impossible for you to bring an action against Polestar or against these individuals outside of the United States in the event that you believe that your rights have been infringed upon under the applicable securities laws or otherwise. Even if you are successful in bringing an action of this kind, the laws of England and Wales and of the jurisdictions in which Polestar primarily operates could render you unable to enforce a judgment against Polestar’s assets or the assets of Polestar’s directors and officers.

Polestar’s management has been advised that there is currently no treaty between the United States and the United Kingdom providing for the reciprocal recognition and enforcement of judgments of United States courts by the courts of England and Wales. Further, it is unclear if extradition treaties now in effect between the United States and applicable jurisdictions would permit effective enforcement of criminal penalties of U.S. federal securities laws.

In addition, Polestar’s corporate affairs are governed by the Polestar Articles, the Companies Act and the laws of England and Wales. The rights of Polestar’s shareholders and the fiduciary duties of Polestar’s directors under the laws of England and Wales may not be as clearly established as they would be under statutes or judicial precedent in some jurisdictions in the United States. In particular, England and Wales have a different body of securities laws than the United States. Some U.S. states, such as Delaware, may have more fully developed and judicially interpreted bodies of corporate law than England and Wales. In addition, companies organized under the laws of England and Wales may not have standing to initiate a shareholder derivative action in a federal court of the United States.

Certain corporate governance practices in England and Wales, which is Polestar’s home jurisdiction, differ significantly from requirements for companies incorporated in other jurisdictions such as the United States. To

 

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the extent Polestar chooses to follow home country practice with respect to corporate governance matters, its shareholders may be afforded less protection than they otherwise would under rules and regulations applicable to U.S. domestic issuers.

As a result of all of the above, Polestar’s shareholders may have more difficulty in protecting their interests in the face of actions taken by management, members of the board of directors or controlling shareholders than they would as public shareholders of a company incorporated in the United States.

It is not expected that Polestar will pay dividends in the foreseeable future.

It is expected that Polestar will retain most, if not all, of its available funds and any future earnings to fund the development and growth of its business. As a result, it is not expected that Polestar will pay any cash dividends in the foreseeable future.

The Board has complete discretion as to whether to distribute dividends. Even if the Board decides to declare and pay dividends, the timing, amount and form of future dividends, if any, will depend on the future results of operations and cash flow, capital requirements and surplus, the amount of distributions, if any, received by Polestar from subsidiaries, Polestar’s financial condition, contractual restrictions and other factors deemed relevant by the Board. There is no guarantee that the ADSs will appreciate in value or that the trading price of the ADSs will not decline.

Polestar is a holding company and will depend on the ability of its subsidiaries to pay dividends.

Polestar is a holding company without any direct operations and has no significant assets other than its ownership interest in Polestar Sweden. Accordingly, Polestar’s ability to pay dividends will depend upon the financial condition, liquidity and results of operations of, and Polestar’s receipt of dividends, loans or other funds from, Polestar Sweden and its subsidiaries. Polestar’s subsidiaries are separate and distinct legal entities and have no obligation to make funds available to Polestar. In addition, there are various statutory, regulatory and contractual limitations and business considerations on the extent, if any, to which Polestar’s subsidiaries may pay dividends, make loans or otherwise provide funds to Polestar.

Polestar has granted, and anticipates granting additional, share-based incentives, which may result in increased share-based compensation expenses.

Polestar has adopted the Equity Plan and the Employee Stock Purchase Plan. Initially, in 2022 the maximum number of Class A ADSs that was available to be issued under the Equity Plan was 10,000,000 Class A ADSs. This amount may be increased each year during the term of the Equity Plan by up to 0.5% of the total number of Shares outstanding on each December 31 immediately prior to the date of such increase. The Equity Plan permits the award of options, stock appreciation rights, restricted stock, restricted stock units, performance awards, other stock-based awards, cash awards and substitute awards to employees of Polestar and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Polestar will account for compensation costs for all awards granted under the Equity Plan using a fair-value based method and recognize expenses in its consolidated statements of profit or loss in accordance with IFRS.

Initially, in 2022 the maximum number of Class A ADSs that was available to be issued under the Employee Stock Purchase Plan was 2,000,000 Class A ADSs. This amount may be increased each year during the term of the Employee Stock Purchase Plan by up to 0.1% of the total number of Shares outstanding on each December 31 immediately prior to the date of such increase. The Employee Stock Purchase Plan provides employees of Polestar and its subsidiaries and affiliates with the opportunity to purchase Class A ADSs and, in certain instances, to receive matching awards of Class A ADSs from Polestar.

Polestar believes the granting of share-based compensation is of significant importance to its ability to attract and retain key employees, and as such, Polestar has granted, and plans to continue to grant, share-based

 

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compensation and incur share-based compensation expenses. As a result, expenses associated with share-based compensation may increase, which may have an adverse effect on Polestar’s business and results of operations.

Specifically, as of the date of this registration statement, Polestar has implemented equity programs under the Equity Plan providing for awards of restricted stock units (“RSUs”), performance stock units (“PSUs”) and Bonus Shares. Polestar has also adopted a Share Matching Plan under the Employee Stock Purchase Plan, described in further detail below, which is anticipated to be made available to certain employees of Polestar in June 2023. Each of these programs will continue to be made available, or will become available, to eligible Polestar employees as permitted by, and subject to, applicable laws and the terms of the applicable plans. All employees employed before 2022 became eligible to participate in the Bonus Shares program, which provides for a one-time issuance of Class A ADSs in a value equal to 4% of the awardee’s base salary (net of applicable taxes), with Bonus Shares to be subject to transfer restrictions until the first anniversary of the Business Combination Closing (or an earlier change in control). Polestar has also awarded grants of RSUs and PSUs to certain employees of Polestar as selected by Polestar’s Board. Certain RSUs will vest based on the recipient’s continued service through the second anniversary of the Business Combination Closing. In addition, Polestar has implemented a long-term incentive program providing for annual grants of equity-based awards vesting over three years, consisting of awards of (i) 100% PSUs granted to Polestar’s executive management team, and (ii) 50% RSUs and 50% PSUs granted to other eligible Polestar employees, with such RSUs to vest in full based on continued service through the third anniversary of the Business Combination Closing and such PSUs to vest based on achievement of certain Polestar performance metrics (described following) and continued service through the third anniversary of the Business Combination Closing. Specifically, such PSUs will vest based on Polestar’s level of achievement with respect to each of the following metrics through December 31, 2024: 25% with respect to value creation relative to a selected group of peer companies; 25% with respect to unleveraged free cash flow; 20% with respect to ESG achievement measured based on yearly greenhouse gas emissions; and 30% with respect to the achievement of certain operational milestones. The Share Matching Plan under the Employee Stock Purchase Plan includes an annual share matching program whereby the awardee is offered the opportunity to purchase Class A ADSs through payroll deductions of at least $20 per month, but not more than $200 per month (in each case, except as may otherwise be determined by the administrator) and receive a match in the form of Class A ADSs, in an amount equal to up to 100% of the number of Class A ADSs purchased during the applicable offering period, subject to satisfaction of a twelve-month holding period for the corresponding purchased shares.

Holders of ADSs have fewer rights than direct holders of the Company securities and must act through the Depositary to exercise their rights. The voting rights of holders of ADSs are limited by the terms of the Deposit Agreements, and such holders may not be able to exercise their right to vote their Company securities directly.

Holders of ADSs do not have the same rights as Polestar shareholders who hold Company securities directly. Holders of the AD securities are only able to exercise the voting rights with respect to the underlying Company securities in accordance with the provisions of the Deposit Agreements. The holders and beneficial owners of the AD securities are parties to and bound by the terms of the Deposit Agreements for the AD securities they own. Under the Deposit Agreements, ADS holders must vote by giving voting instructions to the Depositary. If Polestar asks for instructions of ADS holders, then upon receipt of such voting instructions, the Depositary will try to vote the underlying Company securities in accordance with these instructions. ADS holders are not able to directly exercise their right to vote with respect to the underlying Company securities unless they present their ADSs for cancellation and withdraw the underlying Company securities prior to the applicable record date for the meeting. When a meeting is convened, an ADS holder may not receive sufficient advance notice to withdraw the underlying Company securities his or her AD securities allow such holder to vote with respect to any specific matter. Polestar has agreed to give the Depositary prior notice of meetings of holders of shares and warrants. Nevertheless, Polestar cannot assure you that holders of AD securities will receive the voting materials in time to ensure that holders of AD securities can instruct the Depositary to vote the underlying shares. In addition, the Depositary and its agents are not responsible for failing to carry out voting instructions or for their manner of carrying out holders’ of AD securities voting instructions. This means that a holder of AD

 

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securities may not be able to exercise the right to vote and may have no legal remedy if the underlying Company securities underlying his or her of AD securities are not voted as such holder requested. Please see the section entitled “Description of American Depositary Shares” in this prospectus for additional information.

The Depositary for the AD securities will give Polestar a discretionary proxy to vote the Company securities underlying the AD securities if the holders of such AD securities do not give timely voting instructions to the Depositary, except in limited circumstances, which could adversely affect the interests of holders of the ADSs.

Under the Deposit Agreements for the AD securities, if any holders of AD securities do not vote their AD securities, the Depositary will give Polestar a discretionary proxy to vote the Company securities underlying such AD securities at shareholders’ meetings unless:

 

   

Polestar has failed to timely provide the Depositary with notice of meeting and related voting materials;

 

   

Polestar has instructed the Depositary that it does not wish a discretionary proxy to be given;

 

   

Polestar has informed the Depositary that there is substantial opposition as to a matter to be voted on at the meeting;

 

   

a matter to be voted on at the meeting would have a material adverse impact on shareholders; or

 

   

the voting at the meeting is to be made on a show of hands.

The effect of this discretionary proxy is that if any such holder of the AD securities does not provide timely and valid voting instructions, such holder cannot prevent the Company securities underlying such AD securities from being voted, except under the circumstances described above. This may make it more difficult for holders of AD securities to influence the management of Polestar.

The Polestar Articles and the Deposit Agreements provide that the federal district courts of the United States of America will be the exclusive forum for resolving any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act and the Exchange Act and that certain claims may only be instituted in the courts of England and Wales, which could limit the ability of securityholders of Polestar to choose a favorable judicial forum for disputes with Polestar or Polestar’s directors, officers or employees.

The Polestar Articles provide that unless Polestar consents in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the courts of England and Wales will, to the fullest extent permitted by law, be the sole and exclusive forum for (i) any derivative action or proceeding brought on behalf of Polestar; (ii) any action, including any action commenced by a member of Polestar in its own name or on behalf of Polestar, asserting a claim of breach of any fiduciary or other duty owed by any director, officer or other employee of Polestar (including but not limited to duties arising under the Companies Act); (iii) any action arising out of or in connection with the Polestar Articles or otherwise in any way relating to the constitution or conduct of Polestar; or (iv) any action asserting a claim against Polestar governed by the internal affairs doctrine (as such concept is recognized under the laws of the United States of America). The Deposit Agreements also provide for exclusive forum in state and federal courts in the City of New York. This forum selection provision in the Polestar Articles will not apply to actions or suits brought to enforce any liability or duty created by the Securities Act, Exchange Act or any claim for which the federal district courts of the United States of America are, as a matter of the laws of the United States of America, the sole and exclusive forum for determination of such a claim. The Polestar Articles provide that the federal district courts in the United States will be the exclusive forum for claims against Polestar under the Securities Act and the Exchange Act.

Although Polestar believes these exclusive forum provisions will benefit Polestar by providing increased consistency in the application of U.S. federal securities laws and the laws of England and Wales in the types of lawsuits to which they apply, these choice of forum provisions may increase a securityholder’s cost and limit the

 

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securityholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with Polestar or Polestar’s directors, officers or other employees, which may discourage lawsuits against Polestar and Polestar’s directors, officers and other employees. Polestar’s shareholders will not be deemed to have waived Polestar’s compliance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the rules and regulations thereunder as a result of Polestar’s exclusive forum provision. Any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring any of the Company securities or other securities, whether by transfer, sale, operation of law or otherwise, will be deemed to have notice of and have irrevocably agreed and consented to these provisions. There is uncertainty as to whether a court would enforce such provisions. The Securities Act provides that state courts and federal courts will have concurrent jurisdiction over claims under the Securities Act, and the enforceability of similar choice of forum provisions in other companies’ charter documents has been challenged in legal proceedings. It is possible that a court could find this type of provision to be inapplicable or unenforceable, and if a court were to find this provision in the Polestar Articles to be inapplicable or unenforceable in an action, Polestar may incur additional costs associated with resolving the dispute in other jurisdictions, which could have adverse effect on Polestar’s business and financial performance.

An ADS holder’s right to pursue claims against the Depositary is limited by the terms of the Deposit Agreements.

Under the Deposit Agreements, any action or proceeding against or involving the Depositary arising out of or based upon the Deposit Agreements or the transactions contemplated thereby or by virtue of owning the ADS may only be instituted in state and federal courts in the City of New York, and a holder of the ADS will have irrevocably waived any objection which such holder may have to the laying of venue of any such proceeding, and irrevocably submitted to the exclusive jurisdiction of such courts in any such action or proceeding. However, there is uncertainty as to whether a court would enforce this exclusive jurisdiction provision. Furthermore, investors cannot waive compliance with the U.S. federal securities laws and rules and regulations promulgated thereunder. Also, Polestar may amend or terminate the Deposit Agreement without the consent of any holder of ADSs. If a holder continues to hold its ADSs after an amendment to the Deposit Agreement, such holder agrees to be bound by the applicable Deposit Agreement as so amended.

ADS holders may not be entitled to a jury trial with respect to claims arising under the Deposit Agreements, which could result in less favorable results to the plaintiff(s) in any such action.

The Deposit Agreements governing the ADSs provide that owners and holders of ADSs irrevocably waive the right to a trial by jury in any legal proceeding arising out of or relating to the Deposit Agreements or the ADSs, including claims under U.S. federal securities laws, against Polestar or the Depositary to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law. If this jury trial waiver provision is prohibited by applicable law, an action could nevertheless proceed under the terms of the Deposit Agreements with a jury trial. Although Polestar is not aware of a specific federal decision that addresses the enforceability of a jury trial waiver in the context of U.S. federal securities laws, it is Polestar’s understanding that jury trial waivers are generally enforceable. Moreover, insofar as the Deposit Agreements are governed by the laws of the State of New York, New York laws similarly recognize the validity of jury trial waivers in appropriate circumstances. In determining whether to enforce a jury trial waiver provision, New York courts and federal courts will consider whether the visibility of the jury trial waiver provision within the agreement is sufficiently prominent such that a party has knowingly waived any right to trial by jury. Polestar believes that this is the case with respect to the Deposit Agreements and the ADSs.

In addition, New York courts will not enforce a jury trial waiver provision in order to bar a viable setoff or counterclaim of fraud or one which is based upon a creditor’s negligence in failing to liquidate collateral upon a guarantor’s demand, or in the case of an intentional tort claim (as opposed to a contract dispute). No condition, stipulation or provision of the Deposit Agreements or ADSs serves as a waiver by any holder or beneficial owner of ADSs or by Polestar or the Depositary of compliance with any provision of U.S. federal securities laws and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.

 

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If any owner or holder of ADSs brings a claim against Polestar or the Depositary in connection with matters arising under the Deposit Agreements or the ADSs, including claims under U.S. federal securities laws, such owner or holder may not be entitled to a jury trial with respect to such claims, which may have the effect of limiting and discouraging lawsuits against Polestar or the Depositary. If a lawsuit is brought against Polestar or the Depositary under the Deposit Agreements, it may be heard only by a judge or justice of the applicable trial court, which would be conducted according to different civil procedures and may result in different results than a trial by jury would have had, including results that could be less favorable to the plaintiff(s) in any such action, depending on, among other things, the nature of the claims, the judge or justice hearing such claims and the venue of the hearing.

The Depositary for the ADSs is entitled to charge holders fees for various services, including annual service fees.

The Depositary for the ADSs is entitled to charge holders fees for various services, including for the issuance of the ADSs upon deposit of Company securities (other than in the case of ADSs issued pursuant to the Business Combination), cancellation of ADSs, distributions of cash dividends or other cash distributions, distributions of ADSs pursuant to share dividends or other free share distributions, distributions of securities other than ADSs and annual service fees. For more information, please see “Description of American Depositary Shares.” In the case of ADSs issued by the Depositary into the DTC the fees will be charged by the DTC participant to the account of the applicable beneficial owner in accordance with the procedures and practices of the DTC participant as in effect at the time. The Depositary for the ADSs will not be responsible for any United Kingdom stamp duty or SDRT arising upon the issuance or transfer of ADSs but will require the person who deposits shares or warrants to pay the applicable United Kingdom stamp duty or SDRT. For more information, please see “—Risks Related to Tax—Transfers of ADSs or the underlying Company securities may be subject to stamp duty or stamp duty reserve tax in the U.K., which would increase the cost of dealing in the Company’s securities.”

The ADS holders may not receive dividends or other distributions of the Company securities and the holders thereof may not receive any value for them, if it is illegal or impractical to make them available to such holders.

Under the terms of the Deposit Agreements, the Depositary of the ADSs will agree to distribute to holders of the ADSs the cash dividends or other distributions it or the custodian receives on the applicable deposited securities underlying the ADSs, after deducting its fees, taxes and expenses. For more information, please see “Descriptions of American Depositary Shares.” Holders of the ADSs will receive these distributions in proportion to the number of ADSs they hold. However, the Depositary is not responsible for making such distributions if it decides that such distributions are unlawful or impractical. For example, it would be unlawful to make a distribution to a holder of ADSs if it consists of securities that require registration under the Securities Act but such securities are not properly registered or distributed under an applicable exemption from registration. The Depositary may also determine that it is not practicable to distribute certain property through the mail. Additionally, the value of certain distributions may be less than the cost of mailing them. In these cases, the Depositary may determine not to distribute such property. Polestar has no obligation to register under U.S. securities laws securities received through such distributions. Polestar also has no obligation to take any other action to permit the distribution of ADSs. This means that holders of the ADSs may not receive distributions Polestar makes on its securities or any value for them if it is illegal or impractical for Polestar to make them available to such holders. These restrictions may cause a material decline in the value of the ADSs.

It may be difficult for you to bring any action or enforce any judgment obtained in the United States against Polestar or members of the Board, which may limit the remedies otherwise available to you.

Polestar is incorporated as a public limited company in England and Wales, and the majority of its assets are located outside the United States. In addition, the majority of the members of the Board are nationals and

 

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residents of countries outside of the United States. Most or all of the assets of these individuals are located outside the United States. As a result, it may be difficult or impossible for you to bring an action against Polestar or against these individuals in the United States if you believe your rights have been infringed under the securities laws or otherwise. In addition, a United Kingdom court may prevent you from enforcing a judgment of a U.S. court against Polestar or these individuals based on the securities laws of the United States or any state thereof. A United Kingdom court may not allow you to bring an action against Polestar or its directors based on the securities laws of the United States or any state thereof. For more information, also see the section entitled “Service of Process and Enforcement of Liabilities.”

Holders of ADSs may experience dilution of their holdings due to their inability to participate in rights offerings.

Polestar may, from time to time, distribute rights to its shareholders, including rights to acquire securities. Under the Deposit Agreements for the ADSs, the Depositary will not distribute rights to holders of ADSs unless the distribution and sale of rights and the securities to which these rights relate are either exempt from registration under the Securities Act with respect to all holders of ADSs or are registered under the provisions of the Securities Act. The Depositary may, but is not required to, attempt to sell these undistributed rights to third parties, and may allow the rights to lapse. Polestar may be unable to establish an exemption from registration under the Securities Act, and Polestar is under no obligation to file a registration statement with respect to these rights or underlying securities or to endeavor to have a registration statement declared effective. Accordingly, holders of ADSs may be unable to participate in Polestar’s rights offerings and may experience dilution of their holdings as a result.

Holders of ADSs may be subject to limitations on transfer of their ADSs.

ADSs are transferable on the books of the Depositary. However, the Depositary may close its books at any time or from time to time when it deems expedient in connection with the performance of its duties. The Depositary may close its books from time to time for a number of reasons, including in connection with corporate events such as a rights offering, during which time the Depositary needs to maintain an exact number of ADSs on its books for a specified period. The Depositary may also close its books in emergencies, and on weekends and public holidays. The Depositary may refuse to deliver, transfer or register transfers of ADSs generally when Polestar’s share register or the books of the Depositary are closed, or at any time if Polestar or the Depositary thinks it is advisable to do so because of any requirement of law or of any government or governmental body, or under any provision of the Deposit Agreement, or for any other reason.

The Company may be subject to securities litigation, which is expensive and could divert management attention.

The price of the AD securities may be volatile and, in the past, companies that have experienced volatility in the market price of their shares have been subject to securities class action litigation. Polestar may be the target of this type of litigation in the future. Litigation of this type could result in substantial costs and diversion of management’s attention and resources, which could have a material adverse effect on business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. Any adverse determination in litigation could also subject us to significant liabilities.

 

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CAPITALIZATION AND INDEBTEDNESS

The following table sets forth our capitalization and indebtedness of the Company as of December 31, 2022, and should be read in conjunction with “Operating and Financial Review and Prospects” and the financial statements as of December 31, 2022 and 2021 and for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2022, and the notes and schedules related thereto, which are included at the end of this prospectus.

 

As of December 31, 2022 (in TUSD)

   Polestar
Historical
 

Cash and cash equivalents

  

Cash and cash equivalents

   $ 973,877  
  

 

 

 

Borrowings and other financial liabilities

  

Other non-current interest-bearing liabilities

     (85,556

Liabilities to credit institutions

     (1,328,752

Interest-bearing current liabilities

     (21,545

Interest-bearing current liabilities—related parties

     (16,690

Trade payables—related parties (1)

     (957,497
  

 

 

 

Total Borrowings and other financial liabilities

     (2,410,040
  

 

 

 

Total Equity

  

Share Capital (the Company)

     (21,165

Other contributed capital

     (3,584,232

Accumulated Deficit

     3,726,775  
  

 

 

 

Total deficit (equity)

     121,378  
  

 

 

 

Total Capitalization

   $ (2,288,662

 

(1)

Polestar maintains a significant amount of overdue related party trade payables to Volvo Cars and Geely. These related party trade payables are interest-bearing with flexible payment terms. For more information, refer to Note 25—Related party transactions in Polestar’s financial statements as of December 31, 2022 and 2021 and for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2022 included elsewhere in this prospectus.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

All of the Class A ADSs and the Class C-2 ADSs offered by the Selling Securityholders pursuant to this prospectus will be sold by the Selling Securityholders for their respective accounts. We will not receive any of the proceeds from such sales. We will pay certain expenses associated with the registration of the securities covered by this prospectus, as described in the section entitled “Plan of Distribution.”

We will receive up to an aggregate of approximately $287.5 million from the exercise of the Class C ADSs, assuming the exercise in full of all of the Class C ADSs for cash. We expect to use the net proceeds from the exercise of the Class C ADSs for general corporate purposes. We will have broad discretion over the use of proceeds from the exercise of the Class C ADSs. There is no assurance that the holders of the Class C ADSs will elect to exercise any or all of such Class C ADSs. To the extent that any of the Class C ADSs are exercised on a “cashless basis,” the amount of cash we would receive from the exercise of the Class C ADSs will decrease.

We believe the likelihood that holders will exercise their Class C ADSs, and therefore the amount of cash proceeds that we would receive, is dependent upon the market price of our Class A ADSs. When the market price for our Class A ADSs is less than $11.50 per share (i.e., the Class C ADSs are “out of the money”), which it is as of the date of this prospectus, we believe holders of Class C ADSs will be unlikely to exercise their Class C ADSs.

 

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MARKET PRICE OF OUR SECURITIES AND DIVIDEND POLICY

Our Class A ADSs and Class C-1 ADSs are listed on the Nasdaq, under the trading symbols “PSNY” and “PSNYW,” respectively. On April 25, 2023, the closing price for our Class A ADSs on Nasdaq was $3.50. On April 25, 2023, the closing price for our Class C-1 ADSs on Nasdaq was $0.75.

As of December 31, 2022, there were approximately 86 shareholders of record for our Class A ADSs, two shareholders of record for our Class B ADSs and four shareholders of record for our Class C ADSs. The actual number of shareholders is greater than this number of record holders and includes shareholders who are beneficial owners but whose shares are held in street names by brokers and other nominees. This number of holders of record also does not include shareholders whose shares may be held in trust or by other entities.

We have never declared or paid any cash dividend on our Class A ADSs. We currently intend to retain any future earnings and do not expect to pay any dividends in the foreseeable future. Any further determination to pay dividends on our Class A ADSs would be at the discretion of our board of directors, subject to applicable laws, and would depend on our financial condition, results of operations, capital requirements, general business conditions, and other factors that our board of directors may deem relevant. For more information, also see “Description of Share Capital and Articles of Association—Polestar Articles and English Law Considerations—Other English Law Considerations—Distributions & Dividends.”

 

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BUSINESS

History and Development of the Company

The legal name of the Company is “Polestar Automotive Holding UK PLC.” The Company was incorporated under the laws of England and Wales as a company limited by shares on September 15, 2021 and was re-registered as a public limited company under the laws of England and Wales on May 5, 2022 in connection with the Business Combination. The Company’s registered office in England is The Pavilions, Bridgewater Road, Bristol, England, BS13 8AE. The address of the principal executive office of the Company is Assar Gabrielssons Väg 9 405 31 Gothenburg, Sweden, and the telephone number of the Company is +1 949 735-1834.

On September 27, 2021, GGI, Former Parent, Polestar Singapore, Polestar Sweden, the Company and Merger Sub entered into a Business Combination Agreement. The Business Combination was consummated on June 23, 2022. At the Business Combination Closing, the Company completed the Pre-Closing Reorganization, pursuant to which, among other things, Polestar Singapore, Polestar Sweden and their respective subsidiaries became wholly owned subsidiaries of the Company.

The Company is subject to certain of the informational filing requirements of the Exchange Act. Since the Company is a “foreign private issuer,” it is exempt from the rules and regulations under the Exchange Act prescribing the furnishing and content of proxy statements, and the officers, directors and principal shareholders of the Company are exempt from the reporting and “short-swing” profit recovery provisions contained in Section 16 of the Exchange Act with respect to their purchase and sale of Shares. In addition, the Company is not required to file reports and financial statements with the SEC as frequently or as promptly as U.S. public companies whose securities are registered under the Exchange Act. However, the Company is required to file with the SEC an Annual Report on Form 20-F containing financial statements audited by an independent accounting firm. The SEC also maintains a website at http://www.sec.gov that contains reports and other information that the Company files with or furnishes electronically to the SEC.

The website address of the Company is https://www.polestar.com/us/. The information contained on the website does not form a part of, and is not incorporated by reference into, this prospectus.

Polestar’s capital expenditures for the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020 amounted to TUSD380,457, TUSD504,774 and TUSD400,793, respectively. These capital expenditures primarily consisted of purchases of unique tooling for production facilities, the development and purchase of certain intellectual property rights and tooling and equipment used at Polestar’s research and development center in the United Kingdom at the Mira Technology Park in Coventry. Polestar expects its capital expenditures to increase in the near term as it continues to invest in the acquisition of intellectual property as well unique tooling and equipment. Polestar anticipates that its capital expenditures in 2023 will be financed from the issuance of equity or debt instruments, various short-term credit facilities, including working capital facilities, term loans with related parties, sale leaseback arrangements, and extended trade credit with related parties.

Summary

Polestar is determined to improve society by accelerating the shift to sustainable mobility.

Polestar is a pure play, premium electric performance car brand headquartered in Sweden, designing products engineered to excite consumers and drive change. Polestar believes that it defines market-leading standards in design, innovation and sustainability. Polestar was established as a premium electric car brand by Volvo Cars and Geely in 2017. Polestar benefits from the technological, engineering and manufacturing capabilities of these established global car manufacturers. Polestar has an asset-light, highly scalable business model with immediate operating leverage.

Polestar 1, an electric performance hybrid GT, was launched to establish Polestar in the premium luxury electric vehicle market in 2017. With a carbon fiber body, Polestar 1 has a combined 609 horse power (hp) and

 

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1,000 Newton-meter (Nm) of torque. Production of the Polestar 1 ceased at the end of 2021, making Polestar a dedicated electric vehicle manufacturer. Polestar 2, an electric performance fastback and Polestar’s first fully electric, high volume car was launched in 2019. Polestar 2 has three variants with a combination of long- and standard range batteries as large as 82 kWh, and dual- and single-motor powertrains with up to 310 kW / 421 hp and 740 Nm of torque. Polestar 3, an electric performance SUV, was launched in 2022. Polestar 3 has two dual-motor 111 kWh battery variants with powertrains up to 380 kW / 517 hp and 910 Nm of torque.

Polestar’s cars have received major acclaim, winning multiple globally recognized awards across design, innovation and sustainability. Highlights for Polestar 1 include Insider car of the year and GQ’s Best Hybrid Sports Car awards. Polestar 2 alone has won over 50 awards, including various Car of the Year awards, the Golden Steering Wheel, Red Dot’s Best of the Best Product Design and a 2021 Innovation by Design award from Fast Company. And the SUV for the electric age, Polestar 3, has already been acclaimed Car WOW’s Car of the Year and ESUV of the Year for 2023. Polestar has also received a total of five awards from the German Design Council, including the German Design Awards for the Polestar 5 concept car and the ABC award for the Polestar 6 electric roadster concept. Furthermore, the Polestar 6 has been voted the Concept Car of the Year in Car Design Review.

As of December 31, 2022, Polestar’s cars are on the road in 27 markets across Europe, North America and Asia Pacific. Polestar intends to grow rapidly in its existing and new markets, which include eight new countries in 2022. Polestar also plans to introduce three new electric vehicles by 2026. Following the launch of the Polestar 3, an electric performance SUV, on October 12, 2022 where customers were able to begin placing orders, Polestar expects to launch Polestar 4, a sporty SUV coupe in 2023, Polestar 5, a luxury 4 door GT, in 2024 and Polestar 6, an electric performance roadster, in 2026. With growth in existing and new markets and broader vehicle portfolio, Polestar expects to compete in segments constituting approximately 80% of the global premium luxury vehicle market by volume of units sold by 2025. Polestar believes the premium luxury vehicle segment is one of the fastest growing vehicle segments, and expects the electric-only vehicle portion of this segment to grow at a faster rate than the overall segment.

The following tables show Polestar’s revenue by type and geographical region for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2021 and 2022:

 

     For the year ended December 31,  
     2022      2021      2020  

Sales of vehicles

     2,404,246        1,290,031        542,783  

Sales of software and performance engineered kits

     21,308        25,881        35,434  

Sales of carbon credits

     10,984        6,299        27,141  

Vehicle leasing revenue

     16,719        6,217        —    

Other revenue

     8,639        8,753        4,887  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total

     2,461,896        1,337,181        610,245  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

     For the year ended December 31,  
     2022      2021      2020  

Europe, the Middle East, and Africa

     1,619,046        1,029,058        568,311  

North America

     609,058        265,661        28,084  

Asia and Australia

     233,792        42,462        13,850  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total

     2,461,896        1,337,181        610,245  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Polestar has set itself the important goal to create a truly climate neutral production car by the end of 2030, which it refers to as the Polestar 0 project. The development of a truly climate neutral production car by the end of 2030 is a significant milestone on the path to Polestar’s goal of becoming a climate neutral company by the end of 2040.

 

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Polestar’s vehicles are currently manufactured at a plant in Luqiao, China that is owned and operated by Volvo Cars. The plant, referred to by Volvo Cars as the “Taizhou” plant, was acquired by Volvo Cars from Geely in December 2021. Prior to that time, the plant had been owned by Geely and operated by Volvo Cars. The Polestar 2 vehicles have been manufactured at this plant since production commenced in 2020. Commencing with the Polestar 3, Polestar intends to produce vehicles both in China at Volvo Cars’ Chengdu facility and in the United States at Volvo Cars’ facility in Charleston, South Carolina. Polestar’s ability to leverage the manufacturing footprint of both Volvo Cars and Geely provides it with access to a substantial combined installed production capacity and gives Polestar’s highly scalable business model immediate operating leverage. Polestar also plans on expanding its production capacity in Europe by leveraging plants that are owned and operated by Volvo Cars.

Polestar’s sales channels include both direct-to-business and direct-to-consumer models. In direct-to-business, vehicles are sold to dealerships and various fleet customers, such as rental car companies and corporate fleet managers. In direct-to-consumer, Polestar uses a digital first approach that enables its customers to browse Polestar’s products, configure their preferred vehicle and place their order on-line. Alternatively, Polestar Spaces are where customers can see, feel and test drive Polestar’s vehicles prior to making an on-line purchase. Polestar believes this combination of digital and physical retail presence delivers a seamless experience for its customers. Polestar’s customer experience is further enhanced by its comprehensive service network that leverages the existing Volvo Cars service center network. As of December 31, 2022, there were 158 Polestar Spaces. In addition, Polestar leverages the Volvo Cars service center network to provide access to 1,116 customer service points worldwide (as of December 31, 2022) in support of its international operations.

Polestar’s research and development expertise is a core competence and Polestar believes it is a significant competitive advantage. With over 650 personnel located in Coventry, United Kingdom and Gothenburg, Sweden, the European research and development team focuses on areas such as bonded aluminum architectures, high-performance electric motor and bi-directional compatible battery packs, in-car software development and advanced engineering and research. A further 30 employees in Shanghai, China are dedicated to the development of specific features for the Chinese market. The Polestar research and development team also benefits, through a variety of agreements, from having access to the substantial engineering and design teams of Volvo Cars and Geely. The strong expertise and ambition to develop and produce sustainable technology solutions and materials is also a key asset of Polestar’s research and development. All in all, Polestar’s ability to create cars with a strong Polestar product design is also widely recognized as a key differentiator.

Polestar has drawn extensively on the industrial heritage, knowledge and market infrastructure of Volvo Cars. This combination of deep automotive expertise, paired with cutting-edge technologies and an agile, entrepreneurial culture, underpins Polestar’s differentiation, potential for growth and success.

Recent Developments

On January 5, 2023, Polestar announced that its vehicles will benefit from Google’s new high definition (“HD”) map, a comprehensive map that will provide highly detailed and up-to-date road information. With HD map, Polestar expects to be able to combine its vehicle sensor technology and Google’s precise lane-level and localization data to facilitate driver assistance features like Pilot Assist, as well as future autonomous driving functionality.

On February 1, 2023, Polestar announced that it had signed up a further eight partners to the Polestar 0 project, the Company’s goal to create a truly climate neutral production car by 2030. The new collaborators. which include Vitesco Technologies and Stora Enso, will contribute to research in areas such as bio-based materials, chemicals, aluminum processes, electronics and interior surface materials.

On February 2, 2023, Polestar and Luminar announced an expanded collaboration on the industrial design and integration of Luminar’s 3D laser scanning technology which will be featured on Polestar’s future vehicles,

 

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including Polestar 5—the electric 4-door GT expected to be launched in 2024. Luminar is an existing supplier of LiDAR technology for Polestar 3, the Company’s electric performance SUV, which was launched in October 2022.

On February 8, 2023, Polestar and Rivian issued in collaboration a “Pathway Report” which concludes that the automotive industry is set to overshoot the IPCC’s 1.5-degree pathway by at least 75% by 2050. Issued in response to the climate crisis, the report, which uses existing, open-source data to model the current trajectory for emissions stemming from the car industry, was carried out by global management consulting firm Kearney.

On February 22, 2023, Polestar announced a major upgrade to the Polestar 2 for model 2024. The changes feature a new high-tech front end that reflects the design language premiered by Polestar 3, substantial performance increases with all-new electric motors, even more powerful batteries, sustainability improvements and, for the first time in a Polestar, rear-wheel drive.

On February 26, 2023, Polestar amended and restated the EUR 350,000,000 uncommitted green trade finance facility, including an accordion facility of up to EUR 250,000,000, into which it entered with Standard Chartered Bank, Nordea Bank ABP, Citibank Europe PLC and ING Belgium SA/NV on February 28, 2022. In connection with the amendment and restatement, the green trade finance facility was extended for an additional 12 months. Loans under the green trade finance facility carry interest at EURIBOR plus 2.3% per annum plus a flat arrangement fee of 0.05-0.10% to be paid on the value of a bank’s participation in the facility. The facility has a repayment period of 90 days and includes a covenant tied to Polestar’s cash and cash equivalents position and available commitments under committed credit facilities not falling below EUR 400,000,000. As of the date of this prospectus, the outstanding principal balance under the green trade finance facility was EUR 190,678,961. A copy of the amended and restated trade finance facility agreement is filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part.

On April 6, 2023, Polestar announced that it had delivered approximately 12,000 vehicles in the first quarter of 2023.

Polestar’s Strategy

The global car industry is undergoing a fundamental transformation and Polestar believes it is optimally positioned at the forefront of this change. The premium luxury electric vehicle segment is one of the fastest growing in the global car market. This growth is driven by increasing consumer awareness of environmental impact, technological improvement and shifting consumer preference. Increasingly stringent environmental regulation and expanded charging infrastructure will also drive adoption of electric vehicles. Polestar expects significant growth in the premium luxury electric vehicle segment. In order to capitalize on these trends, Polestar intends to implement the following strategy.

 

   

Expand international sales, support and manufacturing presence. With global sales from day one, Polestar intends to grow rapidly in its existing and new markets, which include 8 new countries in 2022. Polestar’s expansion plans include building its presence in fast growing markets in the Asia Pacific region as well as the Middle East. Polestar’s digital first, direct to consumer approach enables its customers to browse Polestar’s products, configure their preferred vehicle and place their order online. Customers who wish to get to know the physical product or go for a test drive can visit one of the Polestar Spaces. As of December 31, 2022, there were 158 Polestar Spaces.

Polestar leverages the Volvo Cars service center network to provide access to 1,116 customer service points worldwide (as of December 31, 2022) in support of its international operations.

Polestar’s vehicles are currently manufactured at a plant in Luqiao, China that is owned and operated by Volvo Cars. The plant, referred to by Volvo Cars as the “Taizhou” plant, was acquired by Volvo Cars from Geely in December 2021. Prior to that time, the plant had been owned by Geely and

 

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operated by Volvo Cars. Polestar intends to expand its manufacturing presence to facilities in the United States and Europe, in each case operated by Volvo Cars. Commencing with the Polestar 3, Polestar intends to produce vehicles both in China at Volvo Cars’ Chengdu facility and in the United States at Volvo Cars’ facility in Charleston, South Carolina.

 

   

Continue to develop Polestar’s portfolio of vehicles. Polestar currently intends to launch three additional vehicles by 2026. Following the launch of the Polestar 3, an electric performance SUV, on October 12, 2022, Polestar expects to launch Polestar 4, a sporty SUV coupe in 2023, Polestar 5, a luxury 4 door GT, in 2024 and Polestar 6, an electric performance roadster, in 2026. Polestar believes the premium luxury vehicle segment is one of the fastest growing vehicle segments, and Polestar expects the electric-only vehicle portion of this segment to grow at a faster rate than the overall segment.

 

   

Continue to develop sustainable electric vehicle technologies as well as separately monetizing Polestar’s investment in research and development. Polestar intends to continue to develop technologies to mitigate its environmental impact from vehicle concept through to materials and production techniques. The Polestar 0 project, which aims to develop a truly climate neutral production car by the end of 2030, will be a significant focus of Polestar’s research and development activities, including through the development of new interior materials and structural components designed to further reduce Polestar’s environmental impact. See “—Design, Innovation and Sustainability—Sustainability.”

Polestar will continue to focus on working with its partners to develop advanced technology, including bonded aluminum chassis architectures and their manufacture and the complimentary development of a high-performance electric motor. Polestar will also continue its efforts on battery management and its bi-directional battery pack (400V and 800V) systems and onboard bi-directional 22 kW Charger. Polestar also intends to take the opportunity to monetize these new technologies through sales and licensing arrangements with other market participants.

Polestar’s Strengths

Polestar believes it benefits from a number of competitive advantages:

 

   

Polestar operates in one of the fastest-growing market segments of the industry. Polestar expects significant growth in the premium luxury electric vehicle segment and believes its ability to leverage a global manufacturing footprint and expanding market coverage coupled with a scalable and asset light business model means it is well positioned to capitalize on this growing market.

 

   

Polestar is one of two pure play global premium electric vehicle companies already in mass production. Currently, Polestar and Tesla are the only global pure play premium electric vehicle manufacturers in mass production. New entrants would have to develop significant core competencies to match Polestar’s proprietary technology as well as the access to vehicle design and manufacturing capabilities and sales and service infrastructure that Polestar receives from Volvo Cars and Geely. Polestar believes these advantages constitute a significant barrier to entry.

 

   

Polestar has a distinct culture with a focus on innovation and an experienced management team. Polestar has a distinct corporate culture which is designer-led, visionary and fully committed to sustainability. As a relatively young company with progressive ideals Polestar believes talented people with the right analytical and creative skills are drawn to it. Polestar’s chief executive officer Thomas Ingenlath was previously senior vice president of design at Volvo Cars and is widely credited as one of the key players behind Volvo Cars’ recent award-winning design renaissance. Chief financial officer Johan Malmqvist has broad experience across multiple sectors including in the United States and publicly listed companies. Chief operating officer Dennis Nobelius is the previous chief executive officer of assisted and autonomous driving software provider Zenuity AB (“Zenuity”), a business whose technology Polestar intends to utilize in future vehicles, starting with the Polestar 3.

 

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Polestar has a scalable, asset-light business model with immediate operating leverage. Polestar has a scalable, asset-light business model that leverages the experience and manufacturing resources of Volvo Cars and Geely. Polestar has access to their technology, manufacturing footprint, logistical infrastructure and information technology systems. Access to these services gives Polestar the flexibility to scale production quickly with demand, using an already operational ecosystem, and has enabled Polestar to rapidly launch the brand globally. Polestar believes this asset-light model requires significantly less capital to produce vehicles and revenue compared to traditional manufacturers or other electric vehicle companies.

 

   

Polestar has a digital-first, direct to consumer approach with a differentiated distribution and service model. Polestar’s sales and distribution model is focused on a direct customer experience, reducing multiple traditional inefficiencies coupled with a differentiated distribution. Using the Polestar mobile application (the “Polestar App”) or other digital connections, clients can discover Polestar’s products, configure and personalize them, choose a financing option and purchase online, creating a seamless experience. Complementing this digital experience, customers can see, feel and test drive Polestar’s vehicles, at one of the Polestar Spaces prior to making an online purchase. Polestar believes this combination of digital and physical retail presence serves to deliver a seamless experience for its customers. Polestar’s customers benefit from a comprehensive service network which leverages the existing Volvo Cars service center network.

 

   

Polestar’s design-led focus on sustainability. Polestar believes that its emphasis on environmentally sustainable products, using Scandinavian avant-garde design and high-tech minimalism engages and attracts customers who share its ethos and design aesthetic. Polestar’s brand and product designs have received multiple global awards since the launch of the Polestar 1 in 2017 including Red Dot’s Brand of the Year as well as Best of the Best Product Design for Polestar 2. Polestar Precept has also captured imaginations most recently winning three of the four 2021 EyesOn Design awards. Sustainability remains a core principle for Polestar and it continues to work to reduce its impact on the environment in every aspect of its business, but with a particular focus on the manufacturing of its cars. Polestar is actively targeting climate neutral manufacturing processes and materials and uses tools such as Life Cycle Analysis to help it both ascertain the impact of its vehicles and to identify opportunity. Polestar transparently shares this information with its customers so they can make an informed buying decision and can track Polestar’s progress.

 

   

Polestar’s proprietary technology. Polestar believes its proprietary electric vehicle technology provides it with a substantial competitive advantage. Research and development, a core competence, is focused on areas such as lightweight chassis architectures and manufacturing, electric propulsion and motors and bi-directional battery packs that Polestar believes will significantly enhance the competitiveness of its vehicles.

Polestar’s Vehicles

Polestar 1

Polestar 1 is Polestar’s halo car, a car intended to establish Polestar’s brand in the premium luxury electric vehicle market. Polestar 1 was manufactured at Polestar’s facility in Chengdu, China. First revealed in October 2017, commercial production commenced in 2019. Polestar 1 features a highly advanced and technically innovative powertrain, combined with composite materials and leading-edge technology mechanical components.

The hybrid powertrain features two electric motors on the rear axle—one for each wheel—mated to a front-mounted petrol engine which features turbo- and supercharging. A third electric motor is integrated between the crankshaft and gearbox for extra electric torque for the front wheels.

The body of Polestar 1 is made from carbon fiber reinforced polymer (“CFRP”) which lowers the vehicle’s weight as well as its center of gravity. The CFRP body also allowed the car’s designers to create truly emotive

 

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and sharp styling cues that cannot be stamped into traditional metal body panels. Under the surface, the CFRP body features a carbon fiber “dragonfly” between the front seats and the rear of the vehicle, further reinforcing the car’s chassis.

Driving dynamics are key to the Polestar experience and Polestar’s engineers spent years developing the “Polestar feeling” with Polestar 1. Crucial to this was the co-development of leading-edge technology mechanical components—like the manually adjustable Öhlins Dual Flow Valve dampers with double wishbone design and 6-piston Akebono brake calipers.

The fitment of the two rear electric motors, each with a planetary gear set, allowed engineers to develop real torque vectoring algorithms for Polestar 1. The effects of this are particularly evident during cornering—rather than slowing down the inner wheel, the outer wheel is accelerated to help the car turn more sharply. The torque vectoring also allows the driver to apply power earlier than expected on the exit of a corner, resulting in a truly exhilarating experience.

Featuring Pure, Hybrid and Power drive modes, Polestar 1 can be driven in different ways depending on the driver needs and preference. In Pure mode, the combustion engine is shut off and Polestar 1 operates as a fully electric vehicle. In Hybrid mode, Polestar 1 utilizes the electric motors and petrol engine according to demand from the driver, seamlessly switching between the two as needed.

Polestar 1 went into production at Polestar’s Chengdu, China facility in 2019. The facility was the first Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design, or LEED, Gold accredited automotive manufacturing facility in China. With a planned three year production run and a limited build capacity of up to 500 units per year, production of the car ceased in 2021.

Polestar 2

Polestar 2 is an electric performance fastback and Polestar’s first fully electric, high volume model. Polestar 2 is manufactured at the Luqiao, China facility, which is owned and operated by Volvo Cars and which Volvo Cars renamed “Taizhou” after acquiring the plant from Geely in December 2021. First revealed in 2019, production commenced in 2020.

Polestar 2 has three variants with a combination of long- and standard range batteries as large as 82 kWh, and dual- and single-motor powertrains with up to 310 kW / 421 hp and 740 Nm of torque. Pilot and Plus packs encompass driver convenience and comfort features, while the Performance pack adds further dynamic and visual appeal with Öhlins Dual Flow Valve dampers, 4-piston Brembo brakes, forged alloy wheels and, naturally, Polestar’s signature gold detailing inside and out. Polestar believes this modular approach simplifies both the purchase and manufacturing process while enhancing the customer experience. Polestar 2 model 2024 will feature a new high-tech front end that reflects the design language premiered by Polestar 3, substantial performance increases with all-new electric motors, even more powerful batteries, sustainability improvements and, for the first time in a Polestar, rear-wheel drive.

Polestar 2 was the first car in the world to feature an infotainment system powered by Google’s Android Automotive OS, with Google built-in. Developed in collaboration with Google, the Android system integrates the car infotainment system with Google Assistant, Google Maps and the Google Play Store. The user interface is bespoke to Polestar 2 and developed in-house. With an open developer portal that features an Android Automotive OS emulator, Polestar also provides app developers the ability to develop apps for use in the car (for example a parking app from Easy Park, that can be downloaded directly to the car to simplify payment of parking fees) in shorter time than is generally required to develop apps for unique operating systems used by traditional car producers.

The Polestar 2 has been designed and produced in accordance with Polestar’s emphasis on design led sustainability. It was in connection with the launch of Polestar 2 in 2020 that Polestar released its first Life Cycle

 

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Assessment report, with full methodology and transparency, and including a call to the industry at large for a uniformly open and transparent way of disclosing the carbon footprint of electric vehicles. In early 2021, Polestar took this transparency a step further by integrating a Product Sustainability Declaration into Polestar Spaces and on its website. The Product Sustainability Declaration discloses the cradle-to-gate ton greenhouse gas emissions and traced materials, which helps customers assess the sustainability performance of Polestar’s cars. See “—Design, Innovation and Sustainability—Sustainability.” Information contained on the Company’s website is not incorporated by reference into this prospectus, and you should not consider information contained on the Company’s website to be part of this prospectus.

Polestar 3

Polestar launched the Polestar 3 on October 12, 2022. Polestar 3 is a luxurious electric performance SUV with seating for five and design direction previewed by Precept. It is an aerodynamically-optimized SUV using multiple design features to smooth airflow and reduce drag. The two seating rows in Polestar 3 stretch out between the long wheelbase offering luxurious and spacious legroom for the rear passengers even when the tallest driver is sitting in the front seat. Polestar believes that the Polestar 3 will define the SUV for the electric era by combining the high seating position favored by customers with a highly efficient aerodynamic silhouette and sports-car handling.

Materials used inside Polestar 3 have been selected for their sustainability credentials, while raising premium aesthetics and luxury tactility. These include bio-attributed MicroTech, animal welfare-certified leather and fully traceable wool upholstery. In line with Polestar’s commitment to transparency, a complete life-cycle assessment (“LCA”) will be completed on Polestar 3 when production begins. Subsequent assessments will follow through its life cycle and work will continue to constantly find ways of reducing its carbon footprint.

Polestar 3 is the first car from Polestar to feature centralized computing with the NVIDIA DRIVE core computer, running software from Volvo Cars. Serving as the AI brain, NVIDIA’s high-performance automotive platform processes data from the car’s multiple sensors and cameras to enable advanced driver-assistance safety features and driver monitoring. The infotainment system is powered by a next-generation Snapdragon Cockpit Platform from Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. As a central component of the Snapdragon Digital Chassis—a comprehensive set of open and scalable cloud-connected automotive platforms—the Snapdragon Cockpit Platform will be utilized to provide immersive in-vehicle experiences with its high-performance capabilities to deliver high-definition displays, premium quality surround sound and seamless connectivity throughout the vehicle.

As standard, Polestar 3 features a total of five radar modules, five external cameras and twelve external ultrasonic sensors to support numerous advanced safety features. The SmartZone below the front aero wing collects several of the forward-facing sensors, a heated radar module and camera, and now becomes a signature of Polestar design. Inside, two closed-loop driver monitoring cameras bring leading eye tracking technology from Smart Eye to a Polestar for the first time, geared towards safer driving. The cameras monitor the driver’s eyes and can trigger warning messages, sounds and even an emergency stop function when detecting a distracted, drowsy or disconnected driver.

With an indicative range of $80,000 to $120,000 for the North American market, Polestar 3 launches with a dual-motor configuration and a power bias towards the rear. The standard car produces a total of 360 kW and 840 Nm of torque. With the optional Performance Pack, total output is 380 kW and 910 Nm. Adjustable one-pedal drive is included, as well as an electric Torque Vectoring Dual Clutch function on the rear axle—an evolution of what was first developed for Polestar 1. A decoupling function is also available for the rear electric motor, allowing the car to run only on the front electric motor to save energy under certain circumstances.

 

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Precept, Future Vehicles and Polestar 0 project

In March 2020, Polestar revealed Polestar Precept, a design study intended to showcase Polestar’s vision of the brand’s future, demonstrating innovation and ambition across three focus areas—design, technology and sustainability.

Polestar Precept was created as the manifesto for and design direction of Polestar’s future models. By the end of 2026, Polestar currently intends to have launched three new vehicles. Following the launch of the Polestar 3, an electric performance SUV, on October 12, 2022, Polestar expects to launch Polestar 4, a sporty SUV coupe in 2023, Polestar 5, a luxury 4 door GT, in 2024 and Polestar 6, an electric performance roadster, in 2026.

Precept

In October 2020, Polestar announced at the Shanghai Motor Show that it would aim to produce a luxury 4 door GT based on the Precept concept; this will be the Polestar 5.

The design of the Precept’s interior is defined by sustainability and offered an opportunity to work with new materials and processes. Similarly, the design seeks to capitalize on the evolution of the Human Machine Interface (“HMI”) based on Polestar 3 interactions and Google Android Automotive to deliver an enhanced customer experience.

Sustainable new interior materials balance modern high-tech luxury with reduced environmental impact. These sustainable materials include recycled PET bottles, reclaimed fishing nets and recycled cork vinyl. A flax-based composite developed by external partner Bcomp Ltd is featured in many interior and some exterior parts. Polestar’s ambition is to bring much of this sustainability into production.

The next generation infotainment system HMI, powered by Android, builds on Polestar’s close collaboration with Google. An enlarged, portrait-oriented 15-inch center touch screen complements a 12.5-inch driver display, and the two are linked by an illuminated blade that encompasses the entire interior. In this execution, the unique Polestar emblem floats holographically inside a solid piece of Swedish crystal between the rear seat headrests.

Supporting the advancement of a personalized and dynamic digital interface, the instrument panel also hosts an array of smart sensors. Eye tracking will allow the car to monitor the driver’s gaze and adjust the content of the various screens accordingly. Proximity sensors also enhance the usability of the center display when driving.

The sculpted form of the Polestar Precept sets the tone for future Polestar vehicles. The vehicle’s proportions define its presence with restrained surfacing and a focus on aerodynamic efficiency.

The front grille is replaced by the Polestar SmartZone, representing a shift from breathing to seeing. An area which once channeled air to radiators and the internal combustion engine now houses technology for safety sensors and driver assistance functions. Two radar sensors and a high-definition camera are located behind a transparent panel. In addition, a LiDAR sensor, mounted atop the glass roof, is given optimal visibility as a next step towards increased driving assistance. The Thor’s Hammer LED headlight signature evolves with separated elements, taking on a dynamic and brand-defining interpretation.

Precept features an integrated front wing above the SmartZone which accelerates air flow over the long bonnet. This allows air to attach itself to the surface earlier, which improves laminar flow and aerodynamic efficiency and thus improves the vehicle’s performance and range. At the rear, the wide light-blade spans the entire width of the car, extending into vertical aero-wings—another aerodynamic feature and a nod to light weight design.

 

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Show cars, concept cars and vision statements

Periodically Polestar will use concept cars and other models and devices to further outline the future vision of Polestar. Concept cars are not associated with Polestar’s series production cycle plan (or business plan) but give the brand the opportunity to share new ideas and visuals to both gauge consumer opinion and provide insight. Such vehicles or devices are imperative in a sector such as automotive that has lengthy product development cycles. Concept cars are also a tool to engage wider stakeholders, from press to investors to generate interest, conversation and provide a halo across the brand.

On March 2, 2022, Polestar revealed the Polestar electric roadster concept, a new concept car to demonstrate Polestar’s vision of a sports roadster with open-top performance—with all the benefits of electric mobility. The Polestar electric roadster concept car is related to the Polestar Precept concept car but with its own distinct character. The look of the Polestar electric roadster concept shows how Polestar’s evolving design language can be adapted to different body styles with a strong family resemblance. The concept leverages a modified version of the bonded aluminum unibody that is planned to underpin Polestar 5 and further reinforces the importance of in-house research and development capabilities. Sustainability is another core tenet of the design study with a mono-material interior further illustrating how the brand is looking to drive progress through innovative materials manufacturing processes.

Polestar 4

Polestar currently plans to launch Polestar 4 in 2023. Polestar 4 will be a sporty SUV coupe, more compact than, and priced below Polestar 3, with a high-volume potential. With an avant-garde design inspired and previewed by Polestar Precept, the minimalist SUV coupe will offer excellent rear passenger comfort.

With an indicative price range of $60,000 to $80,000 for the North American market, Polestar 4 will aim to offer driving dynamics and minimalist style to a larger market segment.

Polestar 5

Polestar currently plans to launch the Polestar 5 in 2024. Polestar 5 will be a luxurious 4 door grand tourer that most closely follows inspiration from the Precept. With an indicative price starting at $100,000 for the North American market, the vehicle will introduce new in-house aluminum body and chassis and powertrain architectures.

Polestar expects that Polestar 5 will be manufactured at a new state-of-the-art plant in China, built by Geely and to be operated by Polestar. The plant will meet a high standard of sustainability, aiming for LEED Gold accreditation.

Polestar 6

On August 16, 2022, Polestar announced that it expects to launch production of the Polestar 6 in 2026. The Polestar 6 will expand upon the design established by the Polestar Precept and be based on the Polestar electric roadster concept. Polestar made the first 500 production cars available as the exclusive, numbered Polestar 6 LA Concept edition. With an indicative price starting at $200,000 for the North American market, all 500 build slots of Polestar 6 LA Concept edition were reserved online within a week of the production announcement.

Polestar 0 project

In April 2021, Polestar announced its important goal to create a truly climate neutral production car by 2030 a significant and necessary step to reach its goal of becoming a climate neutral company by 2040.

Today, an electric car manufactured and charged on the current global electricity infrastructure mix has a smaller carbon footprint than an internal combustion engine car through its useful life. However, Polestar has set

 

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a target of producing a car by 2030 that is truly a climate neutral production car when it rolls out of Polestar’s factories’ gates. A number of third parties including Vitesco Technologies and Stora Enso, have agreed to collaborate on the Polestar 0 project by contributing to research in areas such as bio-based materials, chemical and aluminum processes, electronics and interior surface materials As a company, Polestar cannot directly control how its cars are charged or how they are disposed of after their use phase has ended. Polestar can control what happens before the car is handed over to the customer: the carbon footprint of the materials production, battery module and manufacturing process.

Design, Innovation and Sustainability

Design

Design is at the core of Polestar. Polestar is a Scandinavian brand with pure, minimalist design. Polestar’s design is progressive and defines the avant-garde of the electric and sustainable age. Polestar celebrates technology in its creations and innovation is its driving force. Performance is not only a capability of Polestar’s products but the mindset of Polestar’s whole company. Polestar’s vehicles have been widely recognized for their outstanding design and performance credentials and Polestar 1 and Polestar 2 have each received numerous awards, including, among others, High-performance Luxury GT Coupe of the Year and Luxury High-Performance Electric Vehicle of the Year for Polestar Land Car of the Year titles in Norway, Switzerland, Germany (Luxury), China (Green Car), Germany’s Golden Steering wheel as well as the Edie Sustainability Leader award for Polestar 2.

Progressive designs force Polestar to innovate and develop new technologies, technologies that in turn can improve customer experience and/or improve vehicle and sustainability performance. Polestar’s sustainability goals guide its design teams to continually innovate and drive even more progressive thinking. Polestar believes that its designs reflect the central tenants of Scandinavian design, with a focus on luxury minimalism and an emphasis on responsible material choices and such as the use of recycled and naturally grown materials. An example is that the Polestar UX (user experience) team is part of the design department bringing interaction with the car to the heart of the design process. New technologies, such as connectivity and autonomous drive, will create further opportunities.

Innovation

Polestar’s research and development strategy is to focus its own resources on the development of key electric vehicle technologies while accessing the benefit of investments in other technology from within the larger Volvo Cars and Geely family. Polestar also accesses and utilizes battery labs, wind tunnels, VR simulations and testing, proving grounds both in the UK and in Sweden.

Polestar’s research and development teams are located in the United Kingdom, Sweden and China. Polestar’s headquarters and research and development team is located in Gothenburg close to the facilities and competences at Volvo Cars and its surroundings. This research and development team is focused on collaboration with Volvo Cars in a wide variety of areas, including electrical propulsion, sustainability, lightweight material designs, software, and more. In the United Kingdom, Polestar’s research and development team is located in the Mira Technology Park in Coventry. This location benefits from good access to engineering talent, proving grounds, wind tunnels and workshops. Polestar’s engineering focus in the United Kingdom is chassis and dynamics, aluminum bonding and architecture and sports car design. Located in Shanghai, Polestar’s China-based research and development team focuses on the development of bespoke features for the Chinese market.

 

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Sustainability

Polestar has a philosophy to design towards zero, actively using Scandinavian minimalist design to engage customers and minimize Polestar’s environmental impact. Polestar seeks to achieve its clear sustainability goals by establishing concrete targets focusing on four pillars of its sustainability approach:

 

   

Climate Neutrality: Combating the emission of greenhouse gases is one of the top priorities of Polestar. Most greenhouse gas emissions associated with its vehicles are related to the use of fossil fuels in energy conversion. Coal power is highly present in Polestar’s supply chains as it operates, and predominantly sources, in China. Aside from greenhouse gas emissions, the burning of fossil fuels also leads to emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and particulates that affect the environment and the health of people living in the local areas surrounding the power plants. The use of renewable energy in the Polestar supply chain is absolutely key for it to reach climate neutrality and improve local air quality. Polestar has set three goals to achieve climate neutrality: Polestar is to be climate neutral by 2040, create a climate neutral production car (cradle-to-gate) by 2030 and halve the emission intensity per car sold by 2030. To drive towards the 2030 goal, Polestar has launched six strategic initiatives. These are: climate-neutral platform, climate-neutral materials, energy optimization, climate-neutral manufacturing, renewable energy in the supply chain and carbon neutral company. Each strategic initiative is headed by an accountable department but handled through cross-functional collaboration within Polestar. For the Polestar 2 long-range dual-motor variant, the cradle to gate carbon footprint was 26.2 tons CO2e per vehicle in 2020, which by model year 2023 has been decreased to 25.4 tons CO2e per vehicle. Most of the carbon impact comes from three categories: aluminum, batteries and steel. Together they account for 69% of the carbon emissions attributable to materials production and battery modules. Add electronics and polymers and the total is 87%. While a lot of focus naturally will be on those categories, the goal is to reduce all to zero, including Polestar’s manufacturing footprint.

 

   

Circularity: Circularity is a philosophy to ensure that we, as a society, produce and consume within planetary boundaries. The use of materials is at the root of Polestar’s biggest social and environmental impacts. The extraction, processing, use and waste treatment of materials is associated with risks and potential negative impacts such as resource depletion, pollution to air, soil and water, climate impact, loss of biodiversity and human rights violations. Pollution to air, soil and water from metallurgical processes and mining activities also affect the health of people working in the supply chain and their local environments. By using a circular design approach, trying to close the loop for more materials and using an increased share of recycled or biobased materials, less virgin materials and minerals need to be extracted and produced, which minimizes the total environmental impact. Polestar aims to drive sustainable and circular use of materials through different key strategies and processes, including sustainability strategy, material strategy, sourcing strategy, procurement process and product development process. Through its procurement practices Polestar aims to minimize the negative impact on land and water through reduced greenhouse gas emissions, pollution, waste and effluents throughout its supply chain. Polestar uses life-cycle assessments as its primary tool for assessing environmental impact from material use including material selection and waste management.

 

   

Transparency: Reporting and working on sustainability issues is meaningless unless it leads to real world positive impact. Being transparent about where Polestar’s risks and impacts lie and which methodologies Polestar uses to measure itself ensures that Polestar creates actual progress. Polestar was the first car company to share both a LCA and the methodology behind the calculation for Polestar 2, in order to provide transparency to its customers as to the true impact of their purchase. Polestar will continue to calculate and share a LCA along with an ever more detailed Sustainability Declaration for each model it produces moving forward and urge the entire industry to adopt a transparent approach to help build consumer understanding and trust.

Polestar is constantly looking to be honest with itself and its stakeholders and improve. For example, Polestar recognizes it uses materials with high risks of human rights and animal welfare violations, and negative environmental impacts in the supply chain to create its vehicles. Cobalt, for example, is a key

 

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component of the batteries used in Polestar vehicles that is primarily mined in the Democratic Republic of Congo, where it has been linked to child labor in the artisanal and small-scale mining sector. Historically, it has been very difficult to trace the origin of minerals because of its complex supply chain and lack of reliable chain of custody methods. Polestar requires its suppliers to implement responsible sourcing practices to mitigate the risk of human rights violations. Polestar partners with a traceability-as-a-service provider, Circulor, that utilizes blockchain technology to trace the origins of risk materials used throughout Polestar’s supply chain. Additionally, Polestar maintains a parts and components sourcing partnership with Volvo Cars in which suppliers are analyzed using sustainability questionnaires and a risk assessment tool developed by Responsible Business Alliance.

 

   

Inclusion: Inclusion is diversity, representation and equality working in harmony. By committing to this strategic focus area, Polestar stands up for the rights of people throughout its value chain—from the workers producing the material of its cars, to its employees in factories or spaces, to customers and consumers around the world. Departments like Human Resources, Customer Experience, Design and Procurement drive strategic initiatives on human rights and inclusion, addressing Polestar’s role as a responsible brand, employer and procurer.

All employees and consultants working on behalf of Polestar must adhere to Polestar’s Code of Conduct and the applicable policies. Key compliance areas for Polestar include anti-corruption, data privacy, human rights, environmental compliance, and socioeconomic compliance including competition law, labor law and trade sanctions. Polestar encourages a speak-up culture where employees and other stakeholders can ask questions and raise concerns without fear of retaliation. Suspected breach of laws or regulations, or any conduct that is not consistent with Polestar’s Code of Conduct, corporate policies or directives can be reported to Polestar’s Whistleblowing system SpeakUp with a guaranteed full anonymity.

Sales and Distribution

In 2019, Polestar commenced commercial sales of its vehicles with the Polestar 1, followed in 2020 with the Polestar 2. In addition, following its launch, Polestar began accepting orders for Polestar 3 in October 2022. Polestar uses a digital first, direct to consumer approach that enables its customers to browse Polestar’s products, configure their preferred vehicle and, where permitted, place their order on-line. Currently, customers in North America place orders for Polestar’s vehicles through trusted retailers. In addition, Polestar has established physical retail locations referred to as Polestar Spaces. Polestar Spaces range from smaller Polestar showrooms located in urban areas to larger Polestar showrooms located in peri-urban areas. Polestar Spaces allow Polestar’s customers to see, feel and test drive Polestar’s vehicles. In addition, Polestar has also established handover centers that provide a convenient option for customers to take delivery of Polestar vehicles, although customers may also choose home delivery in certain markets. As of December 31, 2022, there were 158 Polestar Spaces. In addition, as Polestar continues with its international expansion, it uses third party importers to give it access to lower volume markets, rapidly and with lower investment.

Polestar enters into agreements with independent investors to establish Polestar Spaces. These investors do not carry any inventory of cars for sale, but rather hold demonstration vehicles and provide potential customers the opportunity to see, feel and test drive Polestar vehicles. These investors may, but do not necessarily, have a prior relationship with Volvo Cars. In North America, however, federal or state law may prohibit automobile manufacturers from acting as licensed dealers or to act in the capacity of a dealer, or otherwise restrict a manufacturer’s ability to deliver or service vehicles. Accordingly, all of Polestar’s sales in North America are conducted through trusted representatives. These representatives are not necessarily associated with Volvo Cars or the Volvo Cars dealer network in North America.

In addition to Polestar and its subsidiaries’ direct-to-consumer and direct-to-business models, vehicles are also sold to dealerships and various fleet customers (e.g., rental car companies and corporate fleet managers). In 2022 Polestar entered into agreements with Hertz Global Holdings, Inc. (NASDAQ: HTZ) whereby Hertz committed to

 

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purchase 65,000 or more Polestar vehicles during a 5-year period. The Hertz agreements cover the United States, Canada, Europe, and Australia, and deliveries began in June 2022.

Polestar aims to deliver leading aftermarket services to its customers by leveraging Volvo Cars’ global service and repair network. Polestar is cooperating with Volvo Cars to develop their service center network, including the introduction of digital service booking, fault tracing, diagnostics and software download (Over-the-Air and in workshop). Polestar also utilizes the Volvo Cars service center network to supply its customers with a spare parts infrastructure. Polestar currently leverages the Volvo Cars service center network to provide access to 1,116 customer service points worldwide (as of December 31, 2022) in support of Polestar’s international operations. Polestar does not have a direct contractual relationship with the operators of its service points. Rather, Polestar relies on operators within the Volvo Cars network who sign, enter into, or amend, existing service contracts with Volvo Cars to add the service of Polestar vehicles to the scope of their dealer agreement.

Polestar’s principal operating entity is Polestar Sweden. Polestar Sweden is responsible for and is engaged in the product strategy and development as well as marketing and distribution of Polestar vehicles. Polestar Sweden manages sales globally in conjunction with the local Polestar sales units. Sales on the Chinese domestic market are managed by the local Chinese Polestar sales unit. The vehicles sold globally by Polestar Sweden are manufactured in China but production is expected to also take place in the United States and potentially in Europe. Polestar may be subject to foreign exchange risk with respect to cash transfers within the group, including restrictions on cross border payments imposed by the Chinese government. See “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Polestar’s Business and Industry—Polestar faces risks associated with international operations, including tariffs and unfavorable regulatory, political, tax and labor conditions, which could materially and adversely affects its business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects” and “—Polestar relies heavily on manufacturing facilities and suppliers, including single-source suppliers, based in China and its growth strategy will depend on growing its business in China. This subjects Polestar to economic, operational, regulatory and legal risk specific to China.”

Manufacturing

Polestar’s vehicles are currently manufactured at a plant in Luqiao, China that is owned and operated by Volvo Cars. The plant, referred to by Volvo Cars as the “Taizhou” plant, was acquired by Volvo Cars from Geely at the end of 2021. Prior to that time, the plant had been owned by Geely and operated by Volvo Cars.

Polestar has the benefit of being part of the larger global manufacturing footprint of Volvo Cars and Geely with access to a substantial combined installed production capacity.

Polestar intends to expand its contract manufacturing presence to facilities in the U.S. and potentially Europe. Commencing with the Polestar 3, Polestar intends to produce vehicles both in China at Volvo Cars’ Chengdu facility and in the United States at Volvo Cars’ facility in Charleston, South Carolina.

Chengdu facility

Polestar opened its Chengdu facility in 2019. Polestar produced the Polestar 1 at this facility until the end of 2021. The facility is a low volume facility designed for small series production runs, for developing new manufacturing processes or procedures and for customizations that cannot be handled in a high-volume factory. Polestar has more recently used the Chengdu facility to create limited editions of Polestar 2 (“Beast” or “BST” edition) and also to support the early pre-production builds of future Polestar vehicles. Chengdu was the first LEED Gold-certified automotive production facility in China. It was designed by the Norwegian architecture firm Snøhetta to run on renewable electricity. As of the date of this prospectus, Polestar had committed to a plan to sell its Chengdu facility. Refer to “Note 26—Assets held for sale” in Polestar’s Consolidated Financial Statements for more information.

 

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Luqiao facility

Polestar 2 is produced in the Luqiao facility. The facility opened in 2016 and has a total factory capacity of 180,000 cars per year. The plant is focused on the CMA platform, and also produces Volvo XC40. In October 2021, Geely and Volvo Cars agreed to transfer the Luqiao facility to Volvo Cars. The transfer was effectuated in December 2021 and did not affect production of the Polestar 2 at the facility. In connection with this transfer, the Luqiao facility has been renamed “Taizhou.”

Battery suppliers

Polestar has a diversified strategy with respect to the supply of batteries, to reduce supply risk as well as to ensure better flexibility as battery technology continues to develop. Polestar’s primary sources of batteries are LG Chem Ltd and Contemporary Amperex Technology Co. Limited with whom Polestar has a long-term supply agreement and the ability to leverage group purchasing power. In addition, Volvo Cars has entered into a supply agreement with battery developer and manufacturer Northvolt, as well as a joint venture with Northvolt in relation to research and development and production in Gothenburg of battery cells that are tailored to power the next generation of fully electric Volvo Cars and Polestar cars. Polestar has also entered into a non-binding letter of intent to secure batteries from SK Innovation, expected to power the Polestar 5. Polestar continues to evaluate potential up and coming startups in this area.

Related Party Agreements with Volvo Cars and Geely

Polestar benefits from the technological, engineering and manufacturing capabilities of Volvo Cars and Geely. These relationships give it access to the developed technology, IT, logistic channels, manufacturing capacity and distribution networks established by Polestar’s founding partners, on a global basis. Accordingly, Polestar has entered into a number of contractual arrangements with Volvo Cars and Geely to obtain support and various services in connection with its business. Polestar’s agreements with its partners are made on an arms-length basis and it assesses any agreement with related parties on the same basis as an agreement with third parties with respect to the scope of the services offered, timing and fees. While Polestar derives substantial benefit from access to its partner’s resources and expertise, Polestar is free to seek technology, manufacturing and other services from third parties based solely on the needs of its business. Polestar’s material transactions with related parties are subject to approval by its Board of Directors or other relevant persons in conformity with its related party transactions policy. Polestar has also established a number of steering committees to monitor compliance and performance of its agreements related to development, manufacturing, or service contracts with related parties (the “Steering Committees”). Polestar believes the Steering Committees provides a means of ensuring the interests of Polestar are protected and if necessary, provides a means of escalating any concerns or disputes to senior management or the Board. For additional information in relation to materially significant related party transactions during the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020, see “Note 25—Related party transactions” in Polestar’s Consolidated Financial Statements included elsewhere herein. For a further description of Polestar’s contracts with related parties, see the section entitled “Certain Relationships and Related Party Transactions.”

Polestar’s agreements with Volvo Cars cover research and development services, intellectual property licenses, purchasing, manufacturing engineering and logistics engineering and manufacturing with respect to the Polestar 1, Polestar 2 and Polestar 3. Polestar has also entered into a design services agreement with Volvo Cars with respect to Polestar 4 and Polestar 5 and entered into development agreements and licensing agreements with Geely with respect to Polestar 4 during 2021. In addition, Polestar has entered into agreements with Volvo Cars for the supply of parts as well as customer service and support agreements, agreements for the supply of general corporate services, IT support agreements and maintenance and operations agreements. In connection with its logistics, it has entered into agreements with Volvo Cars for logistics support services for Europe, North America, China and APAC, including logistics management, customs clearance and claims management, although it contracts directly with transporters as well. For additional information in relation to materially

 

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significant related party transactions, see the section entitled “Certain Relationships and Related Party Transactions.”

Research and development services and intellectual property licenses

Polestar has entered into a number of agreements and licensing agreements with Volvo Cars and/or Geely with respect to research and development services and licensing of intellectual property in connection with the development and manufacture of the Polestar 1, Polestar 2, Polestar 3, Polestar 4, Polestar 5 and Polestar 6. These agreements provide Polestar will pay a fixed fee based on Polestar’s volume share of Volvo Car Corporation’s actual development cost. The development cost is calculated based on actual cost and an arm’s length hourly rate. For the Polestar 3, Polestar will pay a fixed price for the technology license and development services which is calculated on Polestar’s volume share of the development costs. Polestar has also entered into agreements providing for services and a license relating to certain technology such as for technology updates and upgrades and new features to be introduced in Polestar’s model year programs for the Polestar 2. During the life-time of the Polestar 2, there are several model years planned. These programs include additional technology content and features for the Polestar 2 that will be developed, assigned or licensed by Volvo Cars to Polestar. Volvo Cars also provides certain development services to Polestar under these agreements. Polestar also entered into licensing agreements and a development service agreement with Geely for the Polestar 4 between late 2021 and early 2022.

Purchasing Agreements

Polestar has entered into several sourcing service agreements and maintenance agreements with Volvo Cars in connection with the Polestar 1, Polestar 2 and Polestar 3. The sourcing service agreements provide for sourcing of direct procurement of materials from third party suppliers as well as indirect procurement of services and other supplies. Services provided by Volvo Cars for such procurement are charged at an hourly rate established annually and billed monthly. Furthermore, direct costs incurred by Volvo Cars are reimbursed by Polestar.

Manufacturing engineering and logistics engineering

Polestar has entered into manufacturing engineering service agreements with Volvo Cars in connection with the production of Polestar 2 and Polestar 3. These agreements provide that Volvo Cars will provide industrial engineering services and manufacturing services with respect to the Polestar 2 and Polestar 3 vehicle programs. Polestar has also entered into a logistical engineering service agreement with Volvo Cars, under which Volvo Cars will provide support in connection with the development and set-up of an inbound and outbound logistic process connected to the plants.

Manufacturing

For the manufacturing of Polestar 2, Polestar has entered into contract manufacturing agreements with the Luqiao (or “Taizhou”) plant, which is owned and operated by Volvo Cars. Further, Polestar has entered into financial undertaking agreements with Volvo Cars for investments for Polestar 3 production in a Volvo Cars plant in Chengdu, China as well as at a plant in Charleston, South Carolina. Production for initial launch markets in North America and Europe is planned to begin in Volvo Cars’ facility in Chengdu, China, in an incremental ramp-up phase starting in mid-2023, with first deliveries expected in the fourth quarter of 2023. Delivery schedules for secondary launch markets in Asia Pacific and the Middle East are not yet finalized but are expected in 2024. Additional manufacturing at Volvo Cars’ Charleston, South Carolina facility in the United States, is expected to follow towards the middle of 2024 – from which point supply to North American and other left-hand drive markets is planned to switch from China to the United States. Initial deliveries from the Volvo Cars’ Charleston facility in South Carolina are expected around the middle of 2024. Polestar and Volvo Cars expect to have the detailed agreements for production of Polestar vehicles in Chengdu and in Charleston signed in the second quarter of 2023.

 

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Other Agreements

In addition, Polestar has entered into several agreements regarding outbound logistics according to which Volvo Cars support with supply chain related services for the supply of Polestar vehicles. Polestar has also entered into agreements regarding quality services. Polestar has also entered into commercial, administrative and product creation software license agreements that license IT applications and IT services connected to administration, commercial, research and development and purchasing for use by Polestar globally.

Charging Network

Polestar believes that proprietary charging networks do not encourage customer adoption. Accordingly, Polestar intends to seek to build partnerships with open charging infrastructure providers. Polestar will use aggregators to help simplify the charging and payment experience for its customers, leveraging technology such as in car apps.

Polestar provides regional coverage and preferential pricing through regional strategic partnership with the largest charging network providers. Polestar provides its customers with access to an extended regional charging network using Plugsurfing aggregated CPO network in the EU, Electrify America in the US and CaoCao in China.

Competition

Polestar faces competition from both traditional automotive manufacturers and an increasing number of newer companies focused on electric and other alternative fuel vehicles. Polestar expects this competition to increase, particularly as the transportation sector continues to shift towards low-emission, zero-emission or carbon neutral solutions. In addition, numerous manufacturers offer hybrid vehicles, including plug-in versions, with which Polestar’s vehicles also compete.

Polestar believes that the primary competitive factors on which it competes includes, but is not limited to, its focus on design and sustainability, its innovative proprietary technology and its digital first, direct to consumer approach. Polestar also has a start-up culture and a scalable asset-light business model that it believes generates significant competitive advantage. However, many of its current and potential competitors may have substantially greater financial, technical, manufacturing, marketing and other resources than Polestar or may have greater name recognition and longer operating histories than Polestar does (see also “Risk Factors—Risks Related to the Polestar’s Business and Industry—Polestar operates in an intensely competitive market, which is generally cyclical and volatile. Should Polestar not be able to compete effectively against its competitors then it is likely to lose market share, which could have a material and adverse effect on the business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects of Polestar.”). Polestar believes it can differentiate itself from its competitors due to its focus on design, technology and sustainability its global presence and ability to leverage an established production ecosystem due to its relationships with its founding partners.

On a global basis, Polestar’s principal EV competitor is Tesla. Based on production numbers, Tesla is the world’s leading manufacturer of premium electric vehicles, having brought desirable electric vehicles to mainstream consumers with the Model S in 2012. Since then, the brand has developed a model range of sedans and SUVs to become one of the leading producers of electric vehicles all over the world. The Tesla model 3 is a principal competitor to Polestar 2, with some cross-relevance in the Model Y, a crossover SUV based on the Model 3. Model Y will also become more relevant with the launch of Polestar 4. Lucid, a US vertically-integrated technology and automotive company headquartered in California, is a potential competitor. While Lucid is engaged in the design, engineering, and construction of electric vehicles, electric vehicle powertrains and battery systems, its Lucid Air sales only started at the end of October 2021. In addition, Lucid does not currently have an SUV model and has focused recent efforts on promoting the Lucid Air, its large luxury sedan offering that is being offered at higher price points than many Polestar offerings.

 

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Porsche is one of Polestar’s core competitor brands from a driving experience and performance perspective. As one of the world’s most renowned makers of “driver’s cars,” Porsche represents a strategic benchmark for Polestar. Although previously a manufacturer of solely internal combustion engine cars, Porsche has recently launched the Taycan electric vehicle which brings the brand’s renowned dynamic experience to an electric vehicle for the first time. The forthcoming electric Macan is considered a key competitor to Polestar 4. Porsche is also a benchmark brand for future Polestar vehicles in terms of size and segments.

Other competition within the electric vehicle segment of the market, includes other pure play electric vehicle producers, such as Nio, Xpeng, Rivian and Fisker.

Intellectual Property

Research and development, conducted with strategic partners such as Volvo Cars, are one of Polestar’s core competencies and Polestar’s developments in areas such as lightweight chassis architectures, drivetrains, electric motors, bi-directional compatible battery packs and charging technology significantly enhance the flexibility and utility of its vehicles. In addition, Polestar has created considerable intellectual property related to its design of both the interior and exterior of its vehicles, including various components such as wheel rims and lights. Accordingly, Polestar’s commercial success depends in part on its ability to protect and control its proprietary design, technology and other intellectual property assets. Polestar relies on a combination of intellectual property rights, such as patents, design and trademark registrations, to protect and preserve its proprietary technology and intellectual property assets. In addition, Polestar enters into employee, contractor, consultant and third-party non-disclosure and invention assignment agreements and other contractual arrangements to protect its proprietary technology and intellectual property assets.

As of December 31, 2022, Polestar owned 118 issued U.S. patents and 97, 60, and 192 issued patents in Europe, China and other jurisdictions (including European Patent Organisation (“EPO”) validation states and UK), respectively. Those patents are related to Polestar’s core proprietary technology. In addition, Polestar had 60 pending U.S. patent applications and 34, 30, and 20 pending patent applications in the EPO, China and other jurisdictions, respectively. In addition to patents covering Polestar’s core proprietary technology, Polestar had 81 pending U.S. design patent applications, plus 61, 96 and 35 issued design or industrial design patents in the U.S., EU and China, respectively, and 166 issued design or industrial design patents issued in other jurisdictions. Another 57 and 44 design applications were pending in the EU (EU filing) and China, respectively, and there were 70 pending design applications in other jurisdictions. As of December 31, 2022, Polestar owned 6 registered U.S. trademarks, 13 pending U.S. trademark applications, as well as 19 and 17 registered trademarks in the EU and China, respectively. Further, 4 and 10 trademark applications were pending in the EU (and UK) and China, respectively.

Regardless of the coverage Polestar seeks under its existing patent applications, there is always a risk that alterations from Polestar’s products or processes may provide sufficient basis for a competitor to avoid infringement claims. In addition, the coverage claimed in a patent application can be significantly altered before a patent is issued and courts can reinterpret patent scope after issuance. Many jurisdictions, including the United States, permit third parties to challenge issued patents in administrative proceedings, which may result in further narrowing or even cancellation of patent claims. Polestar cannot provide any assurance that any patents will be issued from its pending or any future applications or that any current or future issued patents will adequately protect its intellectual property. For this and other risks related to Polestar’s proprietary technology, inventions and improvements, please see “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Intellectual Property.”

Progressive designs force Polestar to innovate and develop new technologies, technologies that in turn can improve customer experience or improve vehicle and sustainability performance. New technologies, not least connectivity and autonomous drive, will create additional intellectual property. Polestar also engages in competitive landscape analysis and forecasting measures, in an effort to identify future areas of interest that may allow it to more competitively engage in the future markets. As Polestar develops its technology, it will continue

 

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to build its intellectual property portfolio, including by pursuing patent and other intellectual property protection when Polestar believes it is possible, cost-effective, beneficial and consistent with its overall intellectual property protection strategy.

Polestar’s commercial success will also depend in part on not infringing, misappropriating or otherwise violating the intellectual or proprietary rights of third parties. The issuance of third-party patents could require Polestar to alter its development or commercial strategies, change its products or processes, obtain licenses to additional third-party patents or other intellectual property or cease certain activities. Polestar’s breach of any license agreements or failure to obtain a license to proprietary rights that it may require to develop or commercialize its future products or technologies may have an adverse impact on Polestar. See “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Intellectual Property” for additional information regarding these and other risks related to Polestar’s intellectual property portfolio and their potential effect on Polestar.

In addition to Polestar’s proprietary technology and intellectual property assets, it has also acquired, licensed or sub-licensed material portions of the intellectual property that is relevant to its products from Volvo Cars, Geely and Zhejiang Zeekr Automobile Research and Development Co., Ltd. For example, it has acquired intellectual property with respect to fully electrical platform technology, motor vehicle drive units with electric vehicle motors, motor assemblies for operating electric powertrains, and structures specifically designed to protect electric vehicle components, and intellectual property relating to infotainment and connectivity. Polestar has also entered into agreements providing for a license relating to certain technology and features to be introduced in its model year programs.

Regulation

Polestar’s products are designed to comply with all applicable regulations in the markets where it operates. As of December 31, 2022, Polestar operates in 27 markets in Europe, the Middle-East, North America, China and Asia Pacific. Polestar’s expansion plans include further building its presence in fast growing markets in the Asia Pacific region as well as the Middle East. As Polestar expands its international presence, it will continue to take action to support that its vehicle design and sales comply with all regulations for each market it enters. Currently, the regulatory regimes material to Polestar’s business are those established by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, the European Union, the United States and China. These regulations are monitored by Polestar’s product certification team, supported by Volvo Cars and other external suppliers, to ensure that the internal design requirements reflect the applicable requirements for each product, market, and time frame.

Polestar believes that the following regulations are material to its business:

UNECE

The World Forum for Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (the “UNECE”) has been working towards international harmonization of the technical prescriptions for the construction and approval of wheeled vehicles since 1947. The UNECE has developed certain international rules and regulations in the area of safety, environment, range and energy consumption under the 1958 Agreement concerning the adoption of uniform technical prescriptions for wheeled vehicles, equipment and parts and the conditions for reciprocal recognition of those regulations. Regulations promulgated in accordance with the 1958 Agreement have been adopted in approximately 60 jurisdictions including the EU. The UNECE also adopted similar global technical regulations under the 1998 Agreement of which the United States, the EU, China, and Japan are parties and 21 global technical regulations have been promulgated to date. Polestar’s vehicles meet the relevant requirements under the UNECE regulations.

EU

Manufacturers of passenger vehicles in the EU that wish to benefit from the Single Market are required to comply with EU Regulation 2018/858 (the Whole Vehicle Type Approval), which requires that vehicles that are

 

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put on the market within the EU must first be type-approved to ensure that they meet all relevant environmental, safety and security standards. A vehicle that has been type-approved in one EU member state can thereafter be sold and registered in all member states without further tests. Polestar’s vehicles are type approved and fulfill applicable underlying regulations and directives.

USA

Polestar is required to obtain permits and licenses under the United States laws, regulations, and standards. Violations of these laws, regulations or permits and licenses may result in substantial civil and criminal fines, penalties and possibly orders to cease the violating operations or to conduct or pay for corrective works. In some instances, violations may also result in the suspension or revocation of permits and licenses.

The United States is a self-certification market when it comes to safety compliance. Accordingly, Polestar is required to fully comply with relevant regulations for every vehicle that is put on the market, but no formal approval is granted by the NHTSA. The National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1966 requires cars and equipment sold in the United States to fulfill safety standards that are continuously updated to meet new technologies and needs.

Polestar’s vehicles fulfill the applicable product requirements stipulated by the NHTSA and the EPA on a federal level, and similarly the CARB who is a major regulator on the state level.

China

The regulatory system in China applies type approval for Polestar’s vehicles under three regulatory bodies:

 

   

Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (“MIIT”)—regulates the approval to manufacture vehicles;

 

   

State Administration for Market Regulation (“SAMR”)—regulates vehicle safety; and

 

   

Ministry of Ecology and Environment (“MEP”)—regulates range and energy efficiency.

The Chinese government has also enacted a number of macro policies that govern the automobile industry in China. In particular, the Provisions on the Administration of Investments into the Automobile Industry adopted by the National Development and Reform Commission on January 10, 2019, stated that, while the production of traditional gas fuel vehicles should be strictly controlled, the development of new energy vehicles should be promoted but the establishment of fully electric car manufacturing companies should also be subject to strict scrutiny and the establishment of low-level manufacturing companies should be avoided. Additionally, considering the current large volumes of new energy vehicles in China, MIIT is also starting to strictly control contract manufacturing of new energy vehicles in PRC. As of result of such control, MIIT has possibilities not to approve car model homologation for contract manufacturing, especially foreign related.

Further, in order to be able to operate in China, Polestar and its subsidiaries are subject to permission requirements from the following regulatory bodies:

 

   

SAMR;

 

   

MEP; and

 

   

General Administration of Customs.

Polestar and its subsidiaries have received all requisite permissions to operate in China and have not been denied any permissions in the past. These permissions include the following:

 

   

Business License;

 

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Pollutants Discharge Permit; and

 

   

Customs Declaration Registration Certificate or Customs Declaration Enterprise Record Receipt.

See “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Polestar’s Business and Industry—Polestar and its subsidiaries (i) may not receive or maintain permissions or approvals from the CAC or other relevant authorities to operate in China, (ii) may inadvertently conclude that such permissions or approvals are not required or (iii) may be required to obtain new permissions or approvals in the future due to changes in applicable laws, regulations, or interpretations related thereto” for more information regarding risks associated with Polestar’s and its subsidiaries’ operations in China.

Focused regulatory areas

Some regulatory areas are rapidly changing within all the above-mentioned regulatory frameworks. The ones listed below are of key importance to Polestars products moving forward.

 

   

Cyber security and privacy

 

   

Electric vehicle safety

 

   

Autonomous drive

In some of the relevant markets new requirements are enforced as guidelines and policies rather than regulations. Polestar’s ambition is always to meet relevant requirements for each product, market, and time frame.

Cyber security and privacy

Cybersecurity and cybersecurity management systems are being regulated in many markets to enhance data security protection measures and to minimize the risks associated with cyber threats.

Data privacy and data protection laws in the markets where Polestar operates influence Polestar’s abilities to collect and use personal information. For most markets, Polestar’s connected vehicle services, as well as its sales and marketing activities, are subject to European laws, including the EU General Data Protection Regulation 2016/679 (GDPR), in addition to applicable national law in each market, which impose requirements on processing of personal information. Following general guidance from the European Data Protection Board, much of the data in the context of connected vehicles may be viewed as personal data and therefore subject to the EU GDPR. In the US, Polestar needs to comply with the California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA) and similar state-level comprehensive privacy laws which enter into force starting from 2023 in e.g. Virginia, Colorado and other states.

Violations of data privacy and data protection laws may result in consequences such as substantial fines, damages, ceasing with the infringing activity and deletion of erroneously collected information.

In China, several pieces of legislation have been adopted in recent years, applicable in part or in full to Polestar’s operations in China. These include the Data Security Law and the Personal Information Protection Law, which entered into force in 2021. Both laws impose requirements on data activities or personal information processing activities, including security reviews and specific requirements on activities on data regarding Chinese persons carried out outside of China. The Several Measures on the Automobile Data Security Management (for Trial Implementation) from the CAC, which entered into force in October 2021, imposes requirements on processing of personal information and important data during the process of designing, manufacturing, selling, maintaining, managing automobiles within the territory of China. It specifically requires the operators to store certain personal information and important data within the territory of China, or in case overseas transfers are necessary, to go through the data export security assessment organized by the CAC in accordance with such laws.

 

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The Cybersecurity Review Measures from the CAC, which came into effect in February 2022, requires data processors in China who hold more than one million users’ personal information and plan to list on a stock exchange in a foreign country to apply for a cybersecurity review. It also gives the CAC the power to initiate cybersecurity review in certain situations.

The Cross-border Data Transfer Security Measures (the “Security Assessment Measures”) from the CAC, effective from September 2022, require security assessment for data being exported. Data handlers must submit application materials to the CAC offices at the provincial level for the security assessment within a six-month “rectification period.”

The Industry and Information Technology Field Data Security Administrative Measures (for Trial Implementation) promulgated by the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology of China, which became effective on January 1, 2023, regulate the data processing activities of certain industrial and technology businesses operating in the PRC. Data handlers that fall within this legislation are required to take certain steps to classify, appropriately process and protect the subject data, as well as to submit a catalog of important and core data to the local industrial regulatory department. As Polestar is not a registered manufacturer in the PRC it believes the legal obligations arising from this legislation will primarily sit with its contract manufacturing partners. However, Polestar may nonetheless be negatively impacted should its contract manufacturing partners not meet their obligations under this legislation.

Electric vehicle safety

Upcoming Safety Regulations include requirements concerning driver drowsiness and distraction, intelligent speed assistance, reversing safely with the aid of cameras or sensors, data recording in case of an accident (black box), lane-keeping assistance, advanced emergency braking, and crash-test improved safety. Specifically for battery electric vehicles there are requirements for vehicle-mounted rechargeable electrical energy storage systems, operation safety and fault protection and protection against electric shock, on both component and vehicle level.

AD/ADAS Regulations

Polestar equips its vehicles with certain advanced driver assistance features. Generally, laws pertaining to driver assistance features and self-driving vehicles are evolving globally and, in some cases, may create restrictions on advanced driver assistance or self-driving features that Polestar may develop.

Sustainability and Environmental Regulations

Polestar operates in an industry that is subject to extensive sustainability and environmental-related regulations, which have become more stringent over time. The laws and regulations to which Polestar is or may become subject govern, among other things, water use; air emissions; use of recycled materials; energy sources; the release, storage, handling, treatment, transportation and disposal of, and exposure to, hazardous materials; the protection of the environment, natural resources and endangered species; responsible mineral sourcing; due diligence transparency and the remediation of environmental contamination. Compliance with such laws and regulations at an international, regional, national, state, provincial and local level is and will be an important aspect of Polestar’s ability to continue its operations.

Many countries have announced a requirement for the sale of zero-emission vehicles only within proscribed timeframes, some as early as 2035, and Polestar as an electric vehicle manufacturer is already in a position to comply with these requirements across its entire coming product portfolio as it expands.

Emissions Credits

All manufacturers are required to comply with the applicable emission regulations in each jurisdiction in which they operate. Furthermore, since Polestar’s electric vehicles have zero or limited emissions compared to

 

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internal combustion engine vehicles, it earns emission grams or credits that may be sold to and used by other manufacturers to cover or offset their emissions footprint.

Polestar aims to follow the development and opportunities connected to emission regulations in all geographic regions in which it operates. The ability to earn excess emission grams or credits are dependent on each jurisdictions’ regulations and the opportunity to get compensated by others depends on the demand from other manufacturers.

Recall activities

If Polestar vehicles need to be recalled or updated due to quality issues or not fulfilling applicable legal requirements in a market, decisions will be taken according to delegation of authority within Polestar. Reporting to authorities according to local requirements applies.

 

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Organizational Structure

The following diagram depicts the organizational structure of the Company as of the date hereof:

 

 

LOGO

 

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The significant subsidiaries of the Company as of the date of this prospectus are listed below.

 

Legal Name    Jurisdiction of Incorporation    Proportion of
Ordinary
Shares Held by
the Company
 

Polestar Holding AB

   Sweden      100

Polestar Automotive (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.

   Singapore      100

Polestar Performance AB

   Sweden      100

Polestar Automotive Canada Inc.

   Alberta, Canada      100

Polestar Automotive USA Inc.

   Delaware, USA      100

Gores Guggenheim, Inc.

   Delaware, USA      100

Polestar Automotive Belgium BV

   Belgium      100

Polestar Automotive Germany GmbH

   Germany      100

Polestar Automotive Netherlands BV

   Netherlands      100

Polestar Automotive Sweden AB

   Sweden      100

Polestar Automotive Austria GmbH

   Austria      100

Polestar Automotive Denmark ApS

   Denmark      100

Polestar Automotive Finland Oy

   Finland      100

Polestar Automotive Switzerland GmbH

   Switzerland      100

Polestar Automotive Norway A/S

   Norway      100

Polestar Automotive Korea Limited

   South Korea      100

Polestar Automotive Australia PTY Ltd

   Australia      100

Polestar Automotive (Singapore) Distribution Pte. Ltd.

   Singapore      100

Polestar Automotive Ireland Limited

   Republic Ireland      100

PLSTR Automotive Portugal Unipessoal Lda

   Portugal      100

Polestar Automotive Poland sp. zo. o

   Poland      100

Polestar Automotive UK Limited

   United Kingdom      100

Polestar Automotive Spain S.L

   Spain      100

Polestar Automotive Luxembourg SARL

   Luxembourg      100

Polestar Automotive Czech Republic s.r.o

   Czech Republic      100

Polestar Automotive Italy s.r.l.

   Italy      100

Polestar Automotive Shanghai Co., Ltd.

   People’s Republic of China      100

Polestar New Energy Vehicle Co., Ltd.

   People’s Republic of China      100

Polestar Automotive China Distribution Co., Ltd.

   People’s Republic of China      100

Polestar Automotive Consulting Service (Shanghai) Co., Ltd.

   People’s Republic of China      100

Polestar Automotive (Chongqing) Co., Ltd.

   People’s Republic of China      100

Property, Plants and Equipment

Polestar is headquartered in Gothenburg, Sweden. Polestar’s research and development teams are located in Sweden and the United Kingdom. In Sweden, Polestar’s headquarters and research and development team are located in Gothenburg close to the facilities and competences at Volvo Cars and its surroundings. This research and development team is focused on collaboration with Volvo Cars in a wide variety of areas, including electrical propulsion, sustainability, lightweight material designs, software, and more. In the United Kingdom, Polestar’s research and development team is located in the Mira Technology Park in Coventry. This location benefits from good access to engineering talent, proving grounds, wind tunnels and workshops. Polestar’s engineering focus in the United Kingdom is chassis and dynamics, aluminum bonding and architecture and sports car design.

 

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Polestar uses a digital first, direct to consumer approach that enables its customers to browse Polestar’s products, configure their preferred vehicle and, where permitted, place their order on-line. Alternatively, Polestar Spaces are where customers can see, feel and test drive Polestar’s vehicles prior to making an on-line purchase. As of December 31, 2022, there were 158 Polestar Spaces. In addition, Polestar leverages the Volvo Cars service center network to provide access to 1,116 customer service points worldwide (as of December 31, 2022) in support of its international operations.

Polestar’s vehicles are currently manufactured at a plant in Luqiao, China that is owned and operated by Volvo Cars. The plant, referred to by Volvo Cars as the “Taizhou” plant, was acquired by Volvo Cars from Geely in December 2021. Prior to that time, the plant had been owned by Geely and operated by Volvo Cars. Polestar 2 vehicles have been manufactured at this plant since production commenced in 2020. Commencing with the Polestar 3, Polestar intends to produce vehicles both in China at Volvo Cars’ Chengdu facility and in the United States at Volvo Cars’ facility in Charleston, South Carolina.

Polestar has the benefit of being part of the larger global manufacturing footprint of Volvo Cars and Geely with access to a substantial combined installed production capacity across three continents. Polestar intends to expand its contract manufacturing presence to facilities in the U.S. and potentially Europe. Commencing with the Polestar 3, Polestar intends to produce vehicles both in China at Volvo Cars’ Chengdu facility and in the United States at Volvo Cars’ facility in Charleston, South Carolina. Polestar is also exploring the feasibility of producing the Polestar 2 in Europe for sales in the US market.

Chengdu facility

Polestar opened its Chengdu facility in 2019, which is separate from Volvo Cars’ Chengdu facility. Polestar produced the Polestar 1 at this facility until the end of 2021. The facility is a low volume facility designed for small series production runs, for developing new manufacturing processes or procedures and for customizations that cannot be handled in a high-volume factory. Polestar has more recently used the Chengdu facility to create limited editions of Polestar 2 (BST) and also to support the early pre-production builds of future Polestar vehicles.

Chengdu was the first LEED Gold-certified automotive production facility in China. It was designed by the Norwegian architecture firm Snøhetta to run on renewable electricity. As of the date of this prospectus, Polestar had committed to a plan to sell its Chengdu facility. Refer to “Note 26—Assets held for sale” in Polestar’s Consolidated Financial Statements for more information.

Luqiao facility

Polestar 2 is produced in the Luqiao facility. The facility opened in 2016 and has a total factory capacity of 180,000 cars per year. The plant is focused on the CMA platform, and also produces Volvo XC40. In October 2021, Geely and Volvo Cars agreed to transfer the Luqiao facility to Volvo Cars. The transfer was effectuated in December 2021 and did not affect production of the Polestar 2 at the facility. In connection with this transfer, the Luqiao facility has been renamed “Taizhou.”

We believe that our facilities are adequate to meet our needs for the immediate future and that suitable additional space will be procured to accommodate any expansion of our operations, as needed.

Legal Proceedings

From time to time, Polestar is subject to various legal proceedings that arise from the normal course of business activities. In addition, from time to time, third parties may assert claims of intellectual property infringement, misappropriation or other violation against Polestar in the form of letters and other forms of communication. If an unfavorable ruling were to occur, there exists the possibility of a material adverse impact on its results of operations, prospects, cash flows, financial position and brand.

 

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Employees

As of December 31, 2022, Polestar had 2,377 employees. Polestar’s employees are mainly located in Sweden, China, UK and USA.

Polestar follows local national requirements for collective bargaining agreements where such requirements exist. Currently, Polestar has instituted collective bargaining agreements with employees in Sweden, Finland, the Netherlands and Austria. Sweden is the only country where Polestar is actively engaged with employee union representatives. Polestar believes relations with these union representatives are good and its engagement with these union representatives is constructive.

 

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OPERATING AND FINANCIAL REVIEW AND PROSPECTS

The following discussion includes information that Polestar’s management believes is relevant to an assessment and understanding of Polestar’s financial condition and results of operations.

On June 23, 2022, Polestar closed the Business Combination with GGI described elsewhere in this prospectus. The discussion should be read together with (i) the financial statements of Polestar Automotive Holding UK PLC as of December 31, 2022 and 2021, and for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2022 and the related notes thereto, included elsewhere in this prospectus. All financial numbers in this discussion are presented in thousands of U.S. dollars unless otherwise noted.

Polestar’s actual results may differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of various factors, including those discussed in the sections titled “Risk Factors” and “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” included elsewhere in this prospectus. Certain amounts may not foot due to rounding.

Polestar Automotive Holding UK PLC

Overview

Former Parent and its subsidiaries are collectively referred to herein as “Polestar,” “we,” “our,” or “us.”

Polestar is a pure play, premium electric performance vehicle brand headquartered in Sweden, designing products that are engineered to excite consumers and drive change. Polestar defines market-leading standards in design, technology and sustainability. Polestar was established as a premium electric vehicle brand by Volvo Cars and Geely in 2017. Polestar benefits from the technological, engineering and manufacturing capabilities of these established global vehicle manufacturers. Polestar has an asset-light, highly scalable business model with immediate operating leverage. While Polestar has historically offered two performance vehicle models; Polestar 1 and Polestar 2, production of the Polestar 1 ceased during the year ended December 31, 2021. Production of a third performance vehicle model, the Polestar 3, is scheduled to begin during second half of the year ending December 31, 2023. On June 23, 2022, Polestar consummated a capital reorganization via the merger with GGI, a special purpose acquisition company. Polestar subsequently began trading on the Nasdaq on June 24, 2022, under the ticker symbol PSNY.

Polestar’s vehicles are currently manufactured at a plant in Luqiao, China that is owned and operated by Volvo Cars. The plant, referred to by Volvo Cars as the “Taizhou” plant, was acquired by Volvo Cars from Geely in December 2021. Prior to that time, the plant had been owned by Geely and operated by Volvo Cars. Under contract manufacturing agreements with Volvo Cars, Polestar intends to expand its manufacturing presence to facilities in the U.S. and in Europe. Polestar’s ability to leverage the manufacturing footprint of both Volvo Cars and Geely gives Polestar’s highly scalable business model immediate operating leverage.

Polestar’s retail business model focuses on a digital-first, direct-to-consumer approach that enables its customers to browse Polestar’s products, configure their preferred vehicle and place their orders online. This direct-to-consumer approach differs in some locations based on local legal jurisdictions (i.e., Polestar uses the dealer model only in the U.S. and Canada). This approach also differs in sales to fleet customers where ordering configured vehicles via the online platform is impracticable. Instead, sales are facilitated through Polestar fleet account managers.

Polestar Spaces are where customers can see, feel and test drive Polestar’s vehicles prior to making an online purchase. Polestar believes this combination of digital and physical retail presence delivers a seamless experience for its customers. Polestar currently has 158 Spaces across 27 markets.

Polestar’s customer experience is further enhanced by its comprehensive service network that leverages the existing Volvo Cars service center network.

 

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Polestar’s research and development expertise is a core competence and Polestar believes it is a significant competitive advantage. Current proprietary technologies under development include bonded aluminum chassis architectures and their manufacture, a high-performance electric motor and bi-directional compatible battery packs and charging technology.

Polestar has drawn extensively on the industrial heritage, knowledge and market infrastructure of Volvo Cars. This combination of deep automotive expertise, paired with cutting-edge technologies and agile, entrepreneurial culture, underpins our differentiation potential for growth and success.

Key factors affecting performance

Polestar’s growth and success over the past five years has depended on numerous factors and trends. While these factors and trends provide opportunities for Polestar, they also pose risks and challenges such as those discussed in the section entitled “Risk Factors” in this prospectus. The following paragraphs explain the key factors that continue to have a notable impact on Polestar.

Partnerships with Volvo Cars and Geely

Polestar’s relationship with Volvo Cars and Geely has provided it with a unique competitive advantage in its ability to rapidly scale commercialization activities while maintaining an asset-light balance sheet. This is achieved primarily through contract manufacturing and supply agreements with Volvo Cars and Geely. Polestar has utilized Volvo Cars’ established research and development capabilities to accelerate technological advancements in automotive technology. Additionally, selling and administrative expenses have been positively impacted due to service agreements with Volvo Cars that allow it to attain operational efficiencies in the areas of aftermarket services and maintenance and back-office functions such as information technology, legal, accounting, finance, and human resources.

Utilizing Volvo Cars’ Luqiao facility in China has allowed Polestar to ramp production of its Polestar 2 with over 100,000 units produced by December 31, 2022, while simultaneously producing limited edition variants utilizing Polestar’s Chengdu facility. Going forward, Polestar 3 is planned to be produced both in China at Volvo Cars’ Chengdu facility and in the United States at Volvo Cars’ facility in Charleston, South Carolina, with Polestar 4 and Polestar 5 expected to be manufactured at Geely’s Hangzhou Bay and currently under contstruction Chongquing (expected to be opened in 2024) facilities in China, respectively. Having access to the global manufacturing footprint of Volvo Cars and Geely has and will continue to provide Polestar some flexibility to adjust and optimize its manufacturing plans in response factors such as particular market demand, relative production cost, changing shipping and logistic expenses and the availability of market-specific tax credit schemes.

Premium electric vehicle portfolio

Following the launch of the Polestar 3 in 2022 and the expected launches of Polestar 4 in 2023, Polestar 5 in 2024 and Polestar 6 in 2026, Polestar’s all-electric portfolio will comprise a fastback, an SUV, an SUV coupe, a 4-door GT and a roadster. This portfolio has been carefully developed to address the tastes and preferences of premium vehicle customers, one of the fastest growing segments of the global electric car market. The limited edition higher specification Polestar 2 variant, which sells at a higher price point has also received a favorable response from customers. Polestar plans to continue offering higher specification variants, sometimes in limited production runs, for its future models, which it expects will further establish its brand within the premium electric segment and allow for pricing variability within certain markets.

As a premium electric car company, Polestar does not intend to offer models priced below Polestar 2 and does not currently foresee the need to adjust its pricing strategy in response to recent price cuts announced by competitors who are pursuing a different strategy to address the wider electric car market.

 

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Innovative automotive technologies and design

Polestar develops electric vehicles and technologies through cutting edge design and sustainable choices. Polestar has a high-performance, innovation-driven research and development team with safety heritage rooted from Volvo Cars and in-house competencies at its dedicated research and development facility in Coventry, United Kingdom. Internal development programs such as the Polestar Precept and P10 electric powertrain have advanced Polestar’s organic intellectual property. Further, Polestar continues to display ambition to create industry-leading technologies through partnerships with Volvo Cars, Geely, Nvidia, Luminar, and Zenseact, among others. This combination of research and development resources allows Polestar flexibility in determining which technologies to develop in-house versus which to outsource to partners. Polestar believes that continued investments such as these are critical to establishing market share, attracting new customers, and becoming a profitable global electric vehicle company. In the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020, $313,244, $462,731, and $338,093, respectively, were invested in new intellectual property. These investments have primarily impacted Polestar’s results of operations through higher amortization expense.

Direct-to-consumer business model

Polestar operates a direct-to-consumer business model for sales of vehicles, which allows it to create a tailored experience for customers based on their individual preferences. Polestar cultivates this experience through Polestar Spaces where potential customers can experience Polestar vehicles, engage with Polestar specialists, and in certain cases, test drive Polestar vehicles. This serves as important brand awareness and as a sales driver for commercial expansion in key markets. Through these locations, Polestar is able to introduce customers to vehicles and enhance the Polestar experience, from brand introduction and education to vehicle delivery. Additionally, Polestar is able to run a lean sales model via the Polestar App and website, offer a wide service network for aftermarket services and maintenance, and offer competitive pricing and financing for customers. This business model approach has allowed Polestar to achieve rapid expansion in, and capitalization of, the luxury electric vehicle market in Europe with lower overall selling, general, and administrative expenses as compared to a traditional OEM dealer model.

Direct-to-business model

In the U.S. and Canada, Polestar operates a direct-to-business model through which vehicles are sold directly to a network of independent authorized dealers. In these markets, vehicles are displayed and subsequently sold to end retail consumers at Polestar Spaces, which are designed, built, and equipped by dealers in accordance with Polestar’s standards. Dealers also diagnose and repair Polestar vehicles at associated service facilities. Vehicles are sold to dealers at wholesale prices and Polestar provides a suggested retail price, although dealers are entitled to negotiate final sale prices with their end customers.

Fleet sales

In addition to Polestar and its subsidiaries’ direct-to-consumer and direct-to-business models, vehicles are also sold to dealerships and various fleet customers (e.g., rental car companies and corporate fleet managers). As an incentive for high-volume purchases, sales to fleet customers often include certain discounts in the form of annual rebates based on the number of vehicles ordered during the year.

Importer markets

During the first half of 2022, Polestar expanded by entering into new importer agreements that cover Hong Kong, New Zealand, Israel, UAE (United Arab Emirates), and Kuwait. This expansion allows Polestar to create a global footprint and tap potential opportunities which may lead to increased sales.

Reverse recapitalization

On June 23, 2022, Polestar consummated a capital reorganization via the merger with GGI, a special purpose acquisition company. Polestar subsequently began trading on the Nasdaq on June 24, 2022 under the

 

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ticker symbol “PSNY.” In addition to providing Polestar with access to new funding sources in the United States capital markets, the merger, including all related arrangements, raised net cash proceeds of $1,417,973. Gross proceeds of $638,197 was assumed from GGI, $250,000 was sourced from a private placement in public equity (“PIPE”), and $588,826 was sourced from a preferential share subscription with Volvo Cars. Total transaction costs of $97,953 were incurred in connection with the merger, of which $59,050 had been recognized by GGI and deducted from the gross proceeds raised. The remaining $38,903 were costs attributable to the Former Parent.

The merger was accounted for as a reverse recapitalization in accordance with IFRS 2, Share-based Payment, under which Polestar obtained a listing service in exchange for the issuance of 5.1% equity ownership. Accordingly, Polestar recorded a non-recurring as well as non-cash share-based listing expense of $372,318 that was calculated based on the excess of the fair value of equity ownership in Polestar issued to GGI and third-party PIPE investors over the identifiable net assets and cash assumed on June 23, 2022. The fair value of Polestar equity on June 23, 2022 was based on a closing share price of $11.23 per share, a contributing factor to the size of the listing expense. This non-recurring listing expense is included in operating expenses and reflected in operating loss.

As part of the merger, Polestar exchanged rights and obligations to the public and private warrant instruments of GGI, which maintained fair values of $40,320 and $22,770, respectively, on June 23, 2022. Polestar also issued certain rights to earn out shares to existing owners with a fair value of $1,500,638 on June 23, 2022. These earn out rights were granted to existing owners of Polestar as stipulated by the business combination agreement with GGI, dated on September 27, 2021. These instruments are accounted for as derivative liabilities under International Accounting Standards (“IAS”) 32, Financial Instruments: Presentation, and IFRS 9, Financial Instruments, that are carried at fair value with subsequent changes in fair value recognized in the Consolidated Statement of Loss at each reporting date. On June 23, 2022, the day of the merger, these earn out rights were recorded as a reduction of equity (and a derivative liability) with an amount of $1,500,638.

Impact of COVID-19 and the Russo-Ukrainian War

In certain instances, Polestar’s suppliers and business partners have experienced delays or disruptions from COVID-19, resulting in negative impacts to Polestar. Specifically, the prolonged government mandated quarantines and lockdowns in eastern China during the twelve months ended December 31, 2022 delayed production and delivery of critical components for the Polestar 2.

In February 2022, Russia invaded Ukraine. Uncertain geopolitical conditions, sanctions, and other potential impacts on the global economic environment resulting from Russia’s invasion of Ukraine could weaken demand for Polestar’s vehicles, which could make it difficult for Polestar to forecast its financial results and manage inventory levels. The uncertainty surrounding these conditions and the current, and potentially expanded, scope of international sanctions against Russia could cause unanticipated changes in customers’ buying patterns, adversely impact operations of Polestar’s suppliers, or interrupt Polestar’s ability to source products from these regions. Sanctions have also created global supply chain disruptions, logistical constraints and inflation that have impacted, and may continue to impact, Polestar’s operations and could create or exacerbate risks facing Polestar’s business.

Polestar vehicles are manufactured at facilities owned and operated by Volvo Cars. While Polestar understands that Volvo Cars does not directly conduct any business (i.e., Tier 1 supplier) with suppliers from Russia, there can be no assurance that all parts of the supply chain are devoid of any exposure to disruptions caused by the Russia and Ukraine conflict. Due to the complexities surrounding vehicle production and its related supply chain, it is possible there will be some components sourced from suppliers subject to sanctions against Russia and/or that the resulting disruption to the supply chain will have an adverse impact on Polestar’s business and operations. Polestar will continue to closely monitor the effect of the conflict between Russia and Ukraine. Refer to the section entitled “Risk Factors” in this prospectus for information on risks posed by the Russia and Ukraine conflict.

 

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Inflation

Global economic conditions have caused rising inflationary pressures on prices of components, materials, labor, and equipment used in the production of Polestar vehicles. Particularly, increases in battery prices due to the increased prices of lithium, cobalt, and nickel have started contributing to increased cost of goods sold and are expected to lead to higher costs of goods sold in the future. Additionally, the natural time lag created by the production, shipping, and selling of vehicles has also contributed to a delay in price increases experienced by Polestar. Higher oil prices have also increased freight and distribution costs across all markets. It is uncertain whether these inflationary pressures will persist in the future. Polestar remains vigilant and will continue to closely monitor the effects of COVID-19, the Russo-Ukrainian War, and inflation.

Results of operations

Polestar conducts business under one operating segment with primary commercial operations in Europe and the U.S. While Europe and the U.S. represent Polestar’s primary geographic markets, Polestar’s presence is quickly expanding in Asia. Refer to “Note 1—Significant accounting policies and judgements” in Polestar’s Consolidated Financial Statements included elsewhere in this prospectus for more information on the basis of presentation and segment reporting. The following paragraphs describe the key components of revenue and expenses as presented in our Consolidated Statement of Loss.

Revenue

Revenue is comprised of revenue from the sale of vehicles, revenue from the sale of software and performance engineered kits, revenue from sales of carbon credits, vehicle leasing revenue, and other revenue. Revenue from the sale of vehicles constitutes the primary source of revenue and has historically been derived primarily from sales of the Polestar 2. Polestar’s main customers for electric vehicles consist of private individuals, fleet management companies, dealers, and our related parties, Volvo Cars and Geely. Revenue from the sale of software and performance engineered kits is derived from intellectual property licensed to Volvo Cars related to software upgrades and enhancements for Volvo Cars’ vehicles. Revenue from sales of carbon credits is derived from sales of regulatory credits to external companies or related parties. Vehicle leasing revenue is derived from the Polestar Group’s operating lease arrangements. Other revenue is derived from sales of automotive research and development services and intellectual property licensed to Volvo Cars enabling Volvo Cars to source and sell Polestar parts and accessories.

Cost of sales

Cost of sales primarily consists of contract manufacturing costs associated with the production of the Polestar 2, which is outsourced to Volvo Cars (previously outsourced to Geely), depreciation of tooling equipment, amortization of intangible assets related to manufacturing engineering, warehousing and transportation costs for inventory, customs duties, and charges to write down the carrying value of inventory when it exceeds the estimated net realizable value. Costs of sales for the years ended December 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020 also include costs related to direct parts and materials, direct labor, and manufacturing overhead for the Polestar 1, which was manufactured at Polestar’s facility in Chengdu, China.

Selling, general, and administrative expenses

Selling, general, and administrative expenses are comprised of personnel expenses for business development and marketing functions, advertising and marketing expenses, personnel-related expenses for corporate, executive, finance, and other administrative functions, expenses for outside professional services, including legal, audit, information technology, and accounting services, as well as expenses for facilities, general software costs and licenses, depreciation, amortization, and travel. Personnel-related expenses consist of salaries, benefits, social security contributions, and incentive programs.

 

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Research and development expenses

Research and development expenses consist of personnel expenses for Polestar’s internal engineering, research, and development functions, amortization of intangible assets related to intellectual property used in the PS1 and PS2 and internal development programs, and expenses for direct materials and facilities used by research and development personnel. Polestar outsources certain development of intellectual property used in its electric vehicles to Volvo Cars and makes payments in accordance with development plans. Such costs are capitalized as intangible assets instead of charged to research and development expense because they are paid in connection with the receipt of intellectual property from Volvo Cars that is expected to provide future economic benefit to Polestar.

Polestar conducts various internal research and development programs focused on advancing new technologies and concepts relevant to the business, such as electric vehicle propulsion systems, infotainment and software systems, and the use of eco-friendly recycled materials in production. Costs associated with Polestar’s internal research and development programs are expensed as incurred while they are in the research phase and not yet expected to contribute to future cash flows. Once Polestar’s internal research and development programs reach the development phase and are determined to contribute to future cash flows, such costs are capitalized as intangible assets instead of being charged to research and development expenses.

Finance income and expenses

Finance income consists of interest income on bank deposits associated with Polestar’s short-term financing facilities and net foreign exchange rate gains on financial activities. Finance expenses are comprised of interest expenses associated with Polestar’s short and long-term financing facilities, including amounts owed to related parties, net foreign exchange rate losses on financial activities, and interest expenses associated with lease liabilities.

Fair value change—Earn out rights

Fair value change in earn out rights consists of changes in fair value to the contingent right to receive earn outs of Class A and B shares that were issued to the Former Parent upon the completion of the Business Combination. The value of the earn out rights change with the Polestar share price and other macroeconomic conditions, creating fair value gain or loss.

Fair value change—Class C shares

Fair value change in class C shares consists of changes in fair value to the Class C-1 Shares and Class C-2 Shares that were issued to the Former Parent upon the completion of the Business Combination.

Income tax expenses

Income tax expenses consist of current and deferred income tax expenses. Current income tax expenses primarily represent income taxes generated on income sourced in multiple foreign jurisdictions. Deferred income tax expenses represent differences generated between book carrying values and the corresponding tax basis for assets or liabilities, multiplied by the applicable jurisdiction’s income tax rate.

 

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Comparison of the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020

The following table summarizes Polestar’s historical Consolidated Statement of Loss for the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020:

 

    For the year ended December 31,
    2022 vs 2021
Variance
    2021 vs 2020
Variance
 
    2022     2021     2020     $     %     $     %  
    US’Thousand     US’Thousand     US’Thousand     US’Thousand           US’Thousand        

Revenue

    2,461,896       1,337,181       610,245       1,124,715       84       726,936       119  

Cost of sales

    (2,342,453     (1,336,321     (553,724     (1,006,132     75       (782,597     141  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Gross profit

    119,443       860       56,521       118,583       13,789       (55,661     (98
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Selling, general and administrative expense

    (864,598     (714,724     (314,926     (149,874     21       (399,798     127  

Research and development expense

    (167,242     (232,922     (183,849     65,680       (28     (49,073     27  

Other operating income and expenses, net

    (1,565     (48,053     1,766       46,488       (97     (49,819     (2821

Listing expense

    (372,318     —         —         (372,318     n/a       —         n/a  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Operating loss

    (1,286,280     (994,839     (440,488     (291,441     29       (554,351     126  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Finance income

    8,552       32,970       3,199       (24,418     (74     29,771       931  

Finance expense

    (108,435     (45,249     (34,034     (63,186     140       (11,215     33  

Fair value change—Earn out rights

    902,068       —         —         902,068       n/a       —         n/a  

Fair value change—Class C Shares

    35,090       —         —         35,090       n/a       —         n/a  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Loss before income taxes

    (449,005     (1,007,118     (471,323     558,113       (55     (535,795     114  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Income tax expense

    (16,784     (336     (13,535     (16,448     4,895       13,199       (98
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net loss

    (465,789     (1,007,454     (484,858     541,665       (54     (522,596     108  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Revenues

Polestar’s revenue increased by $1,124,715, or 84.1%, from $1,337,181 for the year ended December 31, 2021 to $2,461,896 for the year ended December 31, 2022. Revenue from related parties increased by $10,602, or 8%, from $128,980 for the year ended December 31, 2021 to $139,582 for the year ended December 31, 2022.

Polestar’s revenue increased by $726,936, or 119%, from $610,245 for the year ended December 31, 2020 to $1,337,181 for the year ended December 31, 2021. Revenue from related parties decreased by $18,475, or 13%, from $147,455 for the year ended December 31, 2020 to $128,980 for the year ended December 31, 2021.

 

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The following table summarizes changes in the components of revenue and related changes between annual periods:

 

    For the year ended December 31,     2022 vs 2021
Variance
    2021 vs 2020
Variance
 
    2022     2021     2020     $     %     $     %  
    US’Thousand     US’Thousand     US’Thousand     US’Thousand           US’Thousand        

Revenues

             

Sales of vehicles

    2,404,246       1,290,031       542,783       1,114,215       86       747,248       138  

Sales of software and performance engineered kits

    21,308       25,881       35,434       (4,573     (18     (9,553     (27

Sales of carbon credits

    10,984       6,299       27,141       4,685       74       (20,842     (77

Vehicle leasing revenue

    16,719       6,217       —         10,502       169       6,217       100  

Other revenue

    8,639       8,753       4,887       (114     (1     3,866       79  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total

    2,461,896       1,337,181       610,245       1,124,715       84       726,936       119  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Sales of vehicles increased by $1,114,215, or 86%, from $1,290,031 for the year ended December 31, 2021 to $2,404,246 for the year ended December 31, 2022. The increase was driven by greater volumes of Polestar 2 sales across major geographic markets such as the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, Sweden, and South Korea. Revenue per vehicle decreased year-over-year primarily due to model mix and market mix. During the year ended December 31, 2021, the majority of vehicles sold were long-range dual motor variants of the Polestar 2 while the lower priced long-range single motor and standard range motor variants represented a greater share of revenue for the year ended December 31, 2022. This was partially offset by price increases implemented during the summer that were reflected in selling prices during the latter part of the year. Sales of vehicles increased by $747,248, or 138%, from $542,783 for the year ended December 31, 2020 to $1,290,031 for the year ended December 31, 2021. This increase is primarily due to a full year of commercial sales in 2021, compared to slightly more than three months in 2020 (as commercialization of the Polestar 2 didn’t commence until the third quarter of 2020), as well as Polestar’s further expansion into new markets in 2021.

Sales of software and performance engineered kits decreased by $4,573, or 18%, from $25,881 for the year ended December 31, 2021 to $21,308 for the year ended December 31, 2022. The decrease is a result of Polestar’s shifting focus to its own vehicles and a decrease in Volvo Cars’ sales of Polestar’s performance engineered kits. Sales of software and performance engineered kits decreased by $9,553, or 27%, from $35,434 for the year ended December 31, 2020 to $25,881 for the year ended December 31, 2021. This decrease is a result of Polestar moving towards a focus on vehicle sales and Volvo Cars offering Polestar’s performance engineered kits at a reduced price.

Sales of carbon credits increased by $4,685, or 74%, from $6,299 for the year ended December 31, 2021 to $10,984 for the year ended December 31, 2022. This increase is due to Polestar entering into a new agreement to sell their excess carbon credits to a third party during the year ended December 31, 2022. Sales of carbon credits decreased by $20,842, or 77%, from $27,141 for the year ended for the year ended December 31, 2020 to $6,299 for the year ended December 31, 2021 This decrease is due to prevailing market conditions and lower demand for carbon credits from Volvo Cars and third party OEMs.

Vehicle leasing revenue increased by $10,502, or 169%, from $6,217 for the year ended December 31, 2021 to $16,719 for the year ended December 31, 2022. Polestar began selling vehicles with repurchase obligations during the first half of 2021 and continued to increase the number of vehicles sold with repurchase obligations in the subsequent periods. This resulted in the increase to vehicle leasing revenue during the year ended December 31, 2022. Vehicle leasing revenue increased by $6,217, or 100%, from nil for the year ended December 31, 2020 to $6,217 for the year ended December 31, 2021. The increase was the result of Polestar entering into operating leases for the first time in 2021.

 

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Other revenue decreased by $114, or 1%, from $8,753 for the year ended December 31, 2021 to $8,639 for the year ended December 31, 2022. Other revenue increased by $3,866, or 79%, from $4,887 for the year ended December 31, 2020 to $8,753 for the year ended December 31, 2021. This increase was primarily the result of sales-based royalties received from Volvo Cars on sales of parts and accessories for Polestar vehicles which Volvo Cars began selling to Polestar customers during 2021.

Cost of sales and gross profit

Cost of sales increased by $1,006,132, or 75%, from $1,336,321 for the year ended December 31, 2021 to $2,342,453 for the year ended December 31, 2022. This was primarily due to higher vehicle sales volumes during the year ended December 31, 2022, resulting in increased warranty as well as freight and distribution expenses of $33,986 and $69,938, respectively. Additionally, material costs increased by $947,279 due to the higher sales volumes, combined with rising raw material costs commencing in the end of 2022. These higher material costs, combined with a deteriorating SEK/CNY foreign exchange rate discussed in the gross profit explanation below, have further contributed to the increase. The activity above was partially offset by decreased manufacturing related costs of $48,092 primarily due to the conclusion of tooling and machinery depreciation related to Polestar 1 in December 2021.

Cost of sales increased by $782,597, or 141%, from $553,724 for the year ended December 31, 2020 to $1,336,321 for the year ended December 31, 2021. This increase was primarily driven by expanded production and commercialization of Polestar 2 vehicles and a deterioration of the SEK/CNY exchange rate throughout 2021. Specifically, sales volume growth in the United States resulted in higher customs import duties and Polestar’s SEK/CNY transaction exchange losses on contract manufacturing invoices paid to Geely contributed to higher overall costs of sales.

Gross profit increased by $118,583, or 13,789%, from $860 for the year ended December 31, 2021 to $119,443 for the year ended December 31, 2022. This increase was primarily due to expanded production and commercialization of Polestar 2 vehicles, causing a higher fixed cost absorption when compared to previous periods. This was combined with positive impacts from the decreased fixed manufacturing costs caused by the conclusion of Polestar 1 related depreciation and amortization in December 2021. The increase in Gross profit for the year ended December 31, 2022 is partially offset by continued deterioration of the SEK/CNY foreign exchange rate. The SEK/CNY foreign exchange rate weakened by approximately 5.7% during the year ended December 31, 2022 from 0.70 on January 1, 2022 to 0.66 by December 31, 2022. During the comparative period, the SEK/CNY foreign exchange rate weakened by approximately 11.4% from 0.79 on January 1, 2021 to 0.70 by December 31, 2021. In total, the SEK/CNY foreign exchange rate has weakened by approximately 16% since January 1, 2021. This trend impacts Polestar’s gross profit as a transaction effect of contract manufacturing in China when Polestar’s purchasing entity is denominated in a functional currency that is weaker than CNY.

Gross profit decreased by $55,661, or 98%, from $56,521 for the year ended December 31, 2020 to $860 for the year ended December 31, 2021. This decrease was primarily due to a negative gross profit impact of $20,842 related to reduced sales of carbon credits, a negative gross profit impact of $9,553 related to reduced sales of software and performance engineered kits and a negative gross profit impact of $4,887 related to reduced sales of research and development services to related parties.

Selling, general and administrative expenses

Selling, general and administrative expenses increased by $149,874, or 21%, from $714,724 for the year ended December 31, 2021 to $864,598 for the year ended December 31, 2022. This increase was primarily due to higher administration costs of $135,171 related to higher wages and salaries associated with scaling headcount across Polestar global operations to meet demands of the growing business. Selling, general and administrative expenses increased by $399,798, or 127%, from $314,926 for the year ended December 31, 2020 to $714,724 for the year ended December 31, 2021. The increase was primarily due to increased investments in advertising,

 

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marketing, and promotional activities as part of Polestar’s commercial expansion across geographic markets such as the United States and China, increased professional service fees related to accounting, finance, and information technology, and higher wages and salaries associated with scaling headcount of Polestar’s sales and administrative personnel to meet the demands of the growing business.

Research and development expenses

Research and development expenses decreased by $65,680, or 28%, from $232,922 for the year ended December 31, 2021 to $167,242 for the year ended December 31, 2022. This decrease was primarily due to a decrease in amortization of product development costs of $118,659 mainly related to the conclusion of Polestar 1 amortization in December 2021. This activity was partially offset by increased R&D personnel costs of $55,267 due to continuing product development for future vehicles and technologies. Research and development expenses increased by $49,073, or 27%, from $183,849 for the year ended December 31, 2020 to $232,922 for the year ended December 31, 2021. This increase was primarily due to increased product development costs related to future vehicles and electronic vehicles technologies and a full year of amortization of capitalized research and development expenses in 2021 related to Polestar 2, as compared to ten months of amortization in 2020.

Other operating income (expenses), net

Other operating income (expenses), net increased by $46,488 from an expense of $48,053 for the year ended December 31, 2021 to an expense of $1,565 for the year ended December 31, 2022. This increase was primarily driven by lower negative foreign exchange effects on working capital, comprised of unrealized gains of $29,506 and realized gains of $16,198. Other operating income (expenses), net decreased by $49,819 from $1,766 for the year ended December 31, 2020 to $48,053 for the year ended December 31, 2021. This decrease was primarily due to an increase in unrealized foreign exchange losses on conversions from the SEK and the Chinese Yuan (“CNY”) related to Polestar’s contract manufacturing agreements in China.

Finance income

Finance income decreased by $24,418, or 74%, from $32,970 for the year ended December 31, 2021 to $8,552 for the year ended December 31, 2022. This decrease was primarily the result of a negative net foreign exchange effect related to financial items for the year ended December 31, 2022. Finance income increased by $29,771, or 931%, from $3,199 for the year ended December 31, 2020 to $32,970 for the year ended December 31, 2021. This increase was primarily driven by net foreign exchange gains on financial activities.

Finance expenses

Finance expenses increased by $63,186, or 140%, from $45,249 for the year ended December 31, 2021 to $108,435 for the year ended December 31, 2022. This increase was primarily the result of interest expense associated with financing arrangements, overdue trade payables to Volvo Cars, and net foreign exchange losses on financial activities. Finance expenses increased by $11,215, or 33%, from $34,034 for the year ended December 31, 2020 to $45,249 for the year ended December 31, 2021. This increase was primarily driven by interest expense on past due payables to Geely and Volvo Cars and interest expense on related party loans with Volvo Cars.

Fair value change—Earn out rights

The earn out rights were issued in connection with the capital reorganization that was consummated on June 23, 2022. As such, there is no comparison figure for 2021. The gain on the fair value change of the earn out liability for the year ended December 31, 2022 was $902,068. These gains are primarily attributable to a decrease in Polestar’s share price from $11.23 on June 23, 2022 (i.e., closing of the merger with GGI and issuance of the earn out rights) to $5.31 on December 31, 2022 and increased market volatility. Leveraging on a benchmark of peers, the implied asset volatility used in the Monte Carlo simulation increased from 60% as of June 23, 2022 to 75% as of December 31, 2022.

 

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Fair value change—Class C Shares

As part of the capital reorganization via the merger with GGI on June 23, 2022, Polestar exchanged rights and obligations to the public and private warrant instruments of GGI. The gain on the fair value change of these warrants (Class C Shares in Polestar) for the year ended December 31, 2022 was $35,090. These gains are primarily attributable to a decrease in the price of the Class C-1 Shares from $2.52 on June 23, 2022 (i.e., closing of the merger with GGI and exchange of the warrants) to $1.12 on December 31, 2022 and a decrease in the estimated value of the Class C-2 Shares from $2.53 to $1.12 over the same period. Polestar utilizes a binomial lattice model to calculate the value of the Class C-2 Shares which factors several inputs, including the changes in Polestar’s share price from $11.23 to $5.31, implied volatility of publicly traded Class C-1 Shares from 22.5% to 89%, and risk-free rate from 3.12% to 4.01% over the same period.

Income tax expense

Income tax expense increased by $16,448, or 4,895%, from $336 for the year ended December 31, 2021 to $16,784 for the year ended December 31, 2022. This increase was primarily driven by $13,941 in increased income tax expenses due to higher earnings in jurisdictions in which we have taxable income, an increase of $1,307 in income tax expenses related to recognition and derecognition of deferred tax assets on other temporary differences and an increase in foreign taxes of $1,200. Income tax expense decreased by $13,199, or 98%, from $13,535 for the year ended December 31, 2020 to $336 for the year ended December 31, 2021. This decrease was primarily driven by a decrease in deferred taxes on temporary differences, coupled with lower withholding taxes. This was offset by higher income tax expenses generated from the higher earnings at legal entity level for the year ended December 31, 2021.

Liquidity and capital resources

Polestar finances its operations primarily through the issuance of equity instruments, various short-term credit facilities, including working capital facilities, term loans with related parties, sale leaseback arrangements, and extended trade credit with related parties. The principal uses for liquidity and capital are funding operations, market expansion, sustaining access to additional capital via the repayment of existing credit facilities and investments in Polestar’s future vehicles and automotive technologies.

Polestar continues to generate negative operating and investing cash flows as a result of scaling up commercialization efforts globally and capital expenditures for the Polestar 2, Polestar 3, Polestar 4, and Polestar 5 and does not expect to achieve positive cash flow from operations for several years. Managing the company’s liquidity profile and funding needs remains one of Management’s key priorities. Substantial doubt about Polestar’s ability to continue as a going concern persists as timely realization of financing endeavors is necessary to cover forecasted operating and investing cash outflow. Refer to “Note 1—Significant accounting policies and judgements” in the accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements.

As of December 31, 2022, and 2021, Polestar had cash and cash equivalents of $973,877 and $756,677, respectively. Cash and cash equivalents consist of cash in banks with an original term of three months or less. Polestar did not have any restricted cash as of December 31, 2022, and 2021.

If Polestar’s cash resources are insufficient to finance its future cash requirements, Polestar will need to finance future cash needs through a combination of public or private equity offerings, debt financings, or other means. To the extent Polestar raises additional capital through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities, the ownership interest of its shareholders may be diluted, and the terms of such securities may include liquidation or other preferences that adversely affect the rights of its existing shareholders. Debt financing, if available, may involve agreements that include covenants limiting or restricting Polestar’s ability to take specific actions, such as incurring additional debt, making capital expenditures or declaring dividends. If Polestar is unable to raise additional funds through equity, debt financings, or other means when needed, it may be required to delay, limit, reduce, or, in the worst case, to terminate research and development and commercialization efforts and may not be able to fund continuing operations.

 

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Management’s intention is to continue to develop Polestar’s short-term working capital financing relationships with European and Chinese banking partners, including upsizing current facilities where applicable, while also continuing to explore potential equity or debt offerings.

Short-term Working Capital Facilities with European and Chinese Banking Partners

Polestar has long-standing relationships with its European and Chinese banking partners. Management expects Polestar to meet all covenants and be able to meet principal and interest payments as they come due during FY 2023. Polestar’s relationships with new and existing Chinese and European banking partners continue to provide a reliable source of short-term liquidity.

Debt and equity financing

Equity

In November 2020, Polestar issued 14,371,808 ordinary shares to Polestar’s principal owners at $6.15 per share for total proceeds of $438,340.

In March 2021, the Group’s Board of Directors distributed 18,032,787 shares of newly authorized Class B common shares at $30.50 (in ones) per share for proceeds of $550,000; related issuance costs amounted to $2,843. Of the 18,032,787 shares issued, 4,262,295 were issued to Geely. In July 2021, 17,345,079 Class A common shares were converted to Class B common shares.

On June 23, 2022, the Former Parent consummated a reverse recapitalization in which Polestar Holding AB and its subsidiaries became wholly owned subsidiaries of Polestar. US Merger Sub merged with GGI, pursuant to which the separate corporate existence of US Merger Sub ceased and GGI became a wholly owned subsidiary of Polestar. Convertible notes, different classes of common stock, public warrants, and private warrants were converted into various equity instruments of Polestar. For additional information, see “Note 16—Reverse recapitalization” for more information.

Liabilities to Credit Institutions

During the periods presented in the accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements, Polestar utilized several short-term working capital loans, one of which includes a covenant tied to the Group’s financial performance. All short-term working capital loans that have come due during the periods presented have been repaid on-time.

In June 2020, Polestar entered into a 12-month unsecured working capital loan with a bank in China. The outstanding principal balance as of December 31, 2020 was $150,735. The loan carried interest at the interbank loan prime rate plus 0.065%. This loan was fully repaid as of December 31, 2021.

In December 2020, Polestar entered into a 6-month unsecured working capital loan with a bank in China. The outstanding principal balance as of December 31, 2020 was $45,930. The loan carried interest at the latest 12-month national interbank loan prime rate minus 0.37%. This loan was fully repaid as of December 31, 2021.

In December 2020, Polestar entered into a 6-month uncommitted facility with a bank in the United Kingdom. The outstanding principal balance as of December 31, 2020 was $148,082. The loan carried interest at 2.1% per annum over the relevant interbank offered rate, plus a flat arrangement fee of 0.25% to be paid on the value of the facility payable. This loan was fully repaid as of December 31, 2021.

In June 2021, Polestar entered into a 12-month unsecured working capital loan agreement with a bank in China. The outstanding principal balance as of December 31, 2021 was $78,650. The loan carries interest at the latest 12-month national interbank loan prime offer rate plus 1.1%. This loan was fully repaid as of December 31, 2022.

 

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In July 2021, Polestar entered into a 12-month unsecured working capital loan agreement with a bank in China. The outstanding principal balance as of December 31, 2021 was $130,559. The loan carries interest at a rate of 3.915% per annum. This loan was fully repaid as of December 31, 2022.

In December 2021, Polestar entered into a 9-month working capital loan agreement with a bank in China. The loan is secured on certain assets equal to approximately 70% of its value and benefits from a subsidiary guarantee from Polestar Shanghai as well as letters of keep well from both Volvo Cars and Geely. The outstanding principal balance as of December 31, 2021 was $400,000. The loan carries interest at a fixed rate of 1.883%. This loan was fully repaid as of December 31, 2022.

In February 2022, Polestar entered into a 12-month EUR 350,000,000 uncommitted secured green trade finance facility, including an accordion facility of up to EUR 250,000,000, with Standard Chartered Bank, Nordea Bank ABP, Citibank Europe PLC and ING Belgium SA/NV, which was amended and restated on February 26, 2023 to, among other things, extend the facility availability for a further 12 months. The outstanding principal balance as of December 31, 2022 and the date of this prospectus was EUR 270,000,000 and EUR 190,678,961, respectively. The initial facility carried interest at 3-month Euro Interbank Offering Rate plus 2.1%. Following the February 2023 amendment and restatement, the facility carries interest at 3-month Euro Interbank Offering Rate plus 2.3% per annum. The facility has a repayment period of 90 days and includes a covenant tied to Polestar’s cash and cash equivalents position and available commitments under committed credit facilities not falling below EUR 400,000,000.

In June 2022, Polestar entered into a 12-month unsecured working capital loan with a bank in China. The outstanding principal balance as of December 31, 2022 was $72,517. The loan carried interest at the interbank loan prime rate plus 1.25%.

In August 2022, Polestar entered into a 12-month unsecured working capital loan with a bank in China. The outstanding principal balance as of December 31, 2022 was $103,845. The loan carried interest at the interbank loan prime rate plus .05%.

In August 2022, Polestar entered into a 12-month unsecured working capital loan with a bank in China. The outstanding principal balance as of December 31, 2022 was $147,000. The loan carried interest at the interbank loan prime rate plus 2.3%.

In September 2022, Polestar entered into a 12-month unsecured working capital loan with a bank in China. The outstanding balance as of December 31, 2022 was $255,000. The loan carried interest at the interbank loan prime rate plus 2.3%.

In September 2022, Polestar entered into a 12-month secured working capital loan agreement with a bank in China. The outstanding principal balance as of December 31, 2022, was $133,000. The loan carries interest at 4.48% per annum.

In September 2022, Polestar entered into a 12-month unsecured working capital loan with a bank in China. The outstanding balance as of December 31, 2022 was $100,000. The loan carries interest at the 3-month secured overnight financing rate plus 2.4%.

In December 2022, Polestar entered into a 12-month unsecured working capital loan with a bank in China. The outstanding balance as of December 31, 2022 was $200,000. The loan carries interest at 7.50% per annum.

Related Party financing

In July 2021, Geely and two other third-parties invested in non-interest-bearing convertible notes of $35,231 from Polestar Group. Of the $35,231, $9,531 is held by Geely. The Group accounted for the convertible notes as equity upon issuance and classified them within other contributed capital. As of December 31, 2022, all $35,231 of the convertible notes have been converted into 4,306,466 Class A Shares.

 

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On November 3, 2022, Polestar entered into an 18-month Term Facility Agreement with one of its major shareholders, Volvo Cars, allowing multiple drawings for up to an aggregated principal amount of $800,000. As of December 31, 2022, Polestar had not drawn on the Term Facility Agreement, however, as of the date of this prospectus the drawn amount on the Term Facility Agreement was $300,000. Polestar is required to pay the loans, in full, 18 months from the date of the Term Facility Agreement. The Term Facility Agreement has an interest rate of floating 6-month Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“SOFR”) with 4.97% per annum. The rate of interest on each loan made under the Credit Facility is the aggregation of the SOFR rate and the 4.97% per annum for the 6-month interest period set on the Quotation Day which is defined as two additional business days before the relevant interest period. Under this agreement, if Polestar announces an offering of shares of any class in the share capital, with a proposed capital raising of at least $350,000, and no fewer than five institutional investors participating in the offering, then Volvo Cars has the right to convert the principal amount of any outstanding loans into equity.

Floor plan and related party facilities

In the ordinary course of business, Polestar, on a market-by-market basis, enters into multiple low value credit facilities with various financial service providers to fund operations related to vehicle sales. The facilities are partially secured by the underlying assets on a market-by-market basis. As of December 31, 2022 and 2021, the aggregate amount outstanding under these arrangements to external credit institutions was $33,615 and $32,453, respectively. The Group maintains a working capital loan with the related party Volvo Cars that is presented separately in Interest bearing current liabilities—related parties within the Consolidated Statement of Financial Position. The aggregated amount outstanding as of December 31, 2022 and 2021 to related parties amounted to $16,690 and $13,789, respectively.

Sale leaseback facilities

Polestar has also entered into contracts to sell vehicles and then lease such vehicles back for a period of up to twelve months. At the end of the lease back period, Polestar is obligated to re-purchase the vehicles. Due to this repurchase obligation, these transactions are accounted for as financial liabilities. As such, consideration received for these transactions was recorded as a financing transaction. As of December 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, $11,719 and $14,465 of this financing obligation was outstanding, respectively.

Cash flows

 

     For the year ended December 31,  
     2022      2021      2020  
     US’Thousand      US’Thousand      US’Thousand  

Cash used for operating activities

     (1,083,423      (312,156      (57,050

Cash used for investing activities

     (715,973      (129,672      (243,707

Cash provided by financing activities

     2,083,029        909,572        359,643  

Cash used for operating activities

Cash used for operating activities increased by $771,267, from $312,156 for the year ended December 31, 2021 to $1,083,423 for the year ended December 31, 2022. The change is primarily attributable to net loss adjusted for non-cash expenses as well as negative changes in working capital during the year ended December 31, 2022. Negative changes in working capital which led to operating cash outflows in 2022 are largely attributable to increased trade receivables, increased inventories, and higher interest payments related to liabilities to credit institutions and overdue trade payables with Volvo Cars.

Cash provided by changes in trade receivables, prepaid expenses, and other assets decreased by $268,692, from a cash inflow of $48,574 for the year ended December 31, 2021, to a cash outflow of $220,118 for the year

 

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ended December 31, 2022. The change from a cash inflow to a cash outflow is primarily due to an increase of $88,354 in third party trade receivables resulting from higher sales volumes, product mix and market mix, as well as an increase of related party trade receivables and accrued income from Volvo Cars of $104,845.

In 2022, change in inventory was a negative $226,638, as an effect of build-up in inventory following a general ramp up in business and a readiness to deliver on orders in 2023.

Cash provided by changes in interest paid increased by $55,566 from $12,564 for the year ended December 31, 2021, to $68,130 for the year ended December 31, 2022. The change is primarily due to $25,449 and $36,480 in interest paid to credit institutions related to working capital loans and Volvo Cars on past due payables, respectively.

Compared to 2021 cash-flow from changes in trade payables, accrued expenses, and other liabilities decreased by $466,875 from $519,676 for the year ended December 31, 2021 to $52,801 for the year ended December 31, 2022, primarily due to higher repayments of trade payables with Volvo Cars during the year ended December 31, 2022.

Cash used for operating activities decreased from $57,050 for the year ended December 31, 2020 to $312,156 for the year ended December 31, 2021. The change was primarily the result of Polestar fulfilling its provisions related to warranties, employee benefits, and other provisions, increased prepaid expenses, and higher levels of inventory due to market expansion, partially offset by higher collections of trade receivables from related parties.

Cash used for investing activities

Cash used for investing activities increased by $586,301, from $129,672 for the year ended December 31, 2021 to $715,973 for the year ended December 31, 2022. The change was primarily the result of significantly more cash settlements with Volvo Cars and Geely for prior period investments in intellectual property related to the Polestar 2, Polestar 3 and Polestar 4. Polestar also made an investment of $2,500 in the fast-charging battery technology innovator, StoreDot, during the year ended December 31, 2022.

Cash used for investing activities decreased from $243,707 for the year ended December 31, 2020 to $129,672 for the year ended December 31, 2021. The change was primarily the result of a decrease in cash payments for investments in property, plant and equipment and lower cash payments for intangible assets in accordance with the terms of agreements with Volvo Cars.

Cash provided by financing activities

Cash provided by financing activities increased by $1,173,457, from $909,572 for the year ended December 31, 2021 to $2,083,029 for the year ended December 31, 2022. The change was primarily the result of (1) the merger with GGI that occurred on June 23, 2022 resulting in total cash received in the transaction of $1,417,973 and (2) increased liquidity provided by eight short-term working capital facilities secured by Polestar during the year ended December 31, 2022. The merger with GGI and related arrangements provided Polestar with gross cash proceeds of $1,417,973, of which $588,826 was provided by Volvo Cars, $250,000 was provided by PIPE investors, and $638,197 was provided by transfer from GGI to the group at close, less transaction costs of $59,050. Polestar’s borrowings provided $2,149,799 in gross cash proceeds during the period, of which $1,018,517 was sourced from seven short-term working capital facilities with Chinese banking partners, $966,903 was sourced from a green trade revolving credit facility with a syndicate of European banks, and $160,976 was sourced from multiple low-value floorplan and sale-leaseback facilities, including a small credit facility with Volvo Cars. These gross cash proceeds were partially offset by principal repayments of $1,426,935 during the period, of which $600,722 was used to settle three short-term working capital facilities with Chinese banking partners, $669,582 was used to settle amounts due on the green trade revolving credit facility, and $152,559 was used to settle amounts due on the low-value floorplan and sale-leaseback facilities, including the credit facility with Volvo Cars.

 

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Cash provided by financing activities increased from $359,643 for the year ended December 31, 2020 to $909,572 for the year ended December 31, 2021. The change was primarily the result of the issuance of Class B common shares to third-party investors, the issuance of convertible notes, and increased short-term borrowings, partially offset by principal repayments related to existing short-term credit facilities.

Contractual obligations and commitments

Polestar is party to contractual obligations to make payments to third parties in the form of short-term credit facilities, sale leaseback arrangements, and various other leasing arrangements. Polestar has also entered into capital commitments to purchase property, plant and equipment and intellectual property. Refer to “Note 10—Leases,” “Note 23—Liabilities to credit institutions,” and “Note 27—Commitments and contingencies” in the accompanying Consolidated financial statements for more detail on contractual obligations and commitments.

The following table summarizes Polestar’s estimated future cash expenditures related to contractual obligations and commitments as of December 31, 2022:

 

     Payments due by period  
     Total      Less than 1 year      Between 1-5 years      After 5 years  
     US Thousand      US Thousand      US Thousand      US Thousand  

Contractual obligations and commitments

           

Capital commitments

     396,261        283,400        112,861        —    

Credit facilities, including sale leasebacks

     1,328,752        1,328,752        —          —    

Lease obligations

     120,465        21,717        69,135        29,613  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total

     1,845,478        1,633,869        181,996        29,613  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Off-balance sheet arrangements

Other than the capital commitments mentioned in “Contractual obligations and commitments” in this “Operating and Financial Review and Prospectus,” Polestar does not maintain any off-balance sheet activities, arrangements, or relationships with unconsolidated entities (e.g., special purpose vehicles and structured finance entities) or persons that have a material current effect, or are reasonably likely to have a material future effect, on Polestar’s Consolidated Financial Statements.

Non-GAAP Financial Measures

Polestar uses both generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP,” i.e., IFRS) and non-GAAP (i.e., non-IFRS) financial measures to evaluate operating performance, for internal comparisons to historical performance, and for other strategic and financial decision-making purposes. Polestar believes non-GAAP financial measures are helpful to investors as they provide useful perspective on underlying business trends and assist in period-on-period comparisons. These measures also improve the ability of management and investors to assess and compare the financial performance and position of Polestar with those of other companies.

These non-GAAP measures are presented for supplemental information purposes only and should not be considered a substitute for financial information presented in accordance with GAAP. The measures are not presented under a comprehensive set of accounting rules and, therefore, should only be read in conjunction with financial information reported under GAAP when understanding Polestar’s operating performance.

The measures may not be the same as similarly titled measures used by other companies due to possible differences in calculation methods and items or events being adjusted. A reconciliation between non-GAAP financial measures and the most comparable GAAP performance measures is provided below.

 

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Non-GAAP financial measures include adjusted operating loss, adjusted EBITDA, adjusted net loss, and free cash flow.

Adjusted Operating Loss

Polestar defines adjusted operating loss as Operating loss, adjusted to exclude listing expense. This measure is reviewed by management and provides a relevant measure for understanding the ongoing operating performance of the business prior to the impact of the non-recurring adjusting item.

Adjusted EBITDA

Adjusted EBITDA is calculated as Net loss, adjusted for listing expense, fair value change of earn out rights, fair value change of Class C Shares, interest income, interest expense, income tax expense, depreciation, and amortization. Adjusted EBITDA is defined as EBITDA, adjusted for certain income and expenses which are significant in nature and that management considers not reflective of ongoing operational activities. This measure is reviewed by management and is a relevant measure for understanding the underlying operating results and trends of the business prior to the impact of any adjusting items.

Adjusted Net Loss

Adjusted net loss is calculated as Net loss, adjusted to exclude listing expense, fair value change of earn out rights, and fair value change of Class C Shares. This measure represents net loss, adjusted for certain income and expenses which are significant in nature and that management considers not reflective of ongoing operational activities. This measure is reviewed by management and is a relevant measure for understanding the underlying performance of Polestar’s core business operations.

Free Cash Flow

Free cash flow is calculated as cash used for operating activities, adjusted for cash flows used for tangible assets and intangible assets. This measure is reviewed by management and is a relevant measure for understanding cash sourced from operating activities that is available to repay debts, fund capital expenditures, and spend on other strategic initiatives.

Unaudited Reconciliation of GAAP and Non-GAAP Results

Adjusted Operating Loss

 

     For the year ended December 31,  
     2022      2021      2020  

Operating loss

     (1,286,280      (994,839      (440,488

Listing expense

     372,318        —          —    

Adjusted operating loss

     (913,962      (994,839      (440,488

Adjusted EBITDA

 

     For the year ended December 31,  
     2022      2021      2020  

Net loss

     (465,789      (1,007,454      (484,858

Listing expense

     372,318        —          —    

Fair value change—Earn out rights

     (902,068      —          —    

Fair value change—Class C Shares

     (35,090      —          —    

Interest income

     (7,658      (1,396      (3,199

Interest expenses

     77,510        44,859        26,501  

Income tax expense

     16,784        336