POS AM
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As filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission on April 21, 2023
Registration No. 333-266101
 
 
 
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
 
Post-Effective Amendment No. 2
to
FORM F-1
REGISTRATION STATEMENT
UNDER
THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933
 
 
Polestar Automotive Holding UK PLC
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 
 
 
England and Wales
 
3711
 
Not applicable
(State or other Jurisdiction of
Incorporation Or Organization)
 
(Primary Standard Industrial
Classification Code Number)
 
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
Thomas Ingenlath
Assar Gabrielssons Väg 9
405 31
Gothenburg
, Sweden
(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)
 
 
Polestar Automotive Holding USA Inc.
777 MacArthur Blvd
Mahwah
, NJ
07430
(
949
735-1834
(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)
 
 
Copies to:
 
Christian O. Nagler
Timothy Cruickshank
Kirkland & Ellis LLP
601 Lexington Avenue
New York, NY 10022
Tel: (212) 446-4800
Fax: (212) 446-4900
 
Stuart Boyd
Kirkland & Ellis International LLP
30 St Mary Axe
London EC3A 8AF, United Kingdom
Tel.: +44 20 7469 2000
 
 
Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public:
 As soon as practicable after this registration statement becomes effective.
If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933 (as amended, the “Securities Act”), check the following box.  ☒
If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐
If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐
If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(d) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is an emerging growth company as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act of 1933.
Emerging growth company  
If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards† provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act.  ☐
 
 
 
The term “new or revised financial accounting standard” refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.
 
 
The Registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the Registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act, as amended, or until the registration statement shall become effective on such date as the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.
 
 
 


Table of Contents

EXPLANATORY NOTE

On July 12, 2022, Polestar Automotive Holding UK PLC (the “Registrant”) filed a Registration Statement on Form F-1 (File No. 333-266101), as amended by Amendment No. 1 filed on August 18, 2022 and subsequently declared effective by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) on August 31, 2022 (the “Initial Registration Statement”). On September 20, 2022, the Registrant filed the Post-Effective Amendment No. 1 to the Initial Registration Statement to update and supplement the information contained in the Initial Registration Statement to, among other things, include the Registrant’s consolidated financial statements and the notes thereto as of and for the six month period ended June 30, 2022 and 2021.

This Post-Effective Amendment No. 2 to the Initial Registration Statement on Form F-1 further amends the Initial Registration Statement, as previously amended by the Post-Effective Amendment No. 1, and the prospectus therein, and is being filed to (i) include financial information contained in the Registrant’s Annual Report on Form 20-F for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022, filed with the SEC on April 14, 2023, and (ii) update certain other information in the Initial Registration Statement.

The Registration Statement, as amended by this Post-Effective Amendment No. 2, relates solely to the registration of the offer and sale from time to time by the selling securityholders named in prospectus which forms a part of the Registration Statement, as amended, of up to (a) 2,228,977,574 Class A ADSs and (b) 9,000,000 Class C-2 ADSs. The Class A ADSs described in clause (a) of the prior sentence include (i) 294,877,349 Class A ADSs issued to Former Parent as merger consideration in connection with the Business Combination at an equity consideration value of $10.00 per share, (ii) up to 24,078,638 Class A ADSs which are issuable to the Former Parent Shareholders as earn out consideration (valued as $10.00 per Class A ADS at the time of the Business Combination) upon the achievement of certain price thresholds for the Class A ADSs, as further described in this prospectus, (iii) up to 1,776,332,546 Class A ADSs issuable upon conversion of Class B ADSs, including up to 134,098,971 Class B ADSs which are issuable to the Former Parent Shareholders as earn out consideration (valued as $10.00 per Class B ADS at the time of the Business Combination) upon the achievement of certain price thresholds for the Class A ADSs, as further described in this prospectus, (iv) 18,459,165 Class A ADSs issued to the GGI Sponsor in connection with the Business Combination in exchange for the 18,459,165 shares of GGI Class F Common Stock that the GGI Sponsor initially purchased at $0.001 per share of GGI Class F Common Stock and that the GGI Sponsor retained after forfeiture of 1,540,835 shares of GGI Class F Common Stock; (v) 26,540,835 Class A ADSs issued to GGI Sponsor, the PIPE Investors and Snita pursuant to the Sponsor Subscription Agreement, the PIPE Subscription Agreements and the Volvo Cars PIPE Subscription Agreement, respectively, at an average cash price of $9.42 per Class A ADS, (vi) 58,882,610 Class A ADSs issued to Snita upon conversion of the Volvo Cars Preference Subscription Shares at the time of the Business Combination at a $10.00 conversion price, (vii) 4,306,466 Class A ADSs that were issued to Former Parent Convertible Notes Holders upon conversion of the Former Parent Convertible Notes at the time of the Business Combination at a conversion price of $8.18, (viii) up to 500,000 Class A ADSs issuable to a service provider in exchange for the performance of marketing consulting services valued at up to $5,000,000, and (ix) up to 24,999,965 Class A ADSs issuable upon conversion of the Class C ADSs, including up to 9,000,000 Class A ADSs issuable upon conversion of the Class C-2 ADSs initially held by the GGI Sponsor in the form of Class C-2 ADSs and which may be converted into Class C-1 ADSs pursuant to the terms of the Class C-2 ADSs. No additional securities are being registered pursuant to this Post-Effective Amendment No. 2. All applicable registration fees were paid in connection with the filing of the Initial Registration Statement.


Table of Contents

The information in this preliminary prospectus is not complete and may be changed. These securities may not be sold until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This preliminary prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and are not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where such offer or sale is not permitted.

 

Subject to Completion, dated April 21, 2023

PRELIMINARY PROSPECTUS

Polestar Automotive Holding UK PLC

UP TO 2,203,977,609 CLASS A ADSs,

UP TO 24,999,965 CLASS A ADSs ISSUABLE UPON CONVERSION OF CLASS C ADSs AND

UP TO 9,000,000 Class C-2 ADSs

 

 

This prospectus relates to the offer and sale from time to time by the selling securityholders named in this prospectus (the “Selling Securityholders”) of up to (a) 2,228,977,574 Class A ADSs and (b) 9,000,000 Class C-2 ADSs. The Class A ADSs described in clause (a) of the prior sentence include (i) 294,877,349 Class A ADSs issued to Former Parent as merger consideration in connection with the Business Combination at an equity consideration value of $10.00 per share, (ii) up to 24,078,638 Class A ADSs which are issuable to the Former Parent Shareholders as earn out consideration (valued as $10.00 per Class A ADS at the time of the Business Combination) upon the achievement of certain price thresholds for the Class A ADSs, as further described in this prospectus, (iii) up to 1,776,332,546 Class A ADSs issuable upon conversion of Class B ADSs, including up to 134,098,971 Class B ADSs which are issuable to the Former Parent Shareholders as earn out consideration (valued as $10.00 per Class B ADS at the time of the Business Combination) upon the achievement of certain price thresholds for the Class A ADSs, as further described in this prospectus, (iv) 18,459,165 Class A ADSs issued to the GGI Sponsor in connection with the Business Combination in exchange for the 18,459,165 shares of GGI Class F Common Stock that the GGI Sponsor initially purchased at $0.001 per share of GGI Class F Common Stock and that the GGI Sponsor retained after forfeiture of 1,540,835 shares of GGI Class F Common Stock; (v) 26,540,835 Class A ADSs issued to GGI Sponsor, the PIPE Investors and Snita pursuant to the Sponsor Subscription Agreement, the PIPE Subscription Agreements and the Volvo Cars PIPE Subscription Agreement, respectively, at an average cash price of $9.42 per Class A ADS, (vi) 58,882,610 Class A ADSs issued to Snita upon conversion of the Volvo Cars Preference Subscription Shares at the time of the Business Combination at a $10.00 conversion price, (vii) 4,306,466 Class A ADSs that were issued to Former Parent Convertible Notes Holders upon conversion of the Former Parent Convertible Notes at the time of the Business Combination at a conversion price of $8.18, (viii) up to 500,000 Class A ADSs issuable to a service provider in exchange for the performance of marketing consulting services valued at up to $5,000,000, and (ix) up to 24,999,965 Class A ADSs issuable upon conversion of the Class C ADSs, including up to 9,000,000 Class A ADSs issuable upon conversion of the Class C-2 ADSs initially held by the GGI Sponsor in the form of Class C-2 ADSs and which may be converted into Class C-1 ADSs pursuant to the terms of the Class C-2 ADSs. This prospectus also covers any additional securities that may become issuable by reason of share splits, share dividends or similar transactions.

The Selling Securityholders may offer all or part of the securities for resale from time to time through public or private transactions, at either prevailing market prices or at privately negotiated prices. The resale of these securities is being registered to permit the Selling Securityholders to sell securities from time to time, in amounts, at prices and on terms determined at the time of offering. The Selling Securityholders may sell these securities through ordinary brokerage transactions, directly to market makers of our shares or through any other means permitted pursuant to applicable law described in the section entitled “Plan of Distribution” herein. In connection with any sales of securities offered hereunder, the Selling Securityholders, any underwriters, agents, brokers or dealers participating in such sales may be deemed to be “underwriters” within the meaning of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”).

We are registering the resale of these securities by the Selling Securityholders, or their donees, pledgees, transferees or other successors-in-interest (as a gift, pledge, partnership distribution or other non-sale related transfer) that may be identified in a supplement to this prospectus or, if required, a post-effective amendment to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. See “Plan of Distribution.”

We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of the securities by the Selling Securityholders, except with respect to amounts received by the Company upon exercise of the Class C ADSs to the extent such Class C ADSs are exercised for cash. We believe the likelihood that the holders of our Class C ADSs will exercise their Class C ADSs, and therefore the amount of cash proceeds that we would receive, is dependent upon the market price of our Class A ADSs. When the market price for our Class A ADSs is less than $11.50 per share (i.e., the Class C ADSs are “out of the money”), which it is as of the date of this prospectus, we believe the holders of our Class C ADSs will be unlikely to


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exercise their Class C ADSs. We will pay certain expenses associated with the registration of the resale of the securities covered by this prospectus, as described in the section titled “Plan of Distribution.”

Our Class A ADSs and Class C-1 ADSs are listed on the Nasdaq Stock Market LLC (“Nasdaq”), under the trading symbols “PSNY” and “PSNYW,” respectively. On April 20, 2023, the closing price for our Class A ADSs on Nasdaq was $3.59. On April 20, 2023, the closing price for our Class C-1 ADSs on Nasdaq was $0.76.

In connection with the Business Combination, holders of 16,265,203 shares of GGI Class A Common Stock, or approximately 20.3% of the issued and outstanding shares of GGI Class A Common Stock, exercised their right to redeem their shares for cash at a redemption price of approximately $10.00 per share, for an aggregate redemption amount of approximately $162,652,030. The Class A ADSs and Class C ADSs being offered for resale in this prospectus (collectively, the “Resale Securities”) represent a substantial percentage of the total outstanding ADSs as of the date of this prospectus. The Class A ADSs being offered in this prospectus represent approximately 476.6% of our current outstanding Class A ADSs, assuming the Earn Out Shares issuable pursuant to the Business Combination Agreement are not outstanding, or approximately 356.1% assuming they are outstanding and converted into Class A ADSs. Additionally, if all the Class C ADSs are exercised and all Class A ADSs are issued to a service provider in exchange for the performance of marketing consulting services, the Selling Securityholders would own an additional 25,093,715 shares of Class A ADSs, representing approximately an additional 5.4% of the current outstanding Class A ADSs. The sale of all the securities being offered in this prospectus, or the perception that these sales could occur, could result in a significant decline in the public trading price of our securities. The contractual lock-up restrictions entered into in connection with the Business Combination have expired. The frequency of any sales could also cause the market price of our securities to decline or increase the volatility in the market price of our securities. Despite a significant decline in the public trading price of our securities, the Selling Securityholders may still experience a positive rate of return on the securities they purchased due to the differences in the purchase prices described above and the public trading price of our securities. Based on the closing price of our Class A ADSs of $3.59 as of April 20, 2023, upon the sale of our Class A ADSs, (a) Former Parent Shareholders may experience a potential loss of up to $6.41 per Class A ADS, (b) GGI Sponsor, the PIPE Investors and Snita may experience a potential loss of up to $5.83 per Subscription Share, (c) the GGI Sponsor may experience a potential profit of approximately $3.59 per Class A ADS issued to the GGI Sponsor upon conversion of the shares of GGI Class F Common Stock, (d) Snita may experience a potential loss of up to $6.41 per Class A ADS issued to Snita upon conversion of the Volvo Cars Preference Subscription Shares, (e) the marketing consulting service provider may experience a potential loss of up to $6.41 per Class A ADS, and (f) Former Parent Convertible Notes Holders may experience a potential loss of up to $4.59 per Class A ADS. Based on the closing price of our Class C-1 ADSs of $0.76 as of April 20, 2023, upon the sale of the Class C-2 ADSs, the GGI Sponsor may experience a potential loss of up to $1.24 per Class C-2 ADS.

We may amend or supplement this prospectus from time to time by filing amendments or supplements as required. You should read this entire prospectus and any amendments or supplements carefully before you make your investment decision.

We are a “foreign private issuer” as defined under the U.S. federal securities laws and, as such, may elect to comply with certain reduced public company disclosure and reporting requirements. We are also a “controlled company” as defined under Nasdaq listing rules and, as such, may elect not to comply with certain corporate governance requirements. See “Prospectus Summary—Foreign Private Issuer” and “Prospectus Summary—Controlled Company.”

 

 

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully review the risks and uncertainties described under the heading “Risk Factors” beginning on page 10 of this prospectus, as well as the other parts of this prospectus and any prospectus supplement or amendment carefully, before you make an investment in the securities.

 

 

Neither the SEC nor any state or foreign securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

 

Prospectus dated                         , 2023


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

TRADEMARKS, SERVICE MARKS AND TRADE NAMES

     ii  

CURRENCY AND EXCHANGE RATES

     ii  

INDUSTRY AND MARKET DATA

     ii  

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

     ii  

PRESENTATION OF FINANCIAL INFORMATION

     iii  

CERTAIN DEFINED TERMS

     iv  

CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     xi  

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

     1  

THE OFFERING

     8  

RISK FACTORS

     10  

CAPITALIZATION AND INDEBTEDNESS

     75  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     76  

MARKET PRICE OF OUR SECURITIES AND DIVIDEND POLICY

     77  

BUSINESS

     78  

OPERATING AND FINANCIAL REVIEW AND PROSPECTS

     105  

BOARD OF DIRECTORS AND MANAGEMENT

     129  

COMPENSATION

     138  

BENEFICIAL OWNERSHIP

     149  

SELLING SECURITYHOLDERS

     152  

CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS AND RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS

     165  

DESCRIPTION OF SHARE CAPITAL AND ARTICLES OF ASSOCIATION

     186  

DESCRIPTION OF AMERICAN DEPOSITARY SHARES

     200  

SECURITIES ELIGIBLE FOR FUTURE SALE

     215  

TAXATION

     218  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     228  

EXPENSES RELATED TO THE OFFERING

     233  

LEGAL MATTERS

     234  

EXPERTS

     235  

SERVICE OF PROCESS AND ENFORCEMENT OF LIABILITIES

     236  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

     238  

INDEX TO FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

     F-1  

Except as otherwise set forth in this prospectus, we have not taken any action to permit a public offering of these securities outside the United States or to permit the possession or distribution of this prospectus outside the United States. Persons outside the United States who come into possession of this prospectus must inform themselves about and observe any restrictions relating to the offering of these securities and the distribution of this prospectus outside the United States.

 

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TRADEMARKS, SERVICE MARKS AND TRADE NAMES

This prospectus includes trademarks, trade names and service marks, certain of which belong to Polestar or Polestar’s affiliates and others that are the property of other organizations. The Polestar logo and other trademarks or service marks of Polestar appearing in this prospectus are the property of Polestar. Solely for convenience, trademarks, trade names and service marks referred to in this prospectus appear without the ®, TM and SM symbols, but the absence of those symbols is not intended to indicate, in any way, that Polestar or its affiliates will not assert its or their rights or that the applicable owner will not assert its rights to these trademarks, trade names and service marks to the fullest extent under applicable law. Polestar does not intend its use or display of other parties’ trademarks, trade names or service marks to imply, and such use or display should not be construed to imply, a relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of Polestar by, these other parties.

CURRENCY AND EXCHANGE RATES

In this prospectus, unless otherwise specified, all monetary amounts are in U.S. dollars and all references to “$” mean U.S. dollars. Certain monetary amounts described herein have been expressed in U.S. dollars for convenience only and, when expressed in U.S. dollars in the future, such amounts may be different from those set forth herein due to intervening exchange rate fluctuations.

INDUSTRY AND MARKET DATA

Unless otherwise indicated, information contained in this prospectus concerning Polestar’s industry, including Polestar’s general expectations and market position, market opportunity and market share, is based on information obtained from various independent sources and reports, as well as management estimates. Polestar has not independently verified the accuracy or completeness of any third-party information. While Polestar believes that the market data, industry forecasts and similar information included in this prospectus are generally reliable, such information is inherently imprecise. Forecasts and other forward-looking information obtained from third parties are subject to the same qualifications and uncertainties as the other forward-looking statements in this prospectus. In addition, assumptions and estimates of Polestar’s future performance and growth objectives and the future performance of its industry and the markets in which it operates are necessarily subject to a high degree of uncertainty and risk due to a variety of factors, including those discussed under the headings “Risk Factors,” “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” and “Operating and Financial Review and Prospects” in this prospectus.

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is part of a registration statement on Form F-1 filed with the SEC by Polestar Automotive Holding UK PLC. The Selling Securityholders named in this prospectus may, from time to time, sell the securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings. This prospectus includes important information about us, the securities being offered by the Selling Securityholders and other information you should know before investing. Any prospectus supplement may also add, update or change information in this prospectus. If there is any inconsistency between the information contained in this prospectus and any prospectus supplement, you should rely on the information contained in that particular prospectus supplement. This prospectus does not contain all of the information provided in the registration statement that we filed with the SEC. You should read this prospectus together with the additional information about us described in the section below entitled “Where You Can Find Additional Information.” You should rely only on information contained in this prospectus, any prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus. We have not, and the Selling Securityholders have not, authorized anyone to provide you with information different from that contained in this prospectus, any prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus. The information contained in this prospectus is accurate only as of the date on the front cover of the prospectus. You should not assume that the information contained in this prospectus is accurate as of any other date.

 

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This prospectus does not contain all of the information provided in the registration statement that we filed with the SEC. You should read this prospectus together with the additional information about us described in the section below entitled “Where You Can Find Additional Information.” Further, this prospectus contains summaries of certain provisions contained in some of the documents described herein, but reference is made to the actual documents for complete information. All of the summaries are qualified in their entirety by the actual documents. Copies of some of the documents referred to herein have been filed, will be filed or will be incorporated by reference as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and you may obtain copies of those documents as described below under “Where You Can Find Additional Information.”

Neither we nor the Selling Securityholders are making an offer to sell these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. Except as otherwise set forth in this prospectus, neither we nor the Selling Securityholders have taken any action to permit a public offering of these securities outside the U.S. or to permit the possession or distribution of this prospectus outside the U.S. Persons outside the U.S. who come into possession of this prospectus must inform themselves about and observe any restrictions relating to the offering of these securities and the distribution of this prospectus outside the U.S.

The Selling Securityholders may offer and sell the securities directly to purchasers, through agents selected by the Selling Securityholders, to or through underwriters or dealers or any other method permitted pursuant to applicable law. A prospectus supplement, if required, may describe the terms of the plan of distribution and set forth the names of any agents, underwriters (if applicable) or dealers involved in the sale of securities. See “Plan of Distribution.”

PRESENTATION OF FINANCIAL INFORMATION

The financial statements of Polestar Automotive Holding UK PLC (formerly known as Polestar Automotive Holding UK Limited) as of December 31, 2022 and 2021 and for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2022 were prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (“IFRS”) as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (“IASB”) and are denominated in U.S. dollars.

 

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CERTAIN DEFINED TERMS

Unless otherwise stated in this prospectus or the context otherwise requires, references to:

“AD securities” or “ADSs” means Class A ADSs and Class C ADSs.

“ADS Deposit Agreement—Class A ADSs” means the ADS Deposit Agreement, by and among the Company, Citibank, N.A., as depositary, and all holders and beneficial owners from time to time of American depositary shares issued thereunder and representing deposited Class A Shares, a copy of which is filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part.

“ADS Deposit Agreement—Class C-1 ADSs” means the ADS Deposit Agreement, dated June 23, 2022, by and among the Company, Citibank, N.A., as depositary, and all holders and beneficial owners from time to time of American depositary shares issued thereunder and representing deposited Class C-1 Shares, a copy of which is filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part.

“ADS Deposit Agreement—Class C-2 ADSs” means the ADS Deposit Agreement, dated June 23, 2022, by and among the Company, Citibank, N.A., as depositary, and all holders and beneficial owners from time to time of American depositary shares issued thereunder and representing deposited Company C-2 Shares, a copy of which is filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part.

“Amendment No. 1 to the Business Combination Agreement” means that certain amendment to the Business Combination Agreement, dated as of December 17, 2021, a copy of which is filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part.

“Amendment No. 2 to the Business Combination Agreement” means that certain amendment to the Business Combination Agreement, dated as of March 24, 2022, a copy of which is filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part.

“Amendment No. 3 to the Business Combination Agreement” means that certain amendment to the Business Combination Agreement, dated as of April 21, 2022, a copy of which is filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part.

“Board” means the board of directors of the Company.

“Business Combination” means the transactions contemplated by the Business Combination Agreement, including the Merger, and the other transactions contemplated by the other transaction documents contemplated by the Business Combination Agreement.

“Business Combination Agreement” means that certain Business Combination Agreement, dated as of September 27, 2021 (as amended by Amendment No. 1 to the Business Combination Agreement, Amendment No. 2 to the Business Combination Agreement and Amendment No. 3 to the Business Combination Agreement), by and among GGI, the Company, Former Parent, Polestar Singapore, Polestar Sweden and Merger Sub, a copy of which is filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part.

“Business Combination Closing” means the closing of the Business Combination.

“Business Combination Closing Date” means the date of the Business Combination Closing or June 23, 2022.

“Class A ADS” means one American depositary share of the Company duly and validly issued against the deposit with the Depositary of an underlying Class A Share.

 

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“Class A Shares” means Class A ordinary shares of the Company, entitling the holder thereof to one vote per share.

“Class B ADS” means one American depositary share of the Company duly and validly issued against the deposit with the Depositary of an underlying Class B Shares.

“Class B Shares” means Class B ordinary shares of the Company, entitling the holder thereof to 10 votes per share.

“Class C ADSs” means Class C-1 ADSs and Class C-2 ADSs.

“Class C Shares” means Class C-1 Shares and Class C-2 Shares.

“Class C Warrant Amendment” means the amendment to the SPAC Warrant Agreement entered into by and among GGI, Computershare Inc. and Computershare Trust Company, N.A., and pursuant to which, among other things, each GGI Public Warrant converted into a Class C-1 ADS and each GGI Private Placement Warrant converted into a Class C-2 ADS, each of which is exercisable for Class A ADSs and subject to substantially the same terms as were applicable to the GGI Warrants under the SPAC Warrant Agreement, a copy of which is filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part.

“Class C-1 ADS” means one American depositary share of the Company into which each GGI Public Warrant has been automatically cancelled and extinguished and converted into the right to receive one Class A ADS and each of which is duly and validly issued against the deposit with the Depositary of an underlying Class C-1 Share.

“Class C-1 Share” means a class C-1 ordinary share in the share capital of the Company, each of which underlies a Class C-1 ADS and is exercisable for one Class A Share.

“Class C-2 ADS” means one American depositary share of the Company into which each GGI Private Placement Warrant has been automatically cancelled and extinguished and converted into the right to receive one Class A ADS and each of which is duly and validly issued against the deposit with the Depositary of an underlying Class C-2 Share.

“Class C-2 Share” means a class C-2 ordinary share in the share capital of the Company, each of which underlies a Class C-2 ADS and is exercisable for one Class A Share.

“Code” means the U.S. Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended.

“Company” means, prior to the re-registration as a public limited company under the laws of England and Wales, “Polestar Automotive Holding UK Limited,” a limited company incorporated under the laws of England and Wales, and, after the re-registration as a public limited company under the laws of England and Wales, “Polestar Automotive Holding UK PLC.”

“Company securities” means the Shares and Class C Shares.

“Current GGI Certificate” means the Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation of GGI, dated March 22, 2021.

“December PIPE Investment” means the purchase of December PIPE Shares pursuant to the December PIPE Subscription Agreements.

“December PIPE Investors” means the purchasers of December PIPE Shares in the December PIPE Investment, which include certain affiliates and employees of the GGI Sponsor.

 

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“December PIPE Shares” means the Class A Shares in the form of Class A ADSs purchased by December PIPE Investors in the December PIPE Investment.

“December PIPE Subscription Agreements” means the share subscription agreements, dated December 17, 2021, by and among the Company, GGI and the December PIPE Investors pursuant to which the December PIPE Investors purchased the December PIPE Shares.

“Deferred Shares” means the deferred shares of USD 0.01 each in the capital of the Company that have no right to vote or dividend rights.

“Deloitte” means Deloitte AB, an independent registered public accounting firm.

“Deposit Agreements” means the ADS Deposit Agreement—Class A ADSs, the ADS Deposit Agreement—Class C-1 ADSs and the ADS Deposit Agreement—Class C-2 ADSs.

“Depositary” means Citibank, N.A., acting as depositary under the Deposit Agreements.

“Earn Out Class A Shares” means the earn out shares issuable by the Company in the form of Class A ADSs.

“Earn Out Class B Shares” means the earn out shares issuable by the Company in the form of Class B ADSs.

“Earn Out Shares” means earn out shares from the Company issuable in Class A ADSs and Class B ADS to certain Former Parent Shareholders depending on share price performance of Polestar.

“Employee Stock Purchase Plan” means Polestar Automotive Holding UK PLC 2022 Stock Purchase Plan.

“Equity Plan” means the Polestar Automotive Holding UK PLC 2022 Omnibus Incentive Plan.

“Exchange Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, together with the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.

“Former Parent” means Polestar Automotive Holding Limited, a Hong Kong incorporated company, which is in the process of completing its voluntary liquidation that commenced on October 19, 2022.

“Former Parent Convertible Notes” means the convertible notes of Former Parent outstanding as of immediately prior to the Business Combination Closing.

“Former Parent Convertible Note Holders” means the holders of the Former Parent Convertible Notes.

“Former Parent Shareholders” means Snita, PSINV AB, PSD Investment Limited, GLY New Mobility 1. LP, Northpole GLY 1 LP, Chongqing Liangjiang LOGO , Zibo Financial Holding Group Co., Ltd. and Zibo High-Tech Industrial Investment Co., Ltd.

“GAAP” means generally accepted accounting principles in the United States.

“Geely” means Zhejiang Geely Holding Group Company Limited.

“GGI” means Gores Guggenheim, Inc.

“GGI Class A Common Stock” means the shares of Class A common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, of GGI.

“GGI Class F Common Stock” means the shares of Class F common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, of GGI.

 

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“GGI Common Stock” means the GGI Class A Common Stock and the GGI Class F Common Stock.

“GGI Initial Stockholders” means the GGI Sponsor and Randall Bort, Elizabeth Marcellino and Nancy Tellem, GGI’s independent directors.

“GGI Public Warrants” means the warrants included in the GGI public units (consisting of one share of GGI Class A Common Stock and one-fifth of one GGI Public Warrant) issued in the GGI initial public offering, consummated on March 25, 2021.

“GGI Sponsor” means Gores Guggenheim Sponsor LLC, a Delaware limited liability company and its affiliates, including The Gores Group, LLC.

“GGI Warrants” means, collectively, the GGI Private Placement Warrants and the GGI Public Warrants.

“Initial PIPE Investment” means the purchase of Initial PIPE Shares pursuant to the Initial PIPE Subscription Agreements.

“Initial PIPE Investors” means the purchasers of Initial PIPE Shares in the Initial PIPE Investment.

“Initial PIPE Shares” means the Class A Shares in the form of Class A ADSs purchased by Initial PIPE Investors in the Initial PIPE Investment.

“Initial PIPE Subscription Agreements” means the share subscription agreements, dated September 27, 2021, by and among the Company, GGI and the Initial PIPE Investors pursuant to which the Initial PIPE Investors purchased the Initial PIPE Shares.

“IRS” means the U.S. Internal Revenue Service.

“March PIPE Investors” means the purchasers of March PIPE Shares in the March PIPE Investment, which include certain affiliates and employees of the GGI Sponsor.

“March PIPE Shares” means the Class A Shares in the form of Class A ADSs purchased by March PIPE Investors in the March PIPE Investment.

“March PIPE Subscription Agreements” means the shares subscription agreements, dated March 24, 2022, by and among the Company, GGI and the March PIPE Investors pursuant to which the March PIPE Investors purchased the March PIPE Shares.

“March Sponsor Investment” means the purchase of March PIPE Shares pursuant to the March PIPE Subscription Agreements.

“Merger” means the merger between Merger Sub and GGI, with GGI surviving as a direct wholly owned subsidiary of the Company.

“Merger Sub” means PAH UK Merger Sub Inc., a Delaware corporation and a direct wholly owned subsidiary of the Company until June 23, 2022.

“Nasdaq” means the National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations Global Market.

“PIPE Investment” means the purchase of PIPE Shares pursuant to the PIPE Subscription Agreements.

 

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“PIPE Investors” means the purchasers of PIPE Shares in the PIPE Investment.

“PIPE Shares” means the Class A Shares in the form of Class A ADSs purchased by PIPE Investors in the PIPE Investment.

“PIPE Subscription Agreements” means the Initial PIPE Subscription Agreements, the December PIPE Subscription Agreements and the March PIPE Subscription Agreements.

“Polestar” means, as the context requires, (i) in general Former Parent and its subsidiaries prior to the Business Combination Closing, (ii) in the context of the Business Combination, the Pre-Closing Reorganization and the Pre-Closing Sweden/Singapore Share Transfer, Polestar Sweden, or, both Polestar Singapore and Polestar Sweden if at any time (x) Polestar Sweden is not a wholly-owned subsidiary of Polestar Singapore or (y) Polestar Singapore is not a wholly-owned subsidiary of Polestar Sweden, or (iii) the Company or Polestar Group after the Business Combination Closing.

“Polestar Articles” means the Articles of Association of Polestar, a copy of which is filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part.

“Polestar Group” means Former Parent, together with its subsidiaries prior to the Business Combination Closing and the Company and its subsidiaries following the Business Combination Closing.

“Polestar Singapore” means Polestar Automotive (Singapore) Pte. Ltd., a private company limited by shares in Singapore.

“Polestar Spaces” means permanent or pop up/temporary Polestar showrooms located in urban or peri-urban areas where potential customers can experience Polestar vehicles, engage with Polestar specialists and, at select locations, test-drive Polestar vehicles.

“Polestar Sweden” means Polestar Holding AB, a private limited liability company incorporated under the laws of Sweden.

“Pre-Closing Reorganization” means the reorganization effectuated by Former Parent, the Company, Polestar Singapore, Polestar Sweden and their respective subsidiaries, pursuant to which, among other things, Polestar Singapore, Polestar Sweden and their respective subsidiaries became, directly or indirectly, wholly owned subsidiaries of the Company.

“Pre-Closing Sweden/Singapore Share Transfer” means, collectively, the following transactions contemplated under the Business Combination Agreement: (i) the transfer by Polestar Singapore to Former Parent of all of the issued and outstanding equity securities of Polestar Sweden (the “Pre-Closing Sweden Share Transfer”) and (ii) after the Pre-Closing Sweden Share Transfer, the contribution by Former Parent to Polestar Sweden of all of the issued and outstanding equity securities of Polestar Singapore.

“Registration Rights Agreement” means the registration rights agreement, dated September 27, 2021, by and among the Company, Former Parent, the Former Parent Shareholders, the GGI Sponsor and the independent directors of GGI (such persons, together with the GGI Sponsor and the Former Parent Shareholders, the “Registration Rights Holders”), as amended by the Registration Rights Agreement Amendment No. 1 and the Registration Rights Agreement Amendment No. 2. A copy of the Registration Rights Agreement is filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part.

“Registration Rights Agreement Amendment No. 1” means that certain amendment to the Registration Rights Agreement, dated December 17, 2021, a copy of which is filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part.

 

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“Registration Rights Agreement Amendment No. 2” means that certain amendment to the Registration Rights Agreement, dated March 24, 2022, a copy of which is filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part.

“Resale Securities” means the Class A ADSs and Class C ADSs being offered for resale in the prospectus that forms a part of the Shelf Registration Statement.

“Rule 144” means Rule 144 under the Securities Act.

“Sarbanes-Oxley Act” means the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.

“Securities Act” means the U.S. Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.

“Share Matching Plan” means the Polestar Automotive Holding UK PLC 2023 Share Matching Plan.

“Shareholder Acknowledgement Agreement” means the shareholder acknowledgement, dated September 27, 2021, by and among Former Parent, the Former Parent Shareholders, Volvo Car Corporation and the Company, as amended by the Shareholder Acknowledgement Agreement Amendment, a copy of which is filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part.

“Shareholder Acknowledgement Agreement Amendment” means that certain amendment to the Shareholder Acknowledgement Agreement, dated March 24, 2022, a copy of which is filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part.

“Shares” means the Class A Shares and the Class B Shares.

“Shelf Registration Statement” means the Registration Statement on Form F-1 that the Company initially filed on July 12, 2022, and subsequently updated and supplemented, including with the Post-Effective Amendment No. 1, filed with the SEC on September 20, 2022.

“Snita” means Snita Holding B.V., a corporation organized under the laws of the Netherlands and a wholly owned subsidiary of Volvo Car Corporation.

“Snita Term Loan Facility” means the Term Loan Facility, dated November 3, 2022, between the Company, as borrower, and Snita, as lender.

“SPAC Warrant Agreement” means that certain Warrant Agreement, by and between GGI and Computershare Trust Company, N.A., as warrant agent, dated as of March 22, 2021 (as amended by the SPAC Warrant Agreement Amendment and as may be further amended, supplemented or otherwise modified from time to time), a copy of which is filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part.

“SPAC Warrant Agreement Amendment” means that certain Amendment to the SPAC Warrant Agreement, by and between GGI and Computershare Trust Company, N.A., as warrant agent, dated as of April 7, 2022, a copy of which is filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part.

“Sponsor Subscription Agreement” means the subscription agreement, dated September 27, 2021, as amended and restated on December 17, 2021 and amended on March 24, 2022, by and among GGI, the Company and the GGI Sponsor.

“Sponsor Subscription Investment” means the purchase of the Sponsor Subscription Shares pursuant to the Sponsor Subscription Agreement.

 

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“Sponsor Subscription Shares” means the Class A Shares in the form of Class A ADSs purchased by the GGI Sponsor in the Sponsor Subscription Investment.

“Subscription Agreements” means the PIPE Subscription Agreements, the Sponsor Subscription Agreement and the Volvo Cars PIPE Subscription Agreement.

“Subscription Investments” means the purchase of the Subscription Shares pursuant to the Subscription Agreements.

“Subscription Shares” means the Class A Shares in the form of Class A ADSs purchased by the GGI Sponsor, the PIPE Investors and Snita pursuant to the Sponsor Subscription Agreement, the PIPE Subscription Agreements and the Volvo Cars PIPE Subscription Agreement, respectively.

“The Gores Group” means The Gores Group, LLC, an affiliate of the GGI Sponsor.

“TUSD” means thousands of U.S. Dollars.

“U.S. Dollars” and “USD” and “$” means United States dollars, the legal currency of the United States.

“U.S. GAAP” means generally accepted accounting principles in the United States.

“United Kingdom” or “UK” means the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and its territories and possessions.

“United States” or “US” means the United States of America and its territories and possessions.

“Volvo Cars” means Volvo Car AB (publ) and its subsidiaries.

“Volvo Cars PIPE Subscription Agreement” means the subscription agreement, dated September 27, 2021, as amended and restated on December 17, 2021 and amended on March 24, 2022, by and among GGI, the Company and Volvo Cars, pursuant to which Volvo Cars via its subsidiary Snita purchased 1,117,390 Volvo Cars PIPE Subscription Shares for a purchase price of $10.00 per share.

“Volvo Cars PIPE Subscription Investment” means the purchase of Volvo Cars PIPE Subscription Shares pursuant to the Volvo Cars PIPE Subscription Agreement.

“Volvo Cars PIPE Subscription Shares” means the Class A Shares in the form of Class A ADSs purchased by Snita in the Volvo Cars PIPE Subscription Investment.

“Volvo Cars Preference Subscription Agreement” means the subscription agreement, dated September 27, 2021, by and between the Company and Snita as amended on March 24, 2022, pursuant to which Snita purchased, at Business Combination Closing, mandatory convertible preference shares of the Company for an aggregate subscription price of $10.00 per share, for an aggregate investment amount equal to TUSD588,826.

“Volvo Cars Preference Subscription Investment” means the purchase of the Volvo Cars Preference Subscription Shares pursuant to the Volvo Cars Preference Subscription Agreement.

“Volvo Cars Preference Subscription Shares” means the mandatory convertible preference shares of the Company purchased by Snita pursuant to the Volvo Cars Preference Subscription Agreement.

 

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CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus includes statements that express Polestar’s opinions, expectations, beliefs, plans, objectives, assumptions or projections regarding future events or future results and therefore are, or may be deemed to be, “forward-looking statements” as defined in Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Exchange Act, that involve significant risks and uncertainties. These forward-looking statements can generally be identified by the use of forward-looking terminology, including the terms “believes,” “estimates,” “anticipates,” “expects,” “seeks,” “projects,” “intends,” “plans,” “may,” “will” or “should” or, in each case, their negative or other variations or comparable terminology. These forward-looking statements include all matters that are not historical facts. They appear in a number of places throughout this prospectus and include statements regarding Polestar’s intentions, beliefs or current expectations concerning, among other things: the benefits of the Business Combination; results of operations; financial condition; liquidity; prospects; growth; strategies and the markets in which Polestar operates, including estimates and forecasts of financial and operational metrics, projections of market opportunity, market share and vehicle sales; expectations and timing related to commercial product launches, including the start of production and launch of any future products of Polestar, and the performance, range, autonomous driving and other features of the vehicles of Polestar; future market opportunities, including with respect to energy storage systems and automotive partnerships; future manufacturing capabilities and facilities; future sales channels and strategies; and future market launches and expansion.

Such forward-looking statements are based on available current market information and the current expectations of Polestar including beliefs and forecasts concerning future developments and the potential effects of such developments on Polestar. Factors that may impact such forward-looking statements include:

 

   

the outcome of any legal proceedings that may be instituted against GGI or Polestar in connection with the Business Combination;

 

   

the ability to continue to meet stock exchange listing standards;

 

   

Polestar’s securities’ potential liquidity and trading;

 

   

changes in domestic and foreign business, market, financial, political and legal conditions;

 

   

Polestar’s ability to enter into or maintain agreements or partnerships with its strategic partners, including Volvo Cars and Geely, original equipment manufacturers, vendors and technology providers, and to source new suppliers for its critical components, and to complete building out its supply chain, while effectively managing the risks due to such relationships;

 

   

risks relating to the uncertainty of any projected financial information or operational results of Polestar, including underlying assumptions regarding expected development and launch timelines for Polestar’s carlines, manufacturing in the United States starting as planned, demand for Polestar’s vehicles or car sale volumes, revenue and margin development based on pricing, variant and market mix, cost reduction efficiencies, logistics and growing aftersales as the total Polestar fleet of cars and customer base grow;

 

   

delays in the development, design, manufacture, launch and financing of Polestar’s vehicles and Polestar’s reliance on a limited number of vehicle models to generate revenues;

 

   

risks related to the timing of expected business milestones and commercial launches, including Polestar’s ability to mass produce its current and new vehicle models and complete the upgrade or tooling of its manufacturing facilities;

 

   

increases in costs, disruption of supply or shortage of materials, in particular for lithium-ion cells or semiconductors;

 

   

risks related to product recalls, regulatory fines and/or an unexpectedly high volume of warranty claims;

 

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Polestar’s reliance on its partners to manufacture vehicles at a high volume, some of which have limited experience in producing electric vehicles, and on the allocation of sufficient production capacity to Polestar by its partners in order for Polestar to be able to increase its vehicle production volumes;

 

   

competition, the ability of Polestar to grow and manage growth profitably, maintain relationships with customers and suppliers and retain its management and key employees;

 

   

the possibility that Polestar may be adversely affected by other economic, business, and/or competitive factors;

 

   

risks related to future market adoption of Polestar’s offerings;

 

   

risks related to Polestar’s distribution model;

 

   

the effects of competition and the high barriers to entry in the automotive industry, the pace and depth of electric vehicle adoption generally on Polestar’s future business, and the risk of other competing propulsion technologies, such as hydrogen fuel cells, gaining market acceptance;

 

   

changes in regulatory requirements (including environmental laws and regulations), governmental incentives and fuel and energy prices;

 

   

Polestar’s ability to rapidly innovate;

 

   

risks associated with changes in applicable laws or regulations and with Polestar’s international operations;

 

   

Polestar’s ability to effectively manage its growth and recruit and retain key employees, including its chief executive officer and executive team;

 

   

Polestar’s reliance on the development of vehicle charging networks to provide charging solutions for its vehicles and its strategic partners for servicing its vehicles and their integrated software;

 

   

Polestar’s ability to establish its brand and capture additional market share, and the risks associated with negative press or reputational harm, including from lithium-ion battery cells catching fire or venting smoke;

 

   

the outcome of any potential litigation, government and regulatory proceedings, investigations and inquiries;

 

   

Polestar’s ability to continuously and rapidly innovate, develop and market new products;

 

   

the outcome of any potential litigation, government and regulatory proceedings, investigations and inquiries;

 

   

the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, inflation, interest rate changes, the ongoing conflict between Ukraine and Russia, supply chain disruptions and logistical constraints on Polestar’s business, projected results of operations, financial performance or other financial and operational metrics or on any of the foregoing risks;

 

   

the need to raise additional funds to support business growth; and

 

   

the other risks and uncertainties included in this prospectus in the section entitled “Risk Factors.”

There can be no assurance that future developments affecting Polestar will be those that Polestar has anticipated. These forward-looking statements involve a number of risks, uncertainties (some of which are beyond Polestar’s control) or other assumptions that may cause actual results or performance to be materially different from those expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. These risks and uncertainties include, but are not limited to, those factors described in the section entitled “Risk Factors.” Should one or more of these risks or uncertainties materialize, or should any of the assumptions prove incorrect, actual results may

 

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vary in material respects from those projected in these forward-looking statements. Polestar will not undertake any obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as may be required under applicable securities laws.

 

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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

This summary highlights certain information about us, this offering and selected information contained elsewhere in this prospectus. This summary is not complete and does not contain all of the information that you should consider before deciding whether to invest in the securities covered by this prospectus. You should read the following summary together with the more detailed information in this prospectus, any related prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, including the information set forth in the section entitled “Risk Factors” in this prospectus, any related prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus in their entirety before making an investment decision.

Overview

Polestar is determined to improve society by accelerating the shift to sustainable mobility.

Polestar is a pure play, premium electric performance car brand headquartered in Sweden, designing products engineered to excite consumers and drive change. Polestar believes that it defines market-leading standards in design, innovation and sustainability. Polestar was established as a premium electric car brand by Volvo Cars and Geely in 2017. Polestar benefits from the technological, engineering and manufacturing capabilities of these established global car manufacturers. Polestar has an asset-light, highly scalable business model with immediate operating leverage.

Polestar 1, an electric performance hybrid GT, was launched to establish Polestar in the premium luxury electric vehicle market in 2017. With a carbon fiber body, Polestar 1 has a combined 609 horse power (hp) and 1,000 Newton-meter (Nm) of torque. Production of the Polestar 1 ceased at the end of 2021, making Polestar a dedicated electric vehicle manufacturer. Polestar 2, an electric performance fastback and Polestar’s first fully electric, high volume car was launched in 2019. Polestar 2 has three variants with a combination of long- and standard range batteries as large as 82 kWh, and dual- and single-motor powertrains with up to 310 kW / 421 hp and 740 Nm of torque. Polestar 3, an electric performance SUV, was launched in 2022. Polestar 3 has two dual-motor 111 kWh battery variants with powertrains up to 380 kW / 517 hp and 910 Nm of torque.

Polestar’s cars have received major acclaim, winning multiple globally recognized awards across design, innovation and sustainability. Highlights for Polestar 1 include Insider car of the year and GQ’s Best Hybrid Sports Car awards. Polestar 2 alone has won over 50 awards, including various Car of the Year awards, the Golden Steering Wheel, Red Dot’s Best of the Best Product Design and a 2021 Innovation by Design award from Fast Company. And the SUV for the electric age, Polestar 3, has already been acclaimed Car WOW’s Car of the Year and ESUV of the Year for 2023. Polestar has also received a total of five awards from the German Design Council, including the German Design Awards for the Polestar 5 concept car and the ABC award for the Polestar 6 electric roadster concept. Furthermore, the Polestar 6 has been voted the Concept Car of the Year in Car Design Review.

As of December 31, 2022, Polestar’s cars are on the road in 27 markets across Europe, North America and Asia Pacific. Polestar intends to grow rapidly in its existing and new markets, which include eight new countries in 2022. Polestar also plans to introduce three new electric vehicles by 2026. Following the launch of the Polestar 3, an electric performance SUV, on October 12, 2022 where customers were able to begin placing orders, Polestar expects to launch Polestar 4, a sporty SUV coupe in 2023, Polestar 5, a luxury 4 door GT, in 2024 and Polestar 6, an electric performance roadster, in 2026. With growth in existing and new markets and broader vehicle portfolio, Polestar expects to compete in segments constituting approximately 80% of the global premium luxury vehicle market by volume of units sold by 2025. Polestar believes the premium luxury vehicle segment is one of the fastest growing vehicle segments, and expects the electric-only vehicle portion of this segment to grow at a faster rate than the overall segment.

 

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The following tables show Polestar’s revenue by type and geographical region for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2021 and 2022:

 

     For the year ended December 31,  
     2022      2021      2020  

Sales of vehicles

     2,404,246        1,290,031        542,783  

Sales of software and performance engineered kits

     21,308        25,881        35,434  

Sales of carbon credits

     10,984        6,299        27,141  

Vehicle leasing revenue

     16,719        6,217        —    

Other revenue

     8,639        8,753        4,887  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total

     2,461,896        1,337,181        610,245  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

     For the year ended December 31,  
     2022      2021      2020  

Europe, the Middle East, and Africa

     1,619,046        1,029,058        568,311  

North America

     609,058        265,661        28,084  

Asia and Australia

     233,792        42,462        13,850  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total

     2,461,896        1,337,181        610,245  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Polestar has set itself the important goal to create a truly climate neutral production car by the end of 2030, which it refers to as the Polestar 0 project. The development of a truly climate neutral production car by the end of 2030 is a significant milestone on the path to Polestar’s goal of becoming a climate neutral company by the end of 2040.

Polestar’s vehicles are currently manufactured at a plant in Luqiao, China that is owned and operated by Volvo Cars. The plant, referred to by Volvo Cars as the “Taizhou” plant, was acquired by Volvo Cars from Geely in December 2021. Prior to that time, the plant had been owned by Geely and operated by Volvo Cars. The Polestar 2 vehicles have been manufactured at this plant since production commenced in 2020. Commencing with the Polestar 3, Polestar intends to produce vehicles both in China at Volvo Cars’ Chengdu facility and in the United States at Volvo Cars’ facility in Charleston, South Carolina. Polestar’s ability to leverage the manufacturing footprint of both Volvo Cars and Geely provides it with access to a substantial combined installed production capacity and gives Polestar’s highly scalable business model immediate operating leverage. Polestar also plans on expanding its production capacity in Europe by leveraging plants that are owned and operated by Volvo Cars.

Polestar’s sales channels include both direct-to-business and direct-to-consumer models. In direct-to-business, vehicles are sold to dealerships and various fleet customers, such as rental car companies and corporate fleet managers. In direct-to-consumer, Polestar uses a digital first approach that enables its customers to browse Polestar’s products, configure their preferred vehicle and place their order on-line. Alternatively, Polestar Spaces are where customers can see, feel and test drive Polestar’s vehicles prior to making an on-line purchase. Polestar believes this combination of digital and physical retail presence delivers a seamless experience for its customers. Polestar’s customer experience is further enhanced by its comprehensive service network that leverages the existing Volvo Cars service center network. As of December 31, 2022, there were 158 Polestar Spaces. In addition, Polestar leverages the Volvo Cars service center network to provide access to 1,116 customer service points worldwide (as of December 31, 2022) in support of its international operations.

Polestar’s research and development expertise is a core competence and Polestar believes it is a significant competitive advantage. With over 650 personnel located in Coventry, United Kingdom and Gothenburg, Sweden, the European research and development team focuses on areas such as bonded aluminum architectures,

 

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high-performance electric motor and bi-directional compatible battery packs, in-car software development and advanced engineering and research. A further 30 employees in Shanghai, China are dedicated to the development of specific features for the Chinese market. The Polestar research and development team also benefits, through a variety of agreements, from having access to the substantial engineering and design teams of Volvo Cars and Geely. The strong expertise and ambition to develop and produce sustainable technology solutions and materials is also a key asset of Polestar’s research and development. All in all, Polestar’s ability to create cars with a strong Polestar product design is also widely recognized as a key differentiator.

Polestar has drawn extensively on the industrial heritage, knowledge and market infrastructure of Volvo Cars. This combination of deep automotive expertise, paired with cutting-edge technologies and an agile, entrepreneurial culture, underpins Polestar’s differentiation, potential for growth and success.

Recent Developments

On January 5, 2023, Polestar announced that its vehicles will benefit from Google’s new high definition (“HD”) map, a comprehensive map that will provide highly detailed and up-to-date road information. With HD map, Polestar expects to be able to combine its vehicle sensor technology and Google’s precise lane-level and localization data to facilitate driver assistance features like Pilot Assist, as well as future autonomous driving functionality.

On February 1, 2023, Polestar announced that it had signed up a further eight partners to the Polestar 0 project, the Company’s goal to create a truly climate neutral production car by 2030. The new collaborators. which include Vitesco Technologies and Stora Enso, will contribute to research in areas such as bio-based materials, chemicals, aluminum processes, electronics and interior surface materials.

On February 2, 2023, Polestar and Luminar announced an expanded collaboration on the industrial design and integration of Luminar’s 3D laser scanning technology which will be featured on Polestar’s future vehicles, including Polestar 5 – the electric 4-door GT expected to be launched in 2024. Luminar is an existing supplier of light detection and ranging (“LiDAR”) technology for Polestar 3, the Company’s electric performance SUV, which was launched in October 2022.

On February 8, 2023, Polestar and Rivian issued in collaboration a “Pathway Report” which concludes that the automotive industry is set to overshoot the IPCC’s 1.5-degree pathway by at least 75% by 2050. Issued in response to the climate crisis, the report, which uses existing, open-source data to model the current trajectory for emissions stemming from the car industry, was carried out by global management consulting firm Kearney.

On February 22, 2023, Polestar announced a major upgrade to the Polestar 2 for model 2024. The changes feature a new high-tech front end that reflects the design language premiered by Polestar 3, substantial performance increases with all-new electric motors, even more powerful batteries, sustainability improvements and, for the first time in a Polestar, rear-wheel drive.

On February 26, 2023, Polestar amended and restated the EUR 350,000,000 uncommitted green trade finance facility, including an accordion facility of up to EUR 250,000,000, into which it entered with Standard Chartered Bank, Nordea Bank ABP, Citibank Europe PLC and ING Belgium SA/NV on February 28, 2022. In connection with the amendment and restatement, the green trade finance facility was extended for an additional 12 months. Loans under the green trade finance facility carry interest at EURIBOR plus 2.3% per annum plus a flat arrangement fee of 0.05-0.10% to be paid on the value of a bank’s participation in the facility. The facility has a repayment period of 90 days and includes a covenant tied to Polestar’s cash and cash equivalents position and available commitments under committed credit facilities not falling below EUR 400,000,000. As of the date of this prospectus, the outstanding principal balance under the green trade finance facility was EUR 190,678,961.

 

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A copy of the amended and restated trade finance facility agreement is filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part.

On April 6, 2023, Polestar announced that it had delivered approximately 12,000 vehicles in the first quarter of 2023.

Foreign Private Issuer

As a foreign private issuer, the Company is subject to different U.S. securities laws than domestic U.S. issuers. As long as the Company continues to qualify as a foreign private issuer under the Exchange Act, the Company is exempt from certain provisions of the Exchange Act that are applicable to U.S. domestic public companies, including:

 

   

the sections of the Exchange Act regulating the solicitation of proxies, consents or authorizations in respect of a security registered under the Exchange Act;

 

   

the sections of the Exchange Act requiring insiders to file public reports of their stock ownership and trading activities and liability for insiders who profit from trades made in a short period of time; and

 

   

the rules under the Exchange Act requiring the filing with the SEC of quarterly reports on Form 10-Q containing unaudited financial and other specified information, or current reports on Form 8-K, upon the occurrence of specified significant events.

In addition, the Company is not required to file annual reports and financial statements with the SEC as promptly as U.S. domestic companies whose securities are registered under the Exchange Act, and is not required to comply with Regulation FD, which restricts the selective disclosure of material information.

Further, the Company is exempt from certain corporate governance requirements of Nasdaq by virtue of being a foreign private issuer. Although the foreign private issuer status exempts the Company from most of Nasdaq’s corporate governance requirements, the Company has decided to voluntarily comply with these requirements, except for the requirement to have a compensation committee and a nominating and governance committee consisting entirely of independent directors.

Furthermore, Nasdaq rules also generally require each listed company to obtain shareholder approval prior to the issuance of securities in certain circumstances in connection with the acquisition of the stock or assets of another company, equity based compensation of officers, directors, employees or consultants, change of control and certain transactions other than a public offering. As a foreign private issuer, the Company is exempt from these requirements and may elect not to obtain shareholders’ approval prior to any further issuance of our Class A ADSs other than as may be required by the laws of England and Wales.

Subject to requirements under the Polestar Articles and Shareholder Acknowledgment Agreement that the Board be comprised of a majority of independent directors for the three years following the Business Combination Closing, the Company may in the future elect to avail itself of these exemptions or to follow home country practices with regard to other matters. As a result, its shareholders will not have the same protections afforded to shareholders of companies that are subject to all of Nasdaq’s corporate governance requirements.

Controlled Company

By virtue of being a controlled company under Nasdaq listing rules, the Company may elect not to comply with certain Nasdaq corporate governance requirements, including that:

 

   

a majority of the board of directors consist of independent directors (however, pursuant to the Polestar Articles and Shareholder Acknowledgment Agreement, for the three years following the Business Combination Closing, the Board must be comprised of a majority of independent directors);

 

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the compensation committee be composed entirely of independent directors with a written charter addressing the committee’s purpose and responsibilities;

 

   

the nominating and governance committee be composed entirely of independent directors with a written charter addressing the committee’s purpose and responsibilities; and

 

   

there be an annual performance evaluation of the compensation and nominating and governance committees.

Other than as specified above, the Company may in the future elect to avail itself of these exemptions. As a result, its shareholders will not have the same protections afforded to shareholders of companies that are subject to all of Nasdaq’s corporate governance requirements.

Risk Factors

An investment in securities of Polestar involves substantial risks and uncertainties that may adversely affect Polestar’s business, financial condition and results of operations and cash flows. Some of the more significant challenges and risks relating to an investment in Polestar include, among other things, the following:

 

   

Polestar’s operations rely heavily on a variety of agreements with its strategic partners, Volvo Cars and Geely, including agreements related to research and development, intellectual property licensing, purchasing, manufacturing engineering and logistics, and Polestar may come to rely on other original equipment manufacturers, vendors and technology providers. The interests of Polestar’s partners, providers or licensors may diverge from those of Polestar.

 

   

Polestar’s ability to produce vehicles and its future growth also depend upon its ability to maintain relationships with its existing suppliers and strategic partners, to source new suppliers for its critical components, and to complete building out its supply chain, while effectively managing the risks due to such relationships.

 

   

Polestar is dependent on strategic partners and suppliers, some of which are single-source suppliers, and the inability of these partners and suppliers to deliver necessary components of Polestar’s products on schedule and at prices, quality levels and volumes acceptable to Polestar, or Polestar’s inability to efficiently manage these components, could have a material and adverse effect on Polestar.

 

   

Polestar may be unable to grow its global product sales, delivery capabilities and its servicing and vehicle charging partnerships, or Polestar may be unable to accurately project and effectively manage its growth.

 

   

Polestar has experienced and may in the future experience significant delays in the design, development, manufacture, launch and financing of its vehicles, which could harm its business and prospects.

 

   

Increases in costs, disruption of supply or shortage of materials, in particular for lithium-ion cells or semiconductors, could harm Polestar’s business.

 

   

Polestar operates in an intensely competitive market, which is generally cyclical and volatile.

 

   

Polestar has incurred net losses each year since its inception and expects to incur increasing expenses and substantial losses for the foreseeable future.

 

   

Polestar’s independent registered public accounting firm has included an explanatory paragraph relating to Polestar’s ability to continue as a going concern in its report on Polestar’s financial statements included in this prospectus.

 

   

Polestar depends on revenue generated from a limited number of models and expects this to continue in the foreseeable future.

 

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Delays in the timing of expected business milestones and commercial launches, including Polestar’s ability to mass produce its electric vehicles and/or complete and/or expand its manufacturing capabilities, could materially and adversely affect Polestar.

 

   

Polestar relies heavily on manufacturing facilities and suppliers, including single-source suppliers, based in China and its growth strategy will depend on growing its business in China.

 

   

The Chinese government may intervene in or influence Polestar’s and Polestar’s partners’ operations in China at any time, which could result in a material change in Polestar’s operations and ability to produce vehicles and significantly and adversely impact the value of Polestar’s securities.

 

   

Changes in Chinese policies, regulations and rules may be quick with little advance notice and the enforcement of laws of the Chinese government is uncertain and could have a significant impact upon Polestar’s and its partners’ ability to operate profitably.

 

   

Polestar and its subsidiaries (i) may not receive or maintain permissions or approvals from the CAC or other relevant authorities to operate in China, (ii) may inadvertently conclude that such permissions or approvals are not required or (iii) may be required to obtain new permissions or approvals in the future due to changes in applicable laws, regulations or interpretations related thereto.

 

   

Investors should not rely on outdated financial projections.

 

   

Polestar’s main distribution approach is different from the currently predominant distribution model for automakers, and its long-term viability is unproven.

 

   

Polestar’s vehicles make use of lithium-ion battery cells, which have been observed to catch fire or vent smoke and flame.

 

   

Polestar’s ability to generate meaningful product revenue will depend on consumer adoption of electric vehicles. If the pace and depth of electric vehicle adoption develops more slowly than Polestar expects, its revenue may decline or fail to grow, and Polestar may be materially and adversely affected.

 

   

Polestar is subject to evolving laws, regulations, standards, policies and contractual obligations related to data privacy, security and consumer protection, and any actual or perceived failure to comply with such obligations could harm Polestar’s reputation and brand, subject Polestar to significant fines and liability, or otherwise adversely affect its business.

 

   

Polestar has undertaken, and in the future may choose to or be compelled to undertake, product recalls or to take other actions that could result in litigation.

 

   

Much of the intellectual property pertaining to Polestar’s vehicles is owned by Volvo Cars and Geely and licensed, in some cases on a non-exclusive basis, to Polestar.

 

   

Polestar will require additional capital to support business growth, and this capital might not be available on commercially reasonable terms, or at all.

 

   

Polestar’s financial results may vary significantly from period to period due to fluctuations in its operating costs, product demand and other factors.

 

   

If Polestar’s performance does not meet the expectations of investors, stockholders or financial analysts, the market price of the ADSs may decline.

 

   

Polestar is a foreign private issuer within the meaning of the rules under the Exchange Act and, as such, it is exempt from certain provisions applicable to United States domestic public companies.

 

   

As Polestar is a foreign private issuer and follows certain home country corporate governance practices, its shareholders may not have the same protections afforded to shareholders of companies that are subject to all of Nasdaq’s corporate governance requirements.

 

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Polestar may lose its foreign private issuer status in the future, which could result in significant additional costs and expenses.

 

   

Polestar has identified material weaknesses in its internal control over financial reporting.

 

   

The securities being offered in this prospectus represent a substantial percentage of the outstanding Class A ADSs, and the sales of such securities, or the perception that these sales could occur, could cause the market price of the securities of the Company to decline significantly and certain Selling Securityholders still may receive significant proceeds.

Our Corporate Information

The Company was incorporated under the laws of England and Wales as a company limited by shares on September 15, 2021 and was re-registered as a public limited company under the laws of England and Wales on May 5, 2022 in connection with the Business Combination. The Company’s registered office in England is The Pavilions, Bridgewater Road, Bristol, England, BS13 8AE. The address of the principal executive office of the Company is Assar Gabrielssons Väg 9 405 31 Gothenburg, Sweden, and the telephone number of the Company is +1 (949) 735-1834. Our agent for service of process in the United States is Polestar Automotive Holding USA Inc. at 77 MacArthur Blvd, Mahwah, NJ 07430.

The SEC maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC. The SEC’s website is http://www.sec.gov. The Company’s principal website address is https://www.polestar.com/us/. We do not incorporate the information contained on, or accessible through, the Company’s websites into this prospectus, and you should not consider it a part of this prospectus.

 

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THE OFFERING

The summary below describes the principal terms of the offering. The “Description of Share Capital and Articles of Association” and “Description of American Depositary Shares” sections of this prospectus contain a more detailed description of the Company’s Class A ADSs and Class C ADSs.

 

Securities being registered for resale by the Selling Securityholders:

(i) 294,877,349 Class A ADSs issued to Former Parent as merger consideration in connection with the Business Combination at an equity consideration value of $10.00 per share, (ii) up to 24,078,638 Class A ADSs which are issuable to the Former Parent Shareholders as earn out consideration (valued as $10.00 per Class A ADS at the time of the Business Combination) upon the achievement of certain price thresholds for the Class A ADSs, as further described in this prospectus, (iii) 1,776,332,546 Class A ADSs issuable upon conversion of Class B ADSs, including 134,098,971 Class B ADSs which are issuable to the Former Parent Shareholders as earn out consideration (valued as $10.00 per Class B ADS at the time of the Business Combination) upon the achievement of certain price thresholds for the Class A ADSs, as further described in this prospectus, (iv) 18,459,165 Class A ADSs issued to the GGI Sponsor in connection with the Business Combination in exchange for the 18,459,165 shares of GGI Class F Common Stock that the GGI Sponsor initially purchased at $0.001 per share of GGI Class F Common Stock and that the GGI Sponsor retained after forfeiture of 1,540,835 shares of GGI Class F Common Stock; (v) 26,540,835 Class A ADSs issued to GGI Sponsor, the PIPE Investors and Snita pursuant to the Sponsor Subscription Agreement, the PIPE Subscription Agreements and the Volvo Cars PIPE Subscription Agreement, respectively, at an average cash price of $9.42 per Class A ADS, (vi) 58,882,610 Class A ADSs issued to Snita upon conversion of the Volvo Cars Preference Subscription Shares at the time of the Business Combination at a $10.00 conversion price, (vii) 4,306,466 Class A ADSs that were issued to Former Parent Convertible Notes Holders upon conversion of the Former Parent Convertible Notes at the time of the Business Combination at a conversion price of $8.18, and (viii) up to 500,000 Class A ADSs issuable to a service provider in exchange for the performance of marketing consulting services valued at up to $5,000,000. This prospectus also covers any additional securities that may become issuable by reason of share splits, share dividends or similar transactions.

 

Offering prices for resales:

The Selling Securityholders will determine when and how they will dispose of the Class A ADSs and Class C-2 ADSs, the resale of which is being registered under this prospectus.

 

Class A ADSs offered by us:

Up to 24,999,965 Class A ADSs issuable upon conversion of the Class C ADSs, including up to 9,000,000 Class A ADSs issuable upon conversion of the Class C-2 ADSs initially held by the GGI

 

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Sponsor in the form of Class C-2 ADSs and which may be converted into Class C-1 ADSs pursuant to the terms of the Class C-2 ADSs.

 

Terms of Class C ADSs:

Each Class C ADS entitles the holder to purchase one Class A ADS at a price of $11.50 per Class C ADS, subject to adjustments. Our Class C ADSs expire on June 23, 2027 at 5:00 p.m., New York City time, or earlier upon redemption.

 

Securities issued and outstanding prior to any exercise of Class C ADSs as of the date of this prospectus:

467,708,923 Class A ADSs, 1,642,233,575 Class B ADSs, no Volvo Cars Preference Subscription Shares, 50,000 GBP Redeemable Preferred Shares, 20,499,965 Class C-1 ADSs and 4,500,000 Class C-2 ADSs.

 

Class A ADSs outstanding assuming the exercise of all Class C ADSs

492,708,888 Class A ADSs.

 

Use of Proceeds:

All of the securities offered by the Selling Securityholders pursuant to this prospectus will be sold by the Selling Securityholders for their respective accounts. We will not receive any of the proceeds from such sales. We will receive up to an aggregate of approximately $287.5 million from the exercise of the Class C ADSs, assuming the exercise in full of all of the Class C ADSs for cash. We believe the likelihood that holders will exercise their Class C ADSs, and therefore the amount of cash proceeds that we would receive, is dependent upon the market price of our Class A ADSs. When the market price for our Class A ADSs is less than $11.50 per share (i.e., the Class C ADSs are “out of the money”), which it is as of the date of this prospectus, we believe holders of Class C ADSs will be unlikely to exercise their Class C ADSs. We expect to use the net proceeds from the exercise of the Class C ADSs for general corporate purposes. To the extent that any of the Class C ADSs are exercised on a “cashless basis,” the amount of cash we would receive from the exercise of the Class C ADSs will decrease. See “Use of Proceeds.”

 

Dividend Policy:

We have never declared or paid any cash dividend on our capital stock. We currently intend to retain any future earnings and do not expect to pay any dividends in the foreseeable future. Any further determination to pay dividends would be at the discretion of our board of directors, subject to applicable laws, and would depend on our financial condition, results of operations, capital requirements, general business conditions, and other factors that our board of directors may deem relevant.

 

Market for our Class A ADSs and Class C-1 ADSs:

Our Class A ADSs and Class C-1 ADSs are listed on Nasdaq under the trading symbols “PSNY” and “PSNYW,” respectively.

 

Risk Factors:

You should carefully consider the information set forth herein under “Risk Factors.”

 

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RISK FACTORS

Risks Related to Polestar’s Business and Industry

Polestar’s operations rely heavily on a variety of agreements with its strategic partners, Volvo Cars and Geely, including agreements related to research and development, intellectual property licensing, purchasing, manufacturing engineering and logistics, and Polestar may come to rely on other original equipment manufacturers, vendors and technology providers. The interests of Polestar’s partners, providers or licensors may diverge from those of Polestar. The inability of Polestar to maintain agreements or partnerships with its existing partners, providers or licensors, or to enter into new agreements or partnerships could have a material and adverse effect on Polestar’s ability to operate as a standalone business, produce vehicles, reach its development and production targets or focus efforts on its core areas of differentiation.

Polestar’s operations rely heavily on a variety of agreements, including agreements related to research and development, intellectual property licensing, purchasing, manufacturing engineering and logistics, with its strategic partners, including Volvo Cars, Geely and certain other original equipment manufacturers, vendors and technology providers. Polestar’s reliance on these agreements subjects it to a number of significant risks, including the risk of being unable to operate as a standalone business, produce vehicles, enforce intellectual property rights or effectively defend against intellectual property infringement claims, reach its development and production targets or focus its efforts on core areas of differentiation.

Of particular importance for Polestar’s operations are the related party agreements with Volvo Cars and Geely. These related party agreements include research and development agreements, manufacturing agreements, licensing agreements, purchasing agreements, component supply agreements, customer care agreements, logistics agreements and distribution agreements, amongst other areas. These agreements are described in more detail in this prospectus in the sections entitled “Business—Related Party Agreements with Volvo Cars and Geely” and “Certain Relationships and Related Party Transactions.” These partnerships permit Polestar to benefit from decades of experience of established auto-manufacturers while focusing its efforts on core areas of differentiation, such as design, performance and rapid adoption of the latest technologies and sustainability solutions. Polestar intends to continue to rely on these partnerships as part of its strategy. Polestar intends to rely solely on its arrangements with Volvo Cars, Geely and other contract partners to manufacture current and future Polestar models. If Polestar is unable to maintain agreements or partnerships with its existing partners, providers or licensors, or to enter into new agreements or partnerships, Polestar’s ability to operate as a standalone business, produce vehicles, reach its development and production targets or focus its efforts on core areas of differentiation could be materially and adversely affected.

Polestar’s ability to produce vehicles and its future growth depend upon its ability to maintain relationships with its existing suppliers and strategic partners, to source new suppliers for its critical components, and to complete building out its supply chain, while effectively managing the risks due to such relationships.

Polestar’s success will be dependent upon its ability to enter into new supplier agreements and maintain its relationships with suppliers and strategic partners who are critical and necessary to the output and production of its vehicles. Polestar also relies on suppliers and its strategic partners to provide it with key components and technology for its vehicles. The supplier agreements Polestar has or may enter into with key suppliers and its strategic partners in the future may have provisions where such agreements can be terminated in various circumstances, including potentially without cause. If these suppliers and strategic partners become unable to provide, or experience delays in providing components or technology, or if the supplier and related party agreements Polestar has in place are terminated, it may be difficult to find replacement components and technology. Changes in business conditions, pandemics, governmental changes and other factors beyond Polestar’s control or that Polestar does not presently anticipate could affect its ability to receive components or technology from its suppliers and strategic partners.

 

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Further, Polestar has not secured supply agreements for all of its components, technology and services. Polestar may be at a disadvantage in negotiating supply agreements for the production of its vehicles due to its limited operating history as a standalone business. In addition, there is the possibility that finalizing the supply agreements for the parts and components of its vehicles will cause significant disruption to Polestar’s operations, or such supply agreements could be at costs that make it difficult for Polestar to operate profitably.

If Polestar does not enter into long-term supplier agreements with guaranteed pricing for its parts or components, it may be exposed to fluctuations in prices of components, materials, labor and equipment. Agreements for the purchase of battery cells and other components contain or are likely to contain pricing provisions that are subject to adjustment based on changes in market prices of key commodities. Substantial increases in the prices for such components, materials, labor and equipment, whether due to supply chain or logistics issues or due to inflation, would increase Polestar’s operating costs and could reduce its margins if it cannot recoup the increased costs. Any attempts to increase the announced or expected prices of Polestar’s vehicles in response to increased costs could be viewed negatively by its customers or potential customers and could adversely affect Polestar’s business, prospects, financial condition or results of operations.

Polestar is dependent on its strategic partners and suppliers, some of which are single-source suppliers, and the inability of these strategic partners and suppliers to deliver necessary components of Polestar’s products on schedule and at prices, quality levels and volumes acceptable to Polestar, or Polestar’s inability to efficiently manage these components, could have a material and adverse effect on Polestar’s results of operations and financial condition.

Polestar relies on its strategic partners and suppliers for the provision and development of many of the key components and materials used in its vehicles. While Polestar plans to obtain components from multiple sources whenever possible, many of the components used in Polestar’s vehicles will be purchased by Polestar from a single source, and Polestar’s limited, and in many cases single-source, supply chain exposes it to multiple potential sources of delivery failure or component shortages for its production. Polestar’s suppliers may not be able to meet Polestar’s required product specifications and performance characteristics, which would impact Polestar’s ability to achieve its product specifications and performance characteristics as well. Additionally, Polestar’s suppliers may be unable to obtain required certifications or provide necessary warranties for their products that are necessary for use in Polestar’s vehicles. Polestar may also be impacted by changes in its supply chain or production needs, including cost increases from its suppliers, in order to meet its quality targets and development timelines as well as due to design changes. Likewise, any significant increases in its production may in the future require Polestar to procure additional components in a short amount of time. Polestar’s suppliers may not ultimately be able to sustainably and timely meet Polestar’s cost, quality and volume needs, requiring Polestar to replace them with other sources. If Polestar is unable to obtain suitable components and materials used in its vehicles from its suppliers or if its suppliers decide to create or supply a competing product, its business could be adversely affected. Further, if Polestar is unsuccessful in its efforts to control and reduce supplier costs, its results of operations will suffer.

In addition, Polestar could experience delays if its strategic partners and suppliers do not meet agreed upon timelines or experience capacity constraints. Any disruption in the supply of components, whether or not from a single source supplier, could temporarily disrupt production of Polestar’s vehicles until an alternative supplier is able to supply the required material, and there can be no guarantee that Polestar or its strategic partners will be able to make up for delays in production caused by any disruption in the supply of critical components. Even in cases where Polestar may be able to establish alternate supply relationships and obtain or engineer replacement components for its single source components, it may be unable to do so quickly, or at all, at prices or quality levels that are acceptable to it. This risk is heightened by the fact that Polestar has less negotiating leverage with suppliers than larger and more established automobile manufacturers, which could adversely affect its ability to obtain necessary components and materials on favorable pricing and other terms, or at all. Any of the foregoing could materially and adversely affect Polestar’s results of operations, financial condition and prospects. (See “—Increases in costs, disruption of supply or shortage of materials, in particular for lithium-ion cells or

 

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semiconductors, could harm Polestar’s business. Polestar will need to maintain and significantly grow its access to battery cells, including through the development and manufacture of its own cells, and control its related costs.”)

Furthermore, as the scale of its vehicle production increases, Polestar will need to accurately forecast, purchase, arrange for warehouse and transport of components internationally to manufacturing facilities and servicing locations and at much higher volumes. If Polestar is unable to accurately match the timing and quantities of component purchases to its actual needs or successfully implement automation, inventory management and other systems to accommodate the increased complexity in its supply chain, Polestar may incur unexpected production disruption, storage, transportation and write-off costs, which could have a material and adverse effect on its results of operations and financial condition.

In addition, as Polestar develops an international manufacturing footprint, it will face additional challenges with respect to international supply chain management and logistics costs. If Polestar is unable to access or develop localized supply chains in the regions where it or its partners already have or develop manufacturing facilities with the quality, costs and capabilities required, Polestar could be required to source components from distant suppliers, which would increase its logistics and manufacturing costs, increase the risk and complexity of Polestar’s supply chain and significantly impair Polestar’s ability to develop cost-effective manufacturing operations, which could have a material and adverse effect on Polestar’s business, results of operations and financial condition.

Furthermore, unexpected changes in business conditions, materials pricing and/or availability, labor issues, wars, governmental changes, tariffs, natural disasters, health epidemics such as the COVID-19 pandemic, and other factors beyond Polestar’s and its suppliers’ control could also affect these suppliers’ ability to deliver components to Polestar on a timely basis. For example, Polestar relies on single-source suppliers for critical components for Polestar vehicles, including single-source suppliers in Shanghai. Prolonged government mandated quarantines and lockdowns in China during 2022 due to further outbreaks of COVID-19 resulted in delays in the production and delivery of such critical components and delayed production of Polestar vehicles. The loss of a strategic partner or any supplier, particularly a single- or limited-source supplier, or the disruption in the supply of components from its strategic partners or suppliers, could lead to vehicle design changes, production delays, idle manufacturing facilities and potential loss of access to important technology and parts for producing, servicing and supporting Polestar’s vehicles, any of which could result in negative publicity, damage to its brand and a material and adverse effect on its business, prospects, results of operations and financial condition. In addition, if Polestar’s suppliers experience substantial financial difficulties, cease operations or otherwise face business disruptions, including as a result of the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, Polestar may be required to provide substantial financial support to ensure supply continuity, which could have an additional adverse effect on Polestar’s liquidity and financial condition.

Polestar may not be able to accurately estimate the supply and demand for its vehicles, which could result in inefficiencies in its business, hinder its ability to generate revenue and create delays in the production of its vehicles. If Polestar fails to accurately predict its manufacturing requirements, Polestar will incur the risk of having to pay for production capacities that it reserved but will not be able to use or that Polestar will not be able to secure sufficient additional production capacities at reasonable costs in case product demand exceeds expectations.

It is difficult to predict Polestar’s future revenues and appropriately budget for its expenses, and Polestar has limited insight into trends that may emerge and affect its business. Polestar is required to provide forecasts of its demand to certain of its strategic partners and suppliers several months prior to the scheduled delivery of vehicles to its prospective customers. Currently, there is little historical basis for making judgments about the demand for Polestar’s vehicles or its ability to develop, manufacture and deliver vehicles, or its profitability in the future. If Polestar overestimates its requirements, its strategic partners or suppliers may have excess manufacturing capacity and/or inventory, which indirectly would increase its costs. If Polestar underestimates its requirements,

 

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its strategic partners and suppliers may have inadequate manufacturing capacity and/or inventory, which could interrupt manufacturing of its products and result in delays in shipments and revenues. In addition, lead times for materials and components that Polestar’s suppliers order may vary significantly and depend on factors such as the specific supplier, contract terms and demand for each component at a given time. If Polestar fails to order sufficient quantities of product components in a timely manner, the delivery of vehicles to its customers could be delayed, which would harm Polestar’s brand, business, financial condition and results of operations.

Polestar may be unable to grow its global product sales, delivery capabilities and its servicing, or Polestar may be unable to accurately project and effectively manage its growth. If Polestar is unable to expand its servicing capabilities, customers’ perceptions of Polestar could be negatively affected, which could materially and adversely affect Polestar’s business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Polestar’s success will depend on its ability to continue to expand its sales capabilities. As Polestar develops and grows its products worldwide, its success will depend on its ability to correctly forecast demand in various markets. If Polestar incorrectly forecasts its demand in one market, it cannot move this excess supply to another market where demand for Polestar products exists. Polestar may face difficulties with deliveries at increasing volumes, particularly in international markets requiring significant transit times. Moreover, because of Polestar’s unique expertise with its vehicles, Polestar recommends that its vehicles be serviced by Polestar or by certain authorized professionals. If Polestar experiences delays in adding servicing capacity or servicing its vehicles efficiently, or experiences unforeseen issues with the reliability of its vehicles, it could overburden Polestar’s servicing capabilities and parts inventory.

There is no assurance that Polestar will be able to ramp its business to meet its sales, delivery, manufacturing and servicing targets globally, or that Polestar’s projections on which such targets are based will prove accurate. These plans require significant cash investments and management resources and there is no guarantee that they will generate additional sales or manufacturing of Polestar’s products, or that Polestar will be able to avoid cost overruns or be able to hire additional personnel to support them. As Polestar expands, it will also need to ensure its compliance with regulatory requirements in various jurisdictions applicable to the manufacturing, sale and servicing of its products. If Polestar fails to manage its growth effectively, its brand, business, prospects, financial condition and operating results may be harmed.

Polestar has experienced and may in the future experience significant delays in the design, development, manufacture, launch and financing of its vehicles, which could harm its business and prospects.

Any delay in the financing, development, design, manufacture and launch of Polestar’s vehicles, including planned future models, and any future electric vehicles could materially damage Polestar’s business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations. Automobile manufacturers often experience delays in the development, design, manufacture and commercial release of new vehicle models, and Polestar has experienced in the past, and may experience in the future, such delays with regard to its vehicles. For example, in 2020, the Polestar 2’s intended start date for production was delayed by one month. Further, delays can also impact features in the vehicles, as seen with Polestar’s introduction of Apple CarPlay into Polestar 2. Polestar’s plan to commercially manufacture and sell its vehicles is dependent upon the timely availability of funds, upon Polestar’s finalizing of the related development, component procurement, testing, build-out and manufacturing plans in a timely manner and also upon Polestar’s ability to execute these plans within the planned timeline. Prior to mass production of its new models, Polestar will also need the vehicles to be fully approved for sale according to differing requirements, including but not limited to regulatory requirements, in the different geographies where Polestar intends to launch its vehicles.

Furthermore, Polestar relies on its strategic partners and suppliers for the provision and development of many of the key components, technology and materials used in its vehicles. To the extent Polestar’s strategic partners or suppliers experience any delays in providing Polestar with or developing necessary components, technology and materials, Polestar could experience delays in delivering on its timelines. Any significant delay

 

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or other complication in the development, manufacture, launch and production ramp of Polestar’s future products, features and services, including complications associated with expanding its production capacity and supply chain or obtaining or maintaining related regulatory approvals, or the inability to manage such ramps cost-effectively, could materially damage Polestar’s brand, business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.

Increases in costs, disruption of supply or shortage of materials, in particular for lithium-ion cells or semiconductors, could harm Polestar’s business. Polestar will need to maintain and significantly grow its access to battery cells, including through the development and manufacture of its own cells, and control its related costs.

As Polestar produces its vehicles, it may experience increases in the cost of or a sustained interruption in the supply or shortage of materials. Any such increase, supply interruption or shortage could materially and adversely impact Polestar’s business, results of operations, prospects and financial condition. The production of Polestar’s vehicles requires lithium-ion cells and semiconductors from suppliers, as well as aluminum, steel, lithium, nickel, copper, cobalt, neodymium, terbium, praseodymium and manganese. The prices for these materials fluctuate, and their available supply may be unstable, depending on market conditions, inflationary pressure and global demand for these materials, including as a result of increased production of electric vehicles and energy storage products by Polestar’s competitors, and could adversely affect Polestar’s business and results of operations. Polestar’s ability to manufacture its vehicles will depend on the continued supply of battery cells for the battery packs used in its products. Polestar has limited flexibility in changing battery cell suppliers, and any disruption in the supply of battery cells from such suppliers could disrupt production of Polestar’s vehicles until a different supplier is fully qualified. In particular, Polestar is exposed to multiple risks relating to lithium-ion cells. These risks include:

 

   

the inability or unwillingness of current battery manufacturers to build or operate battery cell manufacturing plants to supply the numbers of lithium-ion cells required to support the growth of the electric vehicle industry as demand for such cells increases;

 

   

an increase in the cost, or a decrease in the available supply, of materials, such as cobalt, used in lithium-ion cells;

 

   

disruption in the supply of cells due to quality issues or recalls by battery cell manufacturers; and

 

   

fluctuations in the value of any foreign currencies, and the Swedish Krona (“SEK”), the Chinese Yuan (“CNY”), USD or the Euro (“EUR”) in particular, in which battery cell and related raw material purchases are or may be denominated.

Furthermore, Polestar’s ability to manufacture its vehicles depends on continuing access to semiconductors and components that incorporate semiconductors. A global semiconductor supply shortage is having wide-ranging effects across multiple industries and the automotive industry in particular, and it has impacted many automotive suppliers and manufacturers, including Polestar, that incorporate semiconductors into the parts they supply or manufacture. Polestar has experienced and may continue to experience an impact on its operations as a result of the semiconductor supply shortage, and such shortage could in the future have a material impact on Polestar or its suppliers, which could delay production or force Polestar or its suppliers to pay exorbitant rates for continued access to semiconductors and could have a material and adverse effect on Polestar’s business, prospects and results of operations. In addition, prices and transportation expenses for these materials fluctuate depending on many factors beyond Polestar’s control, including fluctuations in supply and demand, currency fluctuations, tariffs and taxes, fluctuations and shortages in petroleum supply, freight charges, the COVID-19 pandemic and other economic and political factors. Substantial increases in the prices for Polestar’s materials or prices charged to Polestar, such as those charged by battery cell or semiconductor suppliers, would increase Polestar’s operating costs, and could reduce Polestar’s margins if it cannot recoup the increased costs through increased prices. Any attempt to increase product prices in response to increased material costs could result in cancellations of orders and reservations and materially and adversely affect Polestar’s brand, image, business, results of operations, prospects and financial condition.

 

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The success and growth of Polestar’s business depends upon its ability to continuously and rapidly innovate, develop and market new products and there are significant risks related to future market adoption of Polestar’s products. Polestar’s limited operating history makes evaluating its business and future prospects difficult and may increase the risk of your investment.

The success and growth of Polestar’s business depends upon its ability, working with its strategic partners, to continuously and rapidly innovate, develop and market new products, and there are significant risks related to future market adoption of Polestar’s products and government programs incentivizing consumers to purchase electric vehicles. Polestar has a limited operating history and operates in a rapidly evolving and highly regulated market. Polestar has encountered and expects to continue to encounter risks and uncertainties frequently experienced by early-stage companies in rapidly changing markets, including risks relating to its ability to, among other things:

 

   

successfully launch commercial production and sales of its vehicles on the timing and with the specifications Polestar has planned;

 

   

hire, integrate and retain professional and technical talent, including key members of management;

 

   

continue to make significant investments in research, development, manufacturing, marketing and sales;

 

   

successfully obtain, maintain, protect and enforce its intellectual property and defend against claims of intellectual property infringement, misappropriation or other violations;

 

   

build a well-recognized and respected brand;

 

   

establish and refine its commercial manufacturing capabilities and distribution infrastructure;

 

   

establish and maintain satisfactory arrangements with its strategic partners and suppliers;

 

   

establish and expand a customer base;

 

   

navigate an evolving and complex regulatory environment;

 

   

anticipate and adapt to changing market conditions, including consumer demand for certain vehicle types, models or trim levels, technological developments, as well as changes in competitive landscape; and

 

   

successfully design, build, manufacture and market new models of electric vehicles, including in collaboration with its partners providers, or licensors, in the future.

Polestar operates in an intensely competitive market, which is generally cyclical and volatile. Should Polestar not be able to compete effectively against its competitors then it is likely to lose market shares, which could have a material and adverse effect on the business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects of Polestar.

The global automotive market, particularly for electric and alternative fuel vehicles, is highly competitive, and Polestar expects it will become even more so in the future. In recent years, the electric vehicle industry has grown, with several companies that focus completely or partially on the electric vehicle market. Polestar expects additional companies to enter this market within the next several years. Polestar also competes with established automobile manufacturers in the luxury vehicle segment, many of which have entered or have announced plans to enter the alternative fuel and electric vehicle market with either fully electric or plug-in hybrid versions of their vehicles, and Polestar also expects to compete for sales with luxury vehicles with internal combustion engines from established manufacturers. Many of Polestar’s current and potential competitors have significantly greater financial, technical, manufacturing, marketing and other resources than Polestar does and may be able to devote greater resources to the design, development, manufacturing, distribution, promotion, sale, servicing and support of their products. In addition, many of these companies have longer operating histories, greater name recognition, larger and more established sales forces, broader customer and industry relationships and other

 

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resources than Polestar does. Polestar’s competitors may be in a stronger position to respond quickly to new technologies and may be able to design, develop, market and sell their products more effectively than it does. Polestar expects competition in its industry to significantly intensify in the future in light of increased demand for alternative fuel vehicles, continuing globalization, favorable governmental policies and consolidation in the worldwide automotive industry. Polestar’s ability to successfully compete in its industry will be fundamental to its future success in existing and new markets. Further, sales of vehicles in the automotive industry tend to be cyclical in many markets, which may expose Polestar to further volatility as it expands and adjusts its operations. Increases in the retail or wholesale prices of electricity from utilities or other renewable energy sources could make Polestar’s products less attractive to customers. There can be no assurance that Polestar will be able to compete successfully in its markets.

Polestar’s business and prospects depend significantly on the Polestar brand. If Polestar is unable to maintain and enhance its brand and capture additional market share or if its reputation and business are harmed, it could have a material and adverse impact on Polestar’s business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Polestar’s business and prospects heavily depend on its ability to develop, maintain and strengthen the “Polestar” brand associated with design, sustainability and technological excellence. Promoting and positioning its brand depend significantly on Polestar’s ability to provide a consistently high-quality customer experience. To promote its brand, Polestar may be required to change its customer development and branding practices, which could result in substantially increased expenses, including the need to use traditional media such as television, radio and print advertising. In particular, any negative publicity, whether or not true, can quickly proliferate on social media and harm consumer perception and confidence in Polestar’s brand. Polestar’s ability to successfully position its brand could also be adversely affected by perceptions about the quality of its competitors’ vehicles or its competitors’ success. For example, certain of Polestar’s competitors have been subject to significant scrutiny for incidents involving their self-driving technology and battery fires, which could result in similar scrutiny of Polestar. Furthermore, as Polestar launches new vehicles, particularly those based on new architectural platforms or incorporating new technologies, it may experience unusually high numbers of quality issues, customer complaints and/or warranty claims, which may cause lasting harm to the Polestar brand.

In addition, from time to time, Polestar’s vehicles may be evaluated and reviewed by third parties. Any negative reviews or reviews which compare Polestar unfavorably to competitors could adversely affect consumer perception about its vehicles and reduce demand for its vehicles, which could have a material and adverse effect on Polestar’s business, results of operations, prospects and financial condition.

Polestar’s sales depend in part on its ability to establish and maintain confidence in its business prospects among consumers, analysts and others within its industry.

Consumers may be less likely to purchase Polestar’s products if they do not believe that its business will succeed or that its operations, including service and customer support operations, will continue for many years. Similarly, suppliers and other third parties will be less likely to invest time and resources in developing business relationships with Polestar if they are not convinced that its business will succeed. Accordingly, to build, maintain and grow its business, Polestar must establish and maintain confidence among customers, suppliers, analysts and other parties with respect to its liquidity and business prospects. Maintaining such confidence may be particularly difficult as a result of many factors, including Polestar’s limited operating history, others’ unfamiliarity with its products, uncertainty regarding the future of electric vehicles, any delays in scaling production, delivery and service operations to meet demand, competition and Polestar’s production and sales performance compared with market expectations. Many of these factors are largely outside of Polestar’s control, and any negative perceptions about Polestar’s business prospects, even if exaggerated or unfounded, would likely harm its business and make it more difficult to raise additional capital in the future. In addition, a significant number of new electric vehicle companies have recently entered the automotive industry, which is an industry that has historically been associated with significant barriers to entry and a high rate of failure. If these new

 

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entrants or other manufacturers of electric vehicles go out of business, produce vehicles that do not perform as expected or otherwise fail to meet expectations, such failures may have the effect of increasing scrutiny of others in the industry, including Polestar, and further challenging customer, supplier and analyst confidence in Polestar’s business prospects.

The automotive industry has significant barriers to entry that Polestar must overcome in order to manufacture and sell electric vehicles at scale.

The automobile industry is characterized by significant barriers to entry, including large capital requirements, investment costs of developing, designing, manufacturing and distributing vehicles, long lead times to bring vehicles to market from the concept and design stage, the need for specialized design and development expertise, regulatory requirements, competition from established companies with large patent portfolios and the need to establish a brand name and image and sales and service locations. Since Polestar is focused on electric vehicles, it faces a variety of added challenges to entry that a traditional automobile manufacturer would not encounter, including additional costs of developing and producing an electric powertrain that has comparable performance to a traditional gasoline engine in terms of range and power, limited experience with servicing electric vehicles, regulations associated with the transport of batteries, the need for markets to establish or provide access to sufficient charging locations and unproven high-volume customer demand for fully electric vehicles. If Polestar is not able to overcome these barriers, its business, prospects, results of operations and financial condition will be negatively impacted, and its ability to grow its business will be harmed.

Polestar may be unable to adequately control the substantial costs associated with its operations.

Polestar will require significant capital to develop and grow its business, and will need to seek new financing in the future. Polestar has incurred and expects to continue to incur significant expenses, including leases, sales and distribution expenses as its builds its brand and markets its vehicles; expenses relating to developing and manufacturing its vehicles; tooling and expanding its manufacturing facilities; research and development expenses; raw material procurement costs; and general and administrative expenses as it scales its operations and incurs the costs of being a public company. In addition, Polestar expects to incur significant costs servicing and maintaining customers’ vehicles, including establishing its service operations and facilities. These expenses could be significantly higher than Polestar currently anticipates. In addition, any delays in the start of production, obtaining necessary equipment or supplies, expansion of Polestar’s manufacturing facilities or manufacturing agreements, or the procurement of permits and licenses relating to Polestar’s expected manufacturing, sales and distribution model could significantly increase Polestar’s expenses. In such event, Polestar could be required to seek additional financing earlier than it expects, and such financing may not be available on commercially reasonable terms, or at all.

In the longer term, Polestar’s ability to become profitable will depend on its ability not only to control costs, but also to sell in quantities and at prices sufficient to achieve its expected margins. If Polestar is unable to cost-efficiently develop, design, manufacture, market, sell, distribute and service its vehicles, its margins, profitability and prospects would be materially and adversely affected.

Polestar has incurred net losses each year since its inception and expects to incur increasing expenses and substantial losses for the foreseeable future.

As of December 31, 2022, Polestar’s accumulated deficit was TUSD3,726,775. Polestar expects to continue to incur substantial losses and increasing expenses in the foreseeable future as it:

 

   

continues to design and develop its vehicles;

 

   

builds up inventories of parts and components for its vehicles;

 

   

manufactures an available inventory of its vehicles;

 

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develops and deploys vehicle charging partnerships;

 

   

expands its design, research, development, maintenance and repair capabilities, including in partnership with its strategic partners;

 

   

increases its sales and marketing activities and develops its distribution infrastructure; and

 

   

expands its general and administrative functions to support its growing operations and status as a public company.

If Polestar’s product development or commercialization is delayed, its costs and expenses may be significantly higher than it currently expects. Because Polestar will incur the costs and expenses from these efforts before it receives any incremental revenues with respect thereto, Polestar expects its losses in future periods will be significant.

Polestar requires additional funding and has determined there is substantial doubt about its ability to continue as a going concern.

Polestar’s financial statements were prepared assuming that Polestar will continue as a going concern. However, there is substantial doubt about its ability to continue as a going concern, meaning that Polestar may not be able to continue in operation for the foreseeable future or be able to realize assets and discharge liabilities in the ordinary course of operations. Polestar needs to raise additional funds through the issuance of new debt, equity securities, or otherwise in order to support its current operations, liquidity needs, and business growth. There is no assurance that sufficient financing will be available when needed to allow Polestar to continue as a going concern. The perception that Polestar may not be able to continue as a going concern may also make it more difficult to raise additional funds or operate Polestar’s business due to concerns about its ability to meet contractual obligations.

Based on current operating plans, availability of short-term and long-term debt financing arrangements, and continued financial support from existing Polestar shareholders, Polestar believes that it has resources to fund its operations for at least the next twelve months. However, Polestar will require additional funds to finance its activities thereafter and expects to consider various financing alternatives with banks and other third parties. For more information, see “—Risks Related to Financing and Strategic Transactions—Polestar will require additional capital to support business growth, and this capital might not be available on commercially reasonable terms, or at all” and “Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Liquidity and capital resources.”

Polestar depends on revenue generated from a limited number of models and expects this to continue in the foreseeable future.

Polestar currently depends on revenue from Polestar 2 and, with deliveries expected to commence in the fourth quarter of 2023, Polestar 3. For the foreseeable future Polestar will be significantly dependent on a limited number of models. Although Polestar has other vehicle models on its product pipeline, it currently does not expect to introduce another vehicle model for sale until late 2023. Polestar expects to rely on sales from Polestar 2 and Polestar 3, along with other sources of financing, for the capital that will be required to develop and commercialize those subsequent models (see “—Risks Related to Financing and Strategic Transactions—Polestar will require additional capital to support business growth, and this capital might not be available on commercially reasonable terms, or at all.”). To the extent that production of Polestar’s vehicles is delayed or reduced, or if the vehicles are not well-received by the market for any reason, Polestar’s revenues and cash flow would be adversely affected and it may need to seek additional financing earlier than it expects, and such financing may not be available to it on commercially reasonable terms, or at all.

Polestar relies on the development of vehicle charging networks to provide charging solutions for its vehicles.

Demand for Polestar’s vehicles depends in part on the availability of charging infrastructure. While the prevalence of charging stations has been increasing, charging station locations are significantly less widespread

 

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than gas stations. Some potential customers may choose not to purchase an electric vehicle because of the lack of a more widespread service network or charging infrastructure at the time of sale. Polestar’s ability to generate customer loyalty and grow its business could be impaired by a lack of satisfactory access to charging infrastructure. To the extent Polestar is unable to meet user expectations or experiences difficulties in providing charging solutions, demand for its vehicles may suffer, and Polestar’s reputation and business may be materially and adversely affected.

Polestar relies on its strategic partners for servicing its vehicles and on their systems, such as dealer management systems and diagnostic tools. If Polestar or its strategic partners are unable to adequately address the service requirements of its customers, Polestar’s business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

Polestar’s strategic partners have limited experience servicing or repairing Polestar vehicles. This risk is enhanced by Polestar’s limited operating history and its limited data regarding its vehicles’ real-world reliability and service requirements. Servicing electric vehicles is different than servicing vehicles with internal combustion engines and requires specialized skills, including high voltage training and servicing techniques. As such, there can be no assurance that Polestar’s service arrangements adequately address the service requirements of its customers to their satisfaction, or that Polestar and its servicing partners have sufficient resources, experience or inventory to meet these service requirements in a timely manner as the volume of vehicles Polestar delivers increases. In addition, if Polestar is unable to establish a widespread service network that provides satisfactory customer service, its customer loyalty, brand and reputation could be adversely affected, which in turn could materially and adversely affect its sales, results of operations, prospects and financial condition.

In addition, the motor vehicle industry laws in many jurisdictions require that service facilities be available to service vehicles physically sold from locations in the state. While Polestar anticipates developing a service program that would satisfy regulatory requirements in these circumstances, the specifics of its service program are still in development, and at some point may need to be restructured to comply with state law, which may impact Polestar’s business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Furthermore, in some jurisdictions, pursuant to applicable competition laws, Polestar may be regarded as a competitor of its strategic partners in relation to servicing vehicles. Therefore, Polestar and its strategic partners’ sales units in those markets will be subject to strict controls over the sharing of commercially sensitive information and anti-cartel requirements that can result in reduced coordination with respect to providing servicing to customers, which in turn could have a material and adverse effect on Polestar’s sales, results of operations, prospects and financial condition.

Polestar’s customers will also depend on Polestar’s customer support team to resolve technical and operational issues relating to the integrated software underlying its vehicles. As Polestar grows, additional pressure may be placed on its customer support team or partners, and Polestar may be unable to respond quickly enough to accommodate short-term increases in customer demand for technical support. Polestar also may be unable to change the manner and delivery of its technical support to compete with changes in the technical support provided by its competitors. Increased customer demand for support, without corresponding revenue, could increase costs and negatively affect Polestar’s results of operations. If Polestar is unable to successfully address the service requirements of its customers, or if it establishes a market perception that it does not maintain high-quality support, its brand and reputation could be adversely affected, and it may be subject to claims from its customers, which could result in loss of revenue or damages, and its business, results of operations, prospects and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected.

If Polestar’s vehicles fail to perform as expected, its ability to develop, market and sell or lease its products could be harmed.

Polestar’s vehicles may contain defects in components, software, design or manufacture that may cause them not to perform as expected or that may require repairs, recalls and design changes, any of which would

 

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require significant financial and other resources to successfully navigate and resolve. Polestar’s vehicles use a substantial amount of software code to operate, and software products are inherently complex and may contain defects and errors and subject Polestar to licensing restrictions and conditions. In addition, certain components used by Polestar were originally developed for use in vehicles with internal combustion engines, and thus may not offer a similar or satisfactory level of performance in Polestar’s electric vehicles. If Polestar’s vehicles contain defects in design and manufacture that cause them not to perform as expected or that require repair, or certain features of Polestar’s vehicles take longer than expected to become available, are legally restricted or become subject to additional regulation, Polestar’s ability to develop, market and sell its products and services could be harmed. Efforts to remedy any issues Polestar observes in its products could significantly distract management’s attention from other important business objectives, may not be timely, may hamper production or may not be to the satisfaction of its customers. Further, Polestar’s limited operating history and limited field data reduce its ability to evaluate and predict the long-term quality, reliability, durability and performance characteristics of its battery packs, powertrains and vehicles. There can be no assurance that Polestar will be able to detect and fix any defects in its products prior to their sale or lease to customers.

Any defects, delays or legal restrictions on vehicle features, or other failure of Polestar’s vehicles to perform as expected, could harm Polestar’s reputation and result in delivery delays, product recalls, product liability claims, breach of warranty claims and significant warranty and other expenses, and could have a material and adverse impact on Polestar’s business, results of operations, prospects and financial condition. As a newer entrant to the industry attempting to build customer relationships and earn trust, these effects could be significantly detrimental to Polestar. Additionally, problems and defects experienced by other electric consumer vehicles could by association have a negative impact on perception and customer demand for Polestar’s vehicles.

In addition, even if its vehicles function as designed, Polestar expects that the battery efficiency, and hence the range, of its electric vehicles, like other electric vehicles that use current battery technology, will decline over the time of its life. Other factors, such as usage, time and stress patterns, may also impact the battery’s ability to hold a charge, or could require Polestar to limit vehicles’ battery charging capacity, including via over-the-air or other software updates, for safety reasons or to protect battery capacity, which could further decrease Polestar’s vehicles’ range between charges. Such decreases in or limitations of battery capacity and therefore range, whether imposed by deterioration, software limitations or otherwise, could also lead to consumer complaints or warranty claims, including claims that prior knowledge of such decreases or limitations would have affected consumers’ purchasing decisions. There can be no assurance that Polestar will be able to improve the performance of its battery packs, or increase its vehicles’ range, in the future. Any such battery deterioration or capacity limitations and related decreases in range may negatively influence potential customers’ willingness to purchase Polestar’s vehicles and negatively impact its brand and reputation, which could adversely affect Polestar’s business, prospects, results of operations and financial condition.

Polestar must develop complex software and technology systems, including in coordination with its strategic partners, vendors and suppliers, in order to produce its electric vehicles, and there can be no assurance such systems will be successfully developed.

Polestar’s vehicles use a substantial amount of externally developed and in-house software and complex technological hardware to operate, some of which is still subject to further development and testing. The development and implementation of such advanced technologies is inherently complex, and Polestar will need to coordinate with its vendors and suppliers in order to develop such technologies and integrate them into its electric vehicles and ensure such technologies interoperate with other complex technology as designed and as expected. Polestar may fail to detect defects and errors that are subsequently revealed, and its control over the performance of other parties’ services and systems may be limited. Any defects or errors in, or which are attributed to, Polestar’s technology, could result in, among other things:

 

   

delayed production and delivery of Polestar’s vehicles;

 

   

delayed market acceptance of Polestar’s vehicles;

 

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loss of customers or the inability to attract new customers;

 

   

diversion of engineering or other resources for remedying the defect or error;

 

   

damage to Polestar’s brand or reputation;

 

   

increased service and warranty costs;

 

   

legal action by customers or third parties, including product liability claims; and

 

   

penalties imposed by regulatory authorities.

In addition, if Polestar and its partners are unable to develop the software and technology systems necessary to operate its vehicles, Polestar’s competitive position will be harmed. Polestar relies on its strategic partners and suppliers to develop a number of technologies for use in its products, including Google Android Automotive Services for the infotainment system installed in Polestar vehicles and independent developers developing third-party apps for Polestar vehicles. There can be no assurances that Polestar’s strategic partners and suppliers will be able to meet the technological requirements, production timing and volume requirements to support Polestar’s business plan. In addition, such technology may not satisfy the cost, performance useful life and warranty characteristics Polestar anticipates in its business plan, which could materially and adversely affect Polestar’s business, prospects and results of operations.

Polestar’s vehicle production relies heavily on complex machinery and involves a significant degree of risk and uncertainty in terms of operational performance and costs.

Polestar’s vehicle production relies heavily on complex machinery and involves a significant degree of uncertainty and risk in terms of operational performance and costs. The manufacturing plants for Polestar’s vehicles consist of large-scale machinery combining many components. These manufacturing plant components are likely to suffer unexpected malfunctions from time to time and will depend on repairs and spare parts to resume operations, which may not be available when needed.

Unexpected malfunctions of the manufacturing plant components may significantly affect the intended operational efficiency of Polestar. Operational performance and costs can be difficult to predict and are often influenced by factors outside of Polestar’s control, such as, but not limited to, scarcity of natural resources, environmental hazards and remediation, costs associated with decommissioning of machines, labor disputes and strikes, difficulty or delays in obtaining governmental permits, damages or defects in electronic systems, industrial accidents, pandemics, fire, seismic activity and natural disasters. Should operational risks materialize, it may result in the personal injury to or death of workers, the loss of production equipment, damage to manufacturing facilities, monetary losses, delays and unanticipated fluctuations in production, environmental damage, administrative fines, increased insurance costs and potential legal liabilities, all which could have a material and adverse effect on Polestar’s business, results of operations, cash flows, financial condition or prospects.

Polestar relies on its partners to manufacture vehicles and these partners have limited experience in producing electric vehicles. Further, Polestar relies on sufficient production capacity being available and/or allocated to it by its partners in order to manufacture its vehicles. Delays in the timing of expected business milestones and commercial launches, including Polestar’s ability to mass produce its electric vehicles and/or complete and/or expand its manufacturing capabilities, could materially and adversely affect Polestar’s business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Polestar intends to rely solely on its contract manufacturing arrangements with its partners to manufacture current and future Polestar models. Polestar cannot provide any assurance as to whether its partners will be able to develop efficient, automated, low-cost production capabilities and processes and reliable sources of component supply that will enable Polestar to meet the quality, price, engineering, design and production

 

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standards, as well as the production volumes, required to successfully mass market its vehicles. Even if Polestar’s partners are successful in developing high volume production capabilities and processes and reliably source their component supplies, no assurance can be given as to whether they will be able to do so in a manner that avoids significant delays and cost overruns, including as a result of factors beyond their and Polestar’s control such as problems with suppliers and vendors, or force majeure events, or in time to meet Polestar’s commercialization schedules or to satisfy the requirements of customers and potential customers. Any failure to develop such production processes and capabilities within Polestar’s projected costs and timelines could have a material and adverse effect on its business, results of operations, prospects and financial condition. Bottlenecks and other unexpected challenges may also arise as Polestar ramps production, and it will be important that Polestar address these challenges promptly while continuing to control its manufacturing costs. If Polestar is not successful in doing so, or if it experiences issues with its manufacturing process improvements, it could face delays in establishing and/or sustaining its production ramps or be unable to meet its related cost and profitability targets. It may be very difficult to switch contract manufacturers should the need arise.

Polestar faces risks associated with international operations, including tariffs and unfavorable regulatory, political, tax and labor conditions, which could materially and adversely affect its business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Polestar has operations and subsidiaries in Europe, North America and Asia that are subject to the legal, political, regulatory and social requirements and economic conditions in these jurisdictions. Additionally, as part of its growth strategy, Polestar intends to expand its sales, maintenance and repair services and manufacturing activities to new countries in the coming years. However, Polestar has limited experience in manufacturing, selling or servicing its vehicles, and such expansion would require it to make significant expenditures, including the hiring of local employees, in advance of generating any revenue. Polestar is subject to a number of risks associated with international business activities that may increase its costs, impact its ability to sell, service and manufacture its vehicles and require significant management attention. These risks include:

 

   

conforming Polestar’s vehicles to various international regulatory requirements where its vehicles are sold, or homologated;

 

   

establishing localized supply chains and managing international supply chain and logistics costs;

 

   

difficulty in staffing and managing foreign operations;

 

   

difficulties attracting customers in new jurisdictions;

 

   

difficulties establishing international manufacturing operations, including difficulties establishing relationships with or establishing localized supplier bases and developing cost-effective and reliable supply chains for such manufacturing operations;

 

   

taxes, regulations and permit requirements, including taxes imposed by one taxing jurisdiction that Polestar may not be able to offset against taxes imposed upon it in another relevant jurisdiction, and foreign tax and other laws limiting its ability to repatriate funds to another relevant jurisdiction;

 

   

fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates and interest rates, including risks related to any forward currency contracts, interest rate swaps or other hedging activities Polestar undertakes;

 

   

United States and foreign government trade restrictions, tariffs and price or exchange controls;

 

   

foreign labor laws, regulations and restrictions;

 

   

changes in diplomatic and trade relationships, including political risk and customer perceptions based on such changes and risks;

 

   

political instability, natural disasters, climate change, environmental conditions, pandemics (including the COVID-19 pandemic), war or events of terrorism; and

 

   

the strength of international economies.

 

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If Polestar fails to successfully address these risks, its business, prospects, results of operations and financial condition could be materially harmed.

Polestar relies heavily on manufacturing facilities and suppliers, including single-source suppliers, based in China and its growth strategy will depend on growing its business in China. This subjects Polestar to economic, operational, regulatory and legal risks specific to China.

Polestar relies heavily on manufacturing facilities based in China for the manufacture of its vehicles, including facilities of Volvo Cars, Geely and its other contract partners, as well as its own manufacturing facilities in China. Polestar intends to rely solely on arrangements with its contract manufacturers, including Volvo Cars and Geely, for current and future Polestar models, many of which are based in China, and its growth strategy will depend on growing its business based in China. In addition, Polestar relies on single-source suppliers in China for critical components for Polestar vehicles, including single-source suppliers in Shanghai and elsewhere. This growing presence increases Polestar’s sensitivity to the economic, operational and legal risks specific to China. For example, China’s economy differs from the economies of most developed countries in many aspects, including, but not limited to, the degree of government involvement, level of development, reinvestment control of foreign exchange, allocation of resources, growth rate and development level. Although the Chinese government has implemented measures since the late 1970s emphasizing the utilization of market forces for economic reform, including the reduction of state ownership of productive assets, and the establishment of improved corporate governance in business enterprises, which are generally viewed as a positive development for foreign business investment, a substantial portion of productive assets in China are still owned by the Chinese government. In addition, the Chinese government continues to play a significant role in regulating industry development by imposing industrial policies. The Chinese government also exercises significant control over economic growth in China through allocating resources, controlling payments of foreign currency-denominated obligations, setting monetary policy and providing preferential treatment to particular industries or companies.

While China’s economy has experienced significant growth over the past decades, growth has been uneven, both geographically and among various sectors of the economy, and the rate of growth has been slowing down, particularly in view of the effects of government actions to address the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, including significant closures of businesses in 2022. For example, prolonged government mandated quarantines and lockdowns in China during 2022 due to further outbreaks of COVID-19 resulted in delays in the production and delivery of critical components and delayed production of Polestar vehicles. Some of the governmental measures may benefit the overall Chinese economy, but may have a negative effect on Polestar. For example, Polestar’s financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected by changes in tax regulations. Higher inflation could adversely affect Polestar’s results of operations and financial condition. Furthermore, certain operating costs and expenses, such as battery prices and freight and distribution costs, employee compensation and office operating expenses, may increase as a result of higher inflation. In addition, the Chinese government has implemented in the past certain measures to control the pace of economic growth. These measures may cause decreased economic activity, which in turn could lead to a reduction in demand for Polestar’s products and services, and consequently have a material and adverse effect on Polestar’s businesses, financial condition and results of operations.

It is unclear whether and how Polestar’s current or future business, prospects, financial condition or results of operations may be affected by changes in China’s economic, political and social conditions and in its laws, regulations and policies. In addition, many of the economic reforms carried out by the Chinese government are unprecedented or experimental and are expected to be refined and improved over time. This refining and improving process may not necessarily have a positive effect on Polestar’s operations and business development.

Additionally, the legal system in China is developing and there are inherent uncertainties that may affect the protection afforded to Polestar for its business and activities in China that are governed by Chinese laws and regulations. Any administrative and court proceedings in China may be protracted, resulting in substantial costs

 

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and diversion of resources and management attention. Since administrative and court authorities in China have significant discretion in interpreting and implementing statutory and contractual terms, it may be more difficult to evaluate the outcome of administrative and court proceedings and the level of legal protection for Polestar than in more developed legal systems. These uncertainties may impede Polestar’s ability to enforce contracts and could materially and adversely affect Polestar’s business, financial condition and results of operations.

The Chinese government may intervene in or influence Polestar’s and Polestar’s partners’ operations in China at any time, which could result in a material change in Polestar’s operations and ability to produce vehicles and significantly and adversely impact the value of Polestar’s securities.

The Chinese government exerts substantial influence, discretion, oversight and control over the manner in which companies incorporated under the laws and regulations of China must conduct their business activities, including activities relating to overseas offerings of securities and/or foreign investments in such companies. Polestar is incorporated under the laws of England and Wales with headquarters in Sweden, and has subsidiaries with operations in mainland China as well as other significant markets. Accordingly, Polestar is not subject to the permissions requirements of the China Securities Regulatory Commission (the “CSRC”) with respect to the issuance of securities by Polestar to investors. However, Polestar cannot guarantee that the Chinese government will not seek to intervene or influence any of Polestar’s or its partners’ operations or securities’ offerings at any time. If Polestar or its partners were to become subject to such direct influence, intervention, discretion, oversight or control, including those over overseas offerings of securities (including foreign investments), it may result in a material adverse change in Polestar’s and its partners’ operations and cause the value of Polestar’s securities to significantly decline or be worthless.

The Chinese government has recently published new policies that significantly affected certain industries such as the education and internet industries, and Polestar, albeit not engaging in such industries, cannot rule out the possibility that the Chinese government will in the future release regulations or policies regarding Polestar’s industry that could require Polestar and its partners to seek permission from Chinese authorities to continue operating, which may adversely affect Polestar’s business, financial condition and results of operations.

Changes in Chinese policies, regulations and rules may be quick with little advance notice and the enforcement of laws of the Chinese government is uncertain and could have a significant impact upon Polestar’s and its partners’ ability to operate profitably.

Polestar relies on its and its partners’ operations and facilities located in China. Accordingly, economic, political and legal developments in China will significantly affect Polestar’s business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. Policies, regulations, rules and the enforcement of laws of the Chinese government can have significant effects on economic conditions in China and the ability of businesses to operate profitably. Polestar’s ability to operate profitably may be adversely affected by rapid and unexpected changes in policies by the Chinese government, including changes in laws, regulations, their interpretation and their enforcement.

Compliance with China’s new Data Security Law, Cybersecurity Review Measures (revised draft for public consultation), Personal Information Protection Law, regulations and guidelines relating to the multi-level protection scheme and any other future laws and regulations may entail significant expenses and could materially affect Polestar’s business.

China has implemented new rules relating to data protection, and the new Data Security Law of the People’s Republic of China (“Data Security Law”) took effect in September 2021. The Data Security Law provides that the data processing activities, including the collection, storage, usage, editing, transmission, provision and publication of the data shall be in compliance with the laws, regulations and shall not damage the national security or public interest, or damage any legitimate interest of any individuals or entities. Pursuant to the Data Security Law, China establishes the “data classification and hierarchical protection system” and “data security review system” for the purpose of data protection. Without prior approval by the Chinese competent regulator,

 

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any entity or individual shall be prohibited from transferring data stored in China to foreign law enforcement agencies or judicial authorities.

Additionally, the Cyber Security Law of the People’s Republic of China (“Cyber Security Law”) that came into effect in June 2017 requires companies to take certain organizational, technical and administrative measures and other necessary measures to ensure the security of their networks and data stored on their networks. Specifically, the Cyber Security Law provides that China adopt a multi-level protection scheme (“MLPS”), under which network operators are required to implement security protection measures to ensure that the network is free from interference, disruption or unauthorized access, and prevent network data from being disclosed, stolen or tampered with. Under the MLPS, entities operating information systems must have a thorough assessment of the risks and the conditions of their information and network systems to determine the level to which the entity’s information and network systems belong-from the lowest Level 1 to the highest Level 5 pursuant to a series of national standards on the grading and implementation of the classified protection of cyber security. The grading result will determine the set of security protection obligations that entities must comply with. In the event the information and network systems are preliminarily classified as Level 2 or above, the network operator should report the grade to the relevant government authority for examination, approval and final determination of its protection level.

Recently, the Cyberspace Administration of China (the “CAC”) has taken action against several Chinese Internet companies in connection with their initial public offerings on U.S. securities exchanges, for alleged national security risks and improper collection and use of the personal information of Chinese data subjects. According to the official announcement, the action was initiated based on the National Security Law, the Cyber Security Law and Cybersecurity Review Measures, which are aimed at “preventing national data security risks, maintaining national security and safeguarding public interests.” On November 14, 2021, the CAC published the draft Network Data Security Management Regulation for public comment, which stipulates the requirement that data processors processing more than 1 million individuals’ information should apply for a cybersecurity review with the CAC, if the processors intend to list their securities in a foreign country. On December 28, 2021, the CAC published the Cybersecurity Review Measures, which came into effect on February 15, 2022, specifying that the cybersecurity review must be conducted in the event the data processing operators in possession of personal information of over 1 million users intend to list their securities in a foreign country.

It is unclear at the present time how widespread the cybersecurity review requirement and the enforcement action will be and what effect they will have on Polestar in particular. China’s regulators may impose penalties for non-compliance ranging from fines or suspension of operations, and this could lead to us delisting from the U.S. stock market.

Also, on August 20, 2021, the Standing Committee of China’s National People’s Congress passed the Personal Information Protection Law of the People’s Republic of China (“Personal Information Protection Law”), which became effective on November 1, 2021. The Personal Information Protection Law provides a comprehensive set of data privacy and protection requirements that apply to the processing of personal information and expands data protection compliance obligations to cover the processing of personal information of individuals by organizations and individuals in China. In addition, if the processing of personal information of individuals in China is conducted outside of China, the Personal Information Protection Law shall also apply if such processing is for purposes of providing products and services to, or analyzing and evaluating the behavior of, persons in China. The Personal Information Protection Law also provides that critical information infrastructure operators and personal information processing entities who process personal information meeting a volume threshold to be set by the CAC are also required to store in China personal information generated or collected in China, and to pass a security assessment administered by the CAC for any export of such personal information. On July 7, 2022, the CAC issued Security Assessment Measures for Outbound Data Transfers, which became effective on September 1, 2022. The Security Assessment Measures for Outbound Data Transfers requires that the data processor shall apply for the security assessment organized by the CAC under any of the following circumstances before the information is transferred outbound: (i) where a data processor provides key

 

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data overseas, (ii) critical information infrastructure operator and personal information processors who process more than 1 million individual’s personal information; (iii) where a data processor has provided personal information of over 100,000 individuals or sensitive personal information of over 10,000 individuals in total abroad since January 1 of the previous year. Lastly, the Personal Information Protection Law contains proposals for significant fines for serious violations of up to CNY 50 million or 5% of annual turnover of the prior year and may also be ordered to suspend any related activity by competent authorities.

Other than personal information, the Several Measures on the Automobile Data Security Management (for Trial Implementation) jointly issued by the National Development and Reform Commission, Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, Ministry of Public Security, CAC and Ministry of Transport on August 16, 2021 and came into effect on October 1, 2021, impose strict regulation on important data, which includes more than 100,000 individuals’ personal information. The Several Measures on the Automobile Data Security Management (for Trial Implementation) provide that important data should be stored within the territory of China in accordance with the law, and if it is really necessary to export such data due to business needs, a security assessment organized by the CAC must be passed.

On July 7, 2022, the CAC released the Cross-border Data Transfer Security Measures (the “Security Assessment Measures”) effective from September 1, 2022, with a six months “rectification period.” The Security Assessment Measures provides for the scope of data that will be subject to security assessment when being exported, including (i) personal information and important data collected and generated by a critical information infrastructure operator; (ii) any important data that is to be exported; (iii) personal information from a data handler that has processed personal information of one million individuals or more; (iv) information from a data handler that in aggregate has exported personal information of over 100,000 individuals or sensitive personal information of over 10,000 individuals; and (v) such other information prescribed by the CAC. Critical information infrastructure operators or data handlers that are subject to the Security Assessment Measures must submit application materials to the CAC offices at the provincial level for the security assessment. As a data handler may subject to the Security Assessment Measures, as of the date of this prospectus, Polestar has not obtained any approval on the security assessment from the CAC, nor has Polestar submitted any materials with any CAC offices at the provincial level concerning the security assessment. Although the CAC has not issued any formal documentation specifying the meaning of the six months “rectification period” and many companies filed for the security assessment after the expiration of the six months “rectification period,” Polestar and its external counsel cannot assure whether Polestar’s filings to be made after the six months “rectification period” will not have a material adverse effect on Polestar’s business operations in China.

On December 8, 2022, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology of China promulgated the Industry and Information Technology Field Data Security Administrative Measures (for Trial Implementation) effective from January 1, 2023, which regulate the data processing activities in the field of industry and information technology conducted within the territory of the PRC. Under the foregoing measures, data handlers in the field of industry and information technology must further implement data classification and categorization management, take necessary measures to ensure that data remains effectively protected and is lawfully processed, and conduct data security risk monitoring. Under the data classification and categorization, “data in the field of industry and information technology” includes industrial data, telecommunications data, and radio data; among others, “industrial data” means data produced and collected in the course of research and development, design, production and manufacturing, business management, operating maintenance, and platform operation in various sectors and fields of industry. A data handler in the industry and information technology field in the PRC shall submit its catalog of important data and core data to the local industrial regulatory department for recordation. Since Polestar is not registered manufacturer in PRC but cooperating with its Original Equipment Manufacturer (“OEM”) suppliers, the legal obligations are mainly with the OEM suppliers. However, Polestar may be impacted should its OEM suppliers not fulfill such for obligations under the forgoing measures.

Polestar uses global information systems to support its worldwide operation, but the information systems might not have servers in China and the personal information collected by Polestar in China may be constantly

 

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exported outside China to countries hosting the information systems’ servers. Polestar also relies on certain information systems maintained by Volvo Cars to process certain personal information, which similarly exports personal information outside China on a regular basis. Personal information processed by information systems with servers in China is stored in China, unless Polestar’s operations necessitate exporting such personal information.

Interpretation, application and enforcement of these laws, rules and regulations will evolve over time and their scope may continually change, through new legislation, amendments to existing legislation or changes in enforcement. Compliance with the Cyber Security Law, the Data Security Law, the Personal Information Protection Law and/or related implementing regulations could significantly increase the cost to Polestar of producing and selling vehicles, require significant changes to Polestar’s operations or even prevent Polestar from providing certain service offerings in jurisdictions in which Polestar currently operates or in which Polestar may operate in the future. Despite Polestar’s efforts to comply with applicable laws, regulations and other obligations relating to privacy, data protection and information security, it is possible that Polestar’s practices or offerings could fail to meet all of the requirements imposed on Polestar by the Cyber Security Law, the Data Security Law, the Personal Information Protection Law and/or related implementing regulations. Any failure on Polestar’s part to comply with such laws or regulations or any other obligations relating to privacy, data protection or information security, or any compromise of security that results in unauthorized access, use or release of personally identifiable information or other data, or the perception or allegation that any of the foregoing types of failure or compromise has occurred, could damage Polestar’s reputation, discourage new and existing counterparties from contracting with Polestar or result in investigations, fines, suspension or other penalties by Chinese government authorities and private claims or litigation, any of which could materially adversely affect Polestar’s business, financial condition and results of operations. Even if Polestar’s practices are not subject to legal challenge, the perception of privacy concerns, whether or not valid, may harm Polestar’s reputation and adversely affect Polestar’s business, financial condition and results of operations (See “—Risks Related to Cybersecurity and Data Privacy—Data privacy concerns are generally increasing, which could result in new legislation, in negative public perception of Polestar’s current data collection practices and certain of its services or technologies and/or in changing user behaviors that negatively affect Polestar’s business and product development plans.”). Moreover, the legal uncertainty created by the Data Security Law and the recent Chinese government actions could materially adversely affect Polestar’s ability, on favorable terms, to raise capital, including engaging in follow-on offerings of its securities in the U.S. market.

Polestar and its subsidiaries (i) may not receive or maintain permissions or approvals from the CAC or other relevant authorities to operate in China, (ii) may inadvertently conclude that such permissions or approvals are not required or (iii) may be required to obtain new permissions or approvals in the future due to changes in applicable laws, regulations or interpretations related thereto.

Polestar and its subsidiaries in China are not classified as “critical information infrastructure operators” or “network platform operators” under the Cybersecurity Review Measures, nor have Polestar and its subsidiaries received any notice from the CAC defining them as the foregoing, which would require Polestar or its subsidiaries to apply for a cybersecurity review with the CAC. See “—Compliance with China’s new Data Security Law, Cybersecurity Review Measures (revised draft for public consultation), Personal Information Protection Law, regulations and guidelines relating to the multi-level protection scheme and any other future laws and regulations may entail significant expenses and could materially affect Polestar’s business.” However, if it is determined in the future that approvals or permissions from the CAC or other regulatory authorities are required, these regulatory authorities may impose fines, suspend Polestar’s relevant businesses or halt operations, revoke relevant business permits or operational licenses, limit Polestar’s ability to pay dividends outside of China, limit Polestar’s operating privileges in China or take other actions that could materially and adversely affect Polestar’s business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects, as well as the trading price of ADSs. The CAC or other relevant authorities may also take actions requiring Polestar, or making it advisable for Polestar, to halt operations before any potential future offerings. In addition, if the CAC or other regulatory authorities later promulgate new rules or explanations requiring that Polestar or its subsidiaries to obtain their

 

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approvals or accomplish any required filing or other regulatory procedures, Polestar may be unable to obtain a waiver of such approval requirements, if and when procedures are established to obtain such a waiver. Any uncertainties or negative publicity regarding such approval requirements could materially and adversely affect Polestar’s business, prospects, financial condition, reputation and the trading price of ADSs.

Polestar may be adversely affected by the complexity, uncertainties and changes in the regulations on internet-related business, automotive business and other business carried out by Polestar’s operating entities in China.

The Chinese government extensively regulates the internet and automotive industries and other business carried out by Polestar’s operating entities in China. Such laws and regulations are relatively new and evolving, and their interpretation and enforcement involve significant uncertainties. As a result, in certain circumstances it may be difficult to determine what actions or omissions may be deemed to be in violation of applicable laws and regulations. The Chinese government also has significant oversight and discretion over the conduct of Polestar’s business and Polestar’s operations may be affected by evolving regulatory policies as a result. The Chinese government has recently published new policies that significantly affect certain industries, and Polestar cannot rule out the possibility that it will in the future release regulations or policies regarding Polestar’s industry that could adversely affect Polestar’s business, financial condition and results of operations.

Several regulatory authorities in China, such as the State Administration for Market Regulation, the National Development and Reform Commission, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology and the Ministry of Commerce, oversee different aspects of the electric vehicle business, and Polestar’s operating entities in China are required to obtain a wide range of government approvals, licenses, permits and registrations in connection with their operations in China. For example, certain filings must be made by automobile dealers through the information system for the national automobile circulation operated by the relevant commerce department within 90 days after the receipt of a business license. Furthermore, the electric vehicle industry is relatively immature in China, and the government has not adopted a clear regulatory framework to regulate the industry.

There are substantial uncertainties regarding the interpretation and application of the existing laws, regulations and policies and possible new laws, regulations or policies in China relating to internet-related businesses as well as automotive businesses and companies. There is no assurance that Polestar will be able to obtain all the permits or licenses related to its business in China, or will be able to maintain its existing permits and licenses or obtain new ones. In the event that the Chinese government considers that Polestar was or is operating without the proper approvals, licenses or permits, promulgates new laws and regulations that require additional approvals or licenses, or imposes additional restrictions on the operation of any part of Polestar’s business, the Chinese government has the power, among other things, to levy fines, confiscate any of Polestar’s income that it considers illegal, revoke its business licenses and require Polestar to discontinue the relevant business or impose restrictions on the affected portion of its business. Any of these actions by the Chinese government may have a material and adverse effect on Polestar’s business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.

If Polestar updates or discontinues the use of its manufacturing equipment more quickly than expected, it may have to shorten the useful lives of any equipment to be retired as a result of any such update, and the resulting acceleration in Polestar’s depreciation could negatively affect its financial results.

Polestar has invested and expects to continue to invest significantly in what it believes is state of the art tooling, machinery and other manufacturing equipment, including in collaboration with its manufacturing partners, and Polestar depreciates the cost of such equipment over its expected useful lives. However, manufacturing technology may evolve rapidly, and Polestar may decide to update its manufacturing processes more quickly than expected. Moreover, as Polestar ramps the commercial production of its vehicles, Polestar’s experience may cause it to discontinue the use of already installed equipment in favor of different or additional

 

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equipment. The useful life of any equipment that would be retired early as a result would be shortened, causing the depreciation on such equipment to be accelerated, and Polestar’s results of operations could be negatively impacted.

Investors should not rely on outdated financial projections.

In connection with the Business Combination, Polestar disclosed certain projections regarding its potential operating and financial performance in future years in connection with the registration statement on Form F-4 the Company filed in connection with the Business Combination. As previously disclosed, these projections were prepared for internal use, were finalized in September 2021 and were not updated to reflect events after that date. Also, as previously disclosed, the projected financial information was not prepared with a view toward complying with the published guidelines of the SEC or the guidelines established by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants for preparation and presentation of prospective financial information, or IFRS with respect to forward-looking financial information. Readers were cautioned not to rely on the prospective financial information because actual results were likely to differ materially from the prospective financial information, and not to look upon the projections as “guidance” of any sort.

The projected financial information disclosed in connection with the Business Combination is outdated and does not represent the current views of management. Specifically, Polestar management believes the impact of the prolonged COVID-19 government mandated quarantines and lockdowns in China during 2022 negatively impacted Polestar’s and its strategic and contract manufacturing partner, Volvo Cars’, ability to manufacture and deliver Polestar’s vehicles in the volumes previously anticipated by Polestar. As a result, Polestar expects that its actual results for the periods covered by the projections will differ materially from the projected financial information that Polestar prepared in September 2021.

Polestar reiterates its prior caution not to rely on the previously published and now outdated financial projections. Polestar has not undertaken any obligation to publish or update any financial projections.

Polestar’s main distribution approach is different from the currently predominant distribution model for automakers, and its long-term viability is unproven. Polestar does not have a third-party retail product distribution network in all of the countries in which it operates, and Polestar may face regulatory challenges to or limitations on its ability to sell vehicles directly.

Polestar’s main distribution approach is not common in the automotive industry today. Polestar vehicles are sold either directly to users (rather than through dealerships), or, in certain countries, through third parties via a franchising model. In North America, for example, all sales are conducted through trusted representatives. Polestar’s direct to consumer approach of vehicle distribution is relatively new and has a shorter track record to prove long-term effectiveness. It thus subjects Polestar to risks as it requires, in the aggregate, significant expenditures and may provide for slower expansion of Polestar’s distribution and sales systems than the traditional dealership system. For example, Polestar does not utilize long established sales channels developed through a dealership system to increase its sales volume. However, Polestar does leverage the existing Volvo Cars network of dealers as a pipeline of potential operators of Polestar Spaces or distributors (depending on the distribution approach in each country). Moreover, Polestar competes with automakers with well-established distribution channels. If Polestar’s lack of a traditional dealer distribution network results in lost opportunities to generate sales, it could limit Polestar’s ability to grow. Polestar’s expansion of its network of retail locations and service points may not fully meet users’ expectations. Polestar’s success will depend in large part on its ability to effectively develop its own sales channels and marketing strategies. Implementing its business model is subject to numerous challenges, including obtaining permits and approvals from government authorities, and Polestar may not be successful in addressing these challenges.

Polestar’s experience distributing directly to consumers only started in 2019 with the launch of Polestar 1 and at a larger scale in 2020 with the launch of Polestar 2. Therefore, Polestar expects that the building of an

 

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in-house sales and marketing function will be expensive and time consuming. To the extent Polestar is unable to successfully execute on its current direct distribution plans, it may be required to change such plans, which may prove costly, time-consuming or ineffective. If Polestar’s use of an in-house sales and marketing team is not effective, Polestar’s results of operations and financial conditions could be adversely affected.

Insufficient reserves to cover future warranty or part replacement needs or other vehicle repair requirements, including any potential software upgrades, could have a material and adverse effect on Polestar’s business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.

Polestar provides a manufacturer’s warranty on all vehicles, components and systems it sells. Polestar needs to maintain reserves to cover part replacement and other vehicle repair needs, including any potential software upgrades or warranty claims. In addition, Polestar provides additional warranties on installation workmanship or performance guarantees. Warranty reserves will include Polestar’s management team’s best estimate of the projected costs to repair or to replace items under warranty. Such estimates are inherently uncertain, particularly in light of Polestar’s limited operating history and the limited field data available to it, and changes to such estimates based on real-world observations may cause material changes to Polestar’s warranty reserves in the future. If Polestar’s reserves are inadequate to cover future maintenance requirements on its vehicles, its business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected. Polestar may become subject to significant and unexpected expenses as well as claims from its customers, including loss of revenue or damages. There can be no assurances that the then-existing reserves will be sufficient to cover all claims. In addition, if future laws or regulations impose additional warranty obligations on Polestar that go beyond Polestar’s manufacturer’s warranty, Polestar may be exposed to materially higher warranty, parts replacement and repair expenses than it expects, and its reserves may be insufficient to cover such expenses.

Polestar may be unable to offer attractive leasing and financing options for its current vehicle models and future vehicles, which would adversely affect consumer demand for its vehicles.

Polestar offers leasing and financing of its vehicles to potential customers through financing partners. Polestar believes that the ability to offer attractive leasing and financing options is particularly relevant to customers in the premium vehicle segments in which it competes, and if Polestar is unable to offer its customers an attractive option to finance the purchase or lease of its vehicles, such failure could substantially reduce the population of potential customers and decrease demand for Polestar’s vehicles.

Polestar is subject to risks associated with advanced driver assistance system technology. Polestar is also working on adding autonomous driving technology to its vehicles and expects to be subject to the risks associated with this technology. Polestar cannot guarantee that its vehicles will achieve its targeted assisted or autonomous driving functionality within its projected timeframe, or ever.

Polestar’s vehicles are designed with the advanced driver assistance system (“ADAS”) hardware, and Polestar expects to launch automation functionalities and additional capabilities, including autonomous driving (“AD”), over time. ADAS/AD technologies are emerging and subject to known and unknown risks, and there have been accidents and fatalities associated with such technologies. The safety of such technologies depends in part on user interaction, and users, as well as other drivers on the roadways, may not be accustomed to using or adapting to such technologies. In addition, self-driving technologies are the subject of intense public scrutiny and interest, and previous accidents involving autonomous driving features in other vehicles, including alleged failures or misuse of such features, have generated significant negative media attention and government investigations. To the extent accidents associated with Polestar’s ADAS or AD technologies occur, Polestar could be subject to significant liability, negative publicity, government scrutiny and further regulation. Any of the foregoing could materially and adversely affect Polestar’s results of operations, financial condition and growth prospects.

 

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In addition, Polestar faces substantial competition in the development and deployment of ADAS/AD technologies. Many of Polestar’s competitors, including Tesla, established automakers such as Mercedes-Benz, Audi and General Motors (including via its investments in Cruise Automation), and technology companies including Waymo (owned by Alphabet), Zoox.ai (owned by Amazon), Aurora, Argo AI (jointly owned by Ford and Volkswagen), Mobileye, Aptiv (which recently acquired Wind River), Baidu, Nuro and Ghost Autonomy, have devoted significant time and resources to developing ADAS/AD technologies. They may also own patents in this area, which may be relevant to technologies Polestar may use. If Polestar is unable to develop competitive or more advanced ADAS/AD technologies in-house or acquire access to such technology via partnerships or investments in other companies or assets, it may be unable to equip its vehicles with competitive ADAS/AD features, which could damage its brand, reduce consumer demand for its vehicles or trigger cancellations of reservations and could have a material and adverse effect on its business, results of operations, prospects and financial condition. ADAS/AD technologies are also subject to considerable regulatory uncertainty, which exposes Polestar to additional risks.

Uninsured losses, including losses resulting from product liability, accidents, acts of God and other claims against Polestar, could result in payment of substantial damages, which would decrease Polestar’s cash reserves and could harm its cash flow and financial condition.

In the ordinary course of business, Polestar may be subject to losses resulting from product liability, accidents, acts of God and other claims against it, for which it may have no insurance coverage. While Polestar currently carries commercial general liability, commercial automobile liability, excess liability, product liability, crime, cargo stock throughput, property, workers’ compensation, employment practices, production and directors’ and officers’ insurance policies, it may not maintain as much insurance coverage as other companies do, and in some cases, it may not maintain any at all. Additionally, the policies it does have may include significant deductibles, and it cannot be certain that its insurance coverage will be sufficient to cover all or any future claims against it. A loss that is uninsured or exceeds policy limits may require Polestar to pay substantial amounts, which could adversely affect its financial condition and results of operations. Further, insurance coverage may not continue to be available to Polestar or, if available, may be at a significantly higher cost, especially if insurance providers perceive any increase in Polestar’s risk profile in the future.

Polestar’s vehicles make use of lithium-ion battery cells, which have been observed to catch fire or vent smoke and flame.

The battery packs within Polestar’s vehicles make use of lithium-ion cells. On rare occasions, lithium-ion cells can rapidly release the energy they contain by venting smoke and flames in a manner that can ignite nearby materials as well as other lithium-ion cells. Any such events or failures of Polestar’s vehicles, battery packs or warning systems could subject Polestar to lawsuits, product recalls, or redesign efforts, all of which would be time consuming and expensive. Also, negative public perceptions regarding the suitability of lithium-ion cells for automotive applications or any future incident involving lithium-ion cells, such as a vehicle or other fire, even if such incident does not involve Polestar’s vehicles, could seriously harm Polestar’s business and reputation.

Moreover, any failure of a competitor’s electric vehicle or energy storage product, as well as the mishandling of battery cells or a safety issue or fire related to the cells at partners’ manufacturing facilities, may cause indirect adverse publicity for Polestar and its products. Such adverse publicity could negatively affect Polestar’s brand and harm its business, prospects, results of operations and financial condition.

 

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Polestar’s ability to generate meaningful product revenue will depend on consumer adoption of electric vehicles. However, the market for electric vehicles is still evolving and changes in governmental programs incentivizing consumers to purchase electric vehicles, fluctuations in energy prices, the sustainability of electric vehicles and other regulatory changes might negatively impact adoption of electric vehicles by consumers. If the pace and depth of electric vehicle adoption develops more slowly than Polestar expects, its revenue may decline or fail to grow, and Polestar may be materially and adversely affected.

Polestar is only developing electric vehicles and, accordingly, its ability to generate meaningful product revenue will highly depend on sustained consumer demand for alternative fuel vehicles in general and electric vehicles in particular. If the market for electric vehicles does not develop as Polestar expects, develops more slowly than it expects, or if there is a decrease in consumer demand for electric vehicles, Polestar’s business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations will be harmed. The market for electric and other alternative fuel vehicles is relatively new and rapidly evolving and is characterized by rapidly changing technologies, price competition, additional competitors, evolving government regulations (including government incentives and subsidies) and industry standards, frequent new vehicle announcements and changing consumer demands and behaviors. Any number of changes in the industry could negatively affect consumer demand for electric vehicles in general and Polestar’s electric vehicles in particular.

In addition, demand for electric vehicles may be affected by factors directly impacting automobile prices or the cost of purchasing and operating automobiles such as sales and financing incentives like tax credits, prices of raw materials and parts and components, cost of fuel or electricity, availability of consumer credit and governmental regulations, including tariffs, import regulation and other taxes. Volatility in demand may lead to lower vehicle unit sales, which may result in downward price pressure and adversely affect Polestar’s business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations. Further, sales of vehicles in the automotive industry tend to be cyclical in many markets, which may expose Polestar to increased volatility, especially as it expands and adjusts its operations and retail strategies. Specifically, it is uncertain how such macroeconomic factors will impact Polestar as a newer entrant in an industry that has globally been experiencing a recent decline in sales.

Other factors that may influence the adoption of electric vehicles include:

 

   

perceptions about electric vehicle quality, safety, design, performance and cost;

 

   

perceptions about the limited range over which electric vehicles may be driven on a single battery charge;

 

   

perceptions about the total cost of ownership of electric vehicles, including the initial purchase price and operating and maintenance costs, both including and excluding the effect of government and other subsidies and incentives designed to promote the purchase of electric vehicles;

 

   

concerns about electric grid capacity and reliability;

 

   

perceptions about the sustainability and environmental impact of electric vehicles, including with respect to both the sourcing and disposal of materials for electric vehicle batteries and the generation of electricity provided in the electric grid;

 

   

the availability of other alternative fuel vehicles, including plug-in hybrid electric vehicles;

 

   

improvements in the fuel economy of the internal combustion engine;

 

   

the quality and availability of service for electric vehicles, especially in international markets;

 

   

volatility in the cost of oil, gasoline and electricity;

 

   

government regulations and economic incentives promoting fuel efficiency and alternative forms of energy;

 

   

access to charging stations and the cost to charge an electric vehicle, especially in international markets, and related infrastructure costs and standardization;

 

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the availability of tax and other governmental incentives to purchase and operate electric vehicles or future regulation requiring increased use of nonpolluting vehicles; and

 

   

macroeconomic factors.

The influence of any of the factors described above or any other factors may cause a general reduction in consumer demand for electric vehicles or Polestar’s electric vehicles in particular, either of which would materially and adversely affect Polestar’s business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects.

Developments in electric vehicle or alternative fuel technology or improvements in the internal combustion engine may adversely affect the demand for Polestar’s vehicles.

Polestar may be unable to keep up with changes in electric vehicle technology or alternatives to electricity as a fuel source and, as a result, its competitiveness may suffer. Significant developments in alternative technologies, such as alternative battery cell technologies, hydrogen fuel cell technology, advanced gasoline, ethanol or natural gas or improvements in the fuel economy of the internal combustion engine, may materially and adversely affect Polestar’s business and prospects in ways it does not currently anticipate. Existing and other battery cell technologies, fuels or sources of energy may emerge as customers’ preferred alternative to the technologies in Polestar’s electric vehicles. Any failure by Polestar to develop new or enhanced technologies or processes, or to react to changes in existing technologies, could materially delay its development and introduction of new and enhanced electric vehicles, which could result in the loss of competitiveness of its vehicles, decreased revenues and a loss of market share to competitors. In addition, Polestar expects to compete in part on the basis of its vehicles’ range, efficiency, charging speeds and performance, and improvements in the technology offered by competitors could reduce demand for Polestar’s vehicles. As technologies change, Polestar plans to upgrade or adapt its vehicles and introduce new models that reflect such technological developments, but its vehicles may become obsolete, and its research and development efforts (and those of its strategic partners) may not be sufficient to adapt to changes in alternative fuel and electric vehicle technology. Additionally, as new companies and larger, existing vehicle manufacturers continue to enter the electric vehicle space, Polestar may lose any technological advantage it may have and suffer a decline in its competitive position. Any failure by Polestar to successfully react to changes in existing technologies or the development of new technologies could materially harm its competitive position and growth prospects.

A resurgence of the COVID-19 pandemic and return of global control measures could adversely affect Polestar’s business and operations.

The COVID-19 pandemic had a significant impact on Polestar’s business, particularly with regards to its manufacturing and supply chain operations. Should a flare up of the COVID-19 pandemic occur, with previously imposed governmental control measures brought back into force, consumers may reduce spending, delay purchases of Polestar’s vehicles or cancel their orders for Polestar’s vehicles. Because of Polestar’s premium brand positioning and pricing, an economic downturn is likely to have a heightened adverse effect on it, compared to many of its electric vehicle and traditional automotive industry competitors, to the extent that consumer demand for luxury goods is reduced in favor of lower-priced alternatives. Any economic recession or other downturn could also cause logistical challenges and other operational risks if any of Polestar’s suppliers, sub-suppliers or partners becomes insolvent or are otherwise unable to continue their operations. Further, the immediate or prolonged effects of the COVID-19 pandemic could significantly affect government finances and, accordingly, the continued availability of incentives related to electric vehicle purchases and other governmental support programs.

The spread of COVID-19 has also in the recent past disrupted the manufacturing operations of other vehicle manufacturers and their suppliers. Any such disruptions to Polestar or to its suppliers could result in delays and could negatively affect its production volume.

During the height of the pandemic, governments imposed travel bans and restrictions, quarantines, shelter-in-place and stay-at-home orders and business shutdowns. These measures posed numerous operational

 

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risks and logistical challenges to Polestar’s business. In addition, regional, national and international travel restrictions resulted in adverse impacts to Polestar’s supply chain. Further, Polestar’s sales and marketing activities were, and may in the future be, adversely affected due to the cancellation or reduction of in-person sales activities, meetings, events and conferences. During the period when Polestar’s personnel were mostly a remote workforce ,the demands on Polestar’s information technology resources and systems increased as did data privacy and cybersecurity risks. Should such restrictive measures, or even more restrictive measures than experienced in the past, return or be imposed for a significant period of time , Polestar’s manufacturing and sales and distribution plans and timelines could be adversely affected.

Changes in foreign currency rates, interest rate risks, or inflation could materially affect Polestar’s results of operations.

Due to its international operations, Polestar faces foreign currency risk exposure from fluctuating currency exchange rates, interest rate risk from its exposure to floating and variable interest rates, and inflation risk from existing and expected rates of inflation in the U.S. and other jurisdictions.

Particularly COVID-19 and the Russo-Ukrainian War have led to increased inflationary pressures on prices of components, materials, labor, and equipment used in the production of Polestar vehicles. Increases in battery prices due to the increased prices of lithium, cobalt, and nickel are expected to lead to higher inventory and costs of goods sold. Higher oil prices have also increased freight and distribution costs across all markets. It is uncertain whether these inflationary pressures will persist in the future. See “Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Key factors affecting performance—Impact of COVID-19 and the Russo-Ukrainian War” and “—Inflation.”

Further, fluctuations in currency rates, interest rate hikes and existing and expected rates of inflation in the U.S. and other jurisdictions, including as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic and the Russo-Ukrainian War, have resulted in extreme volatility in the global financial markets, which has increased Polestar’s cost of capital and may limit its ability to access financing when needed. Polestar may not be able to obtain additional financing on terms favorable to it, if at all. See “—Risks Related to Financing and Strategic Transactions—Polestar will require additional capital to support business growth, and this capital might not be available on commercially reasonable terms, or at all.”

Polestar’s facilities or operations could be and have been adversely affected by events outside of its control, such as natural disasters, wars, health epidemics, pandemics or security incidents.

Polestar may be impacted by natural disasters, wars, health epidemics or pandemics or other events outside of its control. For example, flooding impacted Polestar’s manufacturing facility in July 2019 and stopped production for one half of a day. Further, if major disasters such as earthquakes, wildfires, tornadoes or other events occur, or if Polestar’s information system or communications network breaks down or operates improperly, Polestar’s facilities and manufacturing may be seriously damaged or affected, or Polestar may have to stop or delay production and shipment of its products. In addition, the COVID-19 pandemic impacted economic markets, manufacturing operations, supply chains, employment and consumer behavior in nearly every geographic region and industry across the world, and Polestar was, and may in the future be, adversely affected as a result. Furthermore, Polestar could be impacted by physical security incidents at its facilities or those of its strategic partners, which could result in significant damage to such facilities that could require Polestar or its partners to delay or discontinue production of its vehicles. Polestar may incur significant expenses or delays relating to such events outside of its control, which could have a material adverse impact on its business, results of operations and financial condition.

The conflict between Russia and Ukraine has, and is likely to continue to, generate uncertain geopolitical conditions, including sanctions that could adversely affect Polestar’s business prospects and results of operations.

Russia and Ukraine are not Polestar markets, and there are no plans to launch in either market in the near future. Nevertheless, the uncertain geopolitical conditions, sanctions, and other potential impacts on the global

 

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economic environment resulting from Russia’s invasion of Ukraine may weaken demand for Polestar’s vehicles, which could make it difficult for Polestar to forecast its financial results and manage its inventory levels. The uncertainty surrounding these conditions and the current, and potentially expanded, scope of international sanctions against Russia may cause unanticipated changes in customers’ buying patterns, adversely impact operations of Polestar’s suppliers, or interrupt Polestar’s ability to source products from this region. Sanctions have also created supply constraints and driven inflation that has impacted, and may continue to impact, Polestar’s operations and could create or exacerbate risks facing Polestar’s business.

Polestar vehicles are manufactured at facilities owned and operated by Volvo Cars. While Polestar understands that Volvo Cars does not have any “Tier 1” suppliers from Russia, car production is a complex process, with thousands of components sourced from all over the world. There can be no assurance, therefore, that there will not be some components sourced from suppliers subject to sanctions against Russia nor that the resulting disruption to the supply chain will not have an adverse impact on Polestar’s business and results of operations.

In the event geopolitical tensions deteriorate further or fail to abate, additional governmental sanctions may be enacted that could adversely impact the global economy, banking and monetary systems, markets, and the operations of Polestar and its suppliers.

If vehicle owners customize Polestar vehicles or change the charging infrastructure with aftermarket products, the vehicle may not operate properly, which may create negative publicity and could harm Polestar’s business.

Automobile enthusiasts may seek to alter Polestar’s vehicles to modify their performance, which could compromise vehicle safety systems. Also, customers may customize their vehicles with after-market parts that can compromise driver safety. Polestar does not test, nor does it endorse, such changes or products. In addition, the use of improper external cabling or unsafe charging outlets can expose customers to injury from high voltage electricity. Such unauthorized modifications could reduce the safety of Polestar’s vehicles and any injuries resulting from such modifications could result in adverse publicity that would negatively affect Polestar’s brand and harm its business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.

Risks Related to Cybersecurity and Data Privacy

Polestar relies on its and Volvo Cars’ IT systems and any material disruption to its or Volvo Cars’ IT systems could have a material and adverse effect on Polestar.

The availability and effectiveness of Polestar’s services depend on the continued operation of its information technology and communications systems. Polestar relies on its and Volvo Cars’ IT systems, and such systems are vulnerable to damage or interruption from, among other adverse effects, fire, terrorist attacks, natural disasters, power loss, telecommunications failures, computer viruses, computer denial of service attacks or other attempts to harm its systems. Polestar’s products and services are also highly technical and complex and may contain errors or vulnerabilities that could result in interruptions in its services or the failure of its systems or the systems on which it relies.

As part of Volvo Cars IT incident process, Volvo Cars has over the course of 2021 and 2022 informed Polestar of incidents that could have had an impact on the operations of Polestar. While the outcomes of these incidents were determined not to have had an impact on the safety or security of Polestar’s customers or their personal data, it nonetheless highlights the risk that Polestar faces by being partly reliant on external IT systems. Should a future material IT incident at Volvo Cars occur, it could cause Polestar to suffer lengthy interruptions to its ability to operate its business, damage to Polestar’s reputation, loss of customers, loss of revenue, investigations or litigation or liability for damages, any of which could materially and adversely affect Polestar’s business, results of operations, prospects and financial condition.

 

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Any unauthorized control or manipulation of Polestar’s products, digital sales tools and systems could result in loss of confidence in Polestar and its products.

Polestar’s products contain complex information technology systems. Polestar collects, stores, transmits and otherwise processes data from vehicles, customers, employees and other third parties as part of its business operations, which may include personal data or confidential or proprietary information. Polestar also works with third parties that collect, store and process such data on its behalf and also uses digital tools to sell vehicles to its customers. Polestar has created a foundation of security polices and an information security directive and is in the process of creating and testing information security policies to deployed systems. Polestar is creating measures to implement such policies, including encryption technologies, to prevent unauthorized access and plans to continue deploying additional security measures as it grows. Notwithstanding these measures, there can be no assurance that such systems and measures will not be compromised as a result of intentional misconduct, including by employees, contractors or vendors, as well as by software bugs, human error or technical malfunctions.

Furthermore, hackers may in the future attempt to gain unauthorized access to, modify, alter and use Polestar’s vehicles, products, and digital sales tools and Polestar’s and its service providers’ or vendors’ systems to (i) gain control of, (ii) change the functionality, user interface and performance characteristics of or (iii) gain access to data stored in or generated by, such vehicles, products, digital sales tools and systems. Advances in technology, an increased level of sophistication and diversity of Polestar’s products, digital sales tools and services, an increased level of expertise of hackers and new discoveries in the field of cryptography could lead to a compromise or breach of the measures that Polestar or its service providers or vendors use. Polestar and its service providers’ and vendors’ systems have in the past and may in the future be affected by security incidents. Polestar’s and its service providers’ and vendors’ systems are also vulnerable to damage or interruption from, among other things, physical theft, fire, terrorist attacks, natural disasters, power loss, war, telecommunications failures, computer viruses, computer denial or degradation of service attacks, ransomware, social engineering schemes, domain name spoofing, insider theft or misuse or other attempts to harm its products and such systems. Polestar’s and its service providers’ or vendors’ data centers could be subject to break-ins, sabotage and intentional acts of vandalism causing potential disruptions. Some of Polestar’s and its service providers’ and vendors’ systems are not and will not be fully redundant. Further, its disaster recovery planning is not yet fully developed and cannot account for all eventualities. Any problems at Polestar’s or its service providers’ or vendors’ data centers could result in lengthy interruptions in Polestar’s service. There can be no assurance that any security or other operational measures that Polestar or its service providers or vendors have implemented will be effective against any of the foregoing threats or issues.

If Polestar is unable to protect its products, digital sales tools and its service providers’ and vendors’ systems (and the information stored on such platforms) from unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification, destruction or other breach, such problems or security breaches could have negative consequences for its business and future prospects, subjecting Polestar to substantial fines, penalties, damages and other liabilities under applicable laws and regulations, incurring substantial costs to respond to, investigate and remedy such incidents, reducing customer demand for Polestar’s products, harming its reputation and brand and compromising or leading to a loss of protection of its intellectual property or trade secrets. In addition, regardless of their veracity, reports of unauthorized access to Polestar’s vehicles or data or Polestar’s or its service providers’ and vendors’ systems, as well as other factors that may result in the perception that such vehicles, systems or data are capable of being “hacked,” could negatively affect Polestar’s brand. In addition, some members of the U.S. federal government, including certain members of Congress and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (“NHTSA”), have recently focused attention on automotive cybersecurity issues and may in the future propose or implement regulations specific to automotive cybersecurity. In addition, the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe has introduced regulations governing connected vehicle cybersecurity, which became effective in January 2021 and apply in the European Union to all new vehicle types beginning in July 2022 and will become mandatory for all new vehicles produced from July 2024. Such regulations are also in effect, or expected to come into effect, in certain other international jurisdictions. These and other regulations could adversely affect Polestar’s business in Europe and other markets, and if such

 

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regulations or other future regulations are inconsistent with Polestar’s approach to automotive cybersecurity, Polestar would be required to modify its systems (or cause its service providers and vendors to modify their systems) to comply with such regulations, which would impose additional costs and delays and could expose Polestar to potential liability to the extent its automotive cybersecurity systems and practices are inconsistent with such regulation.

In addition, Polestar’s vehicles depend on the ability of software and hardware to store, retrieve, process and manage immense amounts of data. Polestar’s software and hardware, including any over-the-air or other updates, may contain, errors, bugs, design defects or vulnerabilities, and its service providers’ and vendors’ systems may be subject to technical limitations that may compromise its ability to meet its objectives. Some errors, bugs or vulnerabilities may be inherently difficult to detect and may only be discovered after code has been released for external or internal use. Although Polestar will attempt to remedy any issues it observes in its vehicles as effectively and rapidly as possible, such efforts may not be timely, may hamper production or may not be to the satisfaction of its customers. Additionally, if Polestar is able to deploy updates to the software addressing any issues, but its over-the-air update procedures fail to properly update the software, Polestar’s customers would then need to arrange for installing such updates to the software, and their software may be subject to deficiencies and vulnerabilities until they do so. Any compromise of Polestar’s intellectual property, proprietary information, systems or vehicles or inability to prevent or effectively remedy errors, bugs, vulnerabilities or defects in Polestar’s software and hardware may cause Polestar to suffer lengthy interruptions to its ability to operate its business and its customers’ ability to operate their vehicles, damage to Polestar’s reputation, loss of customers, loss of revenue, governmental fines, investigations or litigation or liability for damages, any of which could materially and adversely affect its business, results of operations, prospects and financial condition.

Data privacy concerns are generally increasing, which could result in new legislation, in negative public perception of Polestar’s current data collection practices and certain of its services or technologies and/or in changing user behaviors that negatively affect Polestar’s business and product development plans.

In the course of its operations, Polestar collects, uses, stores, discloses, transfers and otherwise processes personal information from its customers, employees and third parties with whom it conducts business, including names, accounts, user IDs and passwords and payment or transaction related information. Additionally, Polestar uses its vehicles’ electronic systems to log information about vehicle use, such as charge time, battery usage, mileage and driving behavior, in order to aid it in vehicle diagnostics, repair and maintenance, as well as to help it customize and improve the driving experience.

Data privacy concerns of consumers are generally increasing, which could result in new legislation, in negative public perception of Polestar’s current data collection practices and certain of its services or technologies and/or in changing user behaviors that negatively affect Polestar’s business and product development plans.

Polestar is subject to evolving laws, regulations, standards, policies and contractual obligations related to data privacy, security and consumer protection, and any actual or perceived failure to comply with such obligations could harm Polestar’s reputation and brand, subject Polestar to significant fines and liability, or otherwise adversely affect its business.

Due to Polestar’s data collection practices, products, services and technologies, Polestar is subject to or affected by a number of federal, state, local and international laws and regulations, as well as contractual obligations and industry standards, that impose certain obligations and restrictions with respect to data privacy and security and govern its collection, storage, retention, protection, use, processing, transmission, sharing and disclosure of personal information including that of Polestar’s employees, customers and other third parties with whom Polestar conducts business. These laws, regulations and standards may be interpreted and applied differently over time and from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, and it is possible that they will be interpreted and applied in ways that may have a material and adverse impact on Polestar’s business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

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The global data protection landscape is rapidly evolving, and implementation standards and enforcement practices are likely to remain uncertain for the foreseeable future. Polestar may not be able to monitor and react to all developments in a timely manner. The European Union adopted the General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”), which became effective on May 25, 2018, and as a result of the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union on January 31, 2020 the United Kingdom now has its own data privacy regime comprised of the United Kingdom General Data Protection Regulation and Data Protection Act 2018 (collectively, the “UK GDPR”) (the GDPR and UK GDPR together referred to as the “GDPR”) and California adopted the California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018 (“CCPA”), which became effective in January 2020. Both the GDPR and the CCPA impose additional obligations on companies regarding the handling of personal data and provides certain privacy rights to individual persons whose data is collected. Compliance with existing, proposed and recently enacted laws and regulations (including implementation of the privacy and process enhancements called for under the GDPR and CCPA) can be costly, and any failure to comply with these regulatory standards could subject Polestar to legal and reputational risks.

The GDPR imposes comprehensive data privacy compliance obligations in relation to Polestar’s collection, processing, sharing, disclosure, transfer and other use of personal information, including a principle of accountability and the obligation to demonstrate compliance through policies, procedures, training and audit. The GDPR also regulates cross-border transfers of personal information out of the EEA and the UK. Recent legal developments in Europe have created complexity and uncertainty regarding such transfers, in particular in relation to transfers to the United States, and recent European court and regulatory decisions have taken a restrictive approach. Polestar currently relies on the standard contractual clauses and definition of supplementary measures, where applicable and available, or derogations, to transfer personal information outside the EEA and the UK, with respect to both intragroup and third party transfers. As the enforcement landscape further develops, and supervisory authorities issue further guidance on international data transfers, Polestar could suffer additional costs, complaints and/or regulatory investigations or fines; Polestar may have to stop using certain tools and vendors and make other operational changes; and/or it could otherwise affect the manner in which Polestar provides its services, and could adversely affect Polestar’s business, operations and financial condition.

Since Polestar is subject to the supervision of relevant data protection authorities under both the GDPR and the UK GDPR, Polestar could be fined under each of those regimes independently in respect of the same breach. Penalties for certain breaches are up to the greater of EUR 20 million/GBP 17.5 million or 4% of Polestar’s global annual turnover. In addition to fines, a breach of the GDPR may result in regulatory investigations, reputational damage, orders to cease/change Polestar’s data processing activities, enforcement notices, assessment notices (for a compulsory audit) and/ or civil claims (including class actions).

Polestar is also subject to evolving EU and UK privacy laws. Recent European court and regulator decisions are driving increased attention to cookies and tracking technologies. In light of the complex and evolving nature of EU, EU Member State and UK privacy laws in this area, there can be no assurances that Polestar will be successful in its efforts to comply with such laws; violations of such laws could result in regulatory investigations, fines, orders to cease/ change Polestar’s use of such technologies, as well as civil claims including class actions, and reputational damage.

The CCPA establishes a privacy framework for covered businesses, including an expansive definition of personal information and data privacy rights for California residents. The CCPA includes a framework with potentially severe statutory damages for violations and a private right of action for certain data breaches. The CCPA requires covered businesses to provide California residents with new privacy-related disclosures and new ways to opt-out of certain uses and disclosures of personal information. As Polestar expands its operations, the CCPA may increase its compliance costs and potential liability. Some observers have noted that the CCPA could mark the beginning of a trend toward more stringent privacy legislation in the United States.

Additionally, effective in most respects on January 1, 2023, the California Privacy Rights Act (“CPRA”) has significantly modified the CCPA, including by expanding California residents’ rights with respect to certain

 

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sensitive personal information. The CPRA also creates a new state agency that will be vested with authority to implement and enforce the CCPA and the CPRA. Other US states have implemented or are implementing comprehensive privacy statutes that share similarities with the CCPA. For example, such laws have been enacted in Virginia, Colorado, Connecticut and Utah, and come into force in 2023. Additionally, Polestar may be subject to certain laws and regulations, e.g., “Right to Repair” laws, that require Polestar to provide third-party access to its network and/or vehicle systems.

Other jurisdictions have begun to propose similar laws. Compliance with applicable privacy and data security laws and regulations is a rigorous and time-intensive process, and Polestar may be required to put in place additional mechanisms to comply with such laws and regulations, which could cause Polestar to incur substantial costs or require Polestar to change its business practices, including its data practices, in a manner adverse to its business. In particular, certain emerging privacy laws are still subject to a high degree of uncertainty as to their interpretation and application. Failure to comply with applicable laws or regulations or to secure personal information could result in investigations, enforcement actions and other proceedings against Polestar, which could result in substantial fines, damages and other liability as well as damage to Polestar’s reputation and credibility, which could have a negative impact on revenues and profits.

There are also ongoing complex, uncertain, rapid development and changes of data privacy and security related laws in China. Polestar and its business partners in China could be affected by intervention by the Chinese government relating to, for example, information-sharing and cybersecurity matters. The risk of such interventions could be heightened in connection with a listing of shares of Polestar or any of its business partners, and could result in prohibitions of the sale and/or marketing of certain products. For example, on December 28, 2021, the CAC published the Cybersecurity Review Measures, which came into effect on February 15, 2022, specifying that the cybersecurity review must be conducted in the event the data processing operators in possession of personal information of over 1 million users intend to list their securities in a foreign country. Polestar has not exceeded this threshold as of the date of this prospectus. However, under the Cybersecurity Review Measure, the CAC could also initiate cybersecurity review under certain situations, for example, if a regulatory agency within the cyber-security review coordination mechanism believes a network product or service, data processing activity impacts or might impact Chinese national security. If Polestar would be subject to such review and be found to be non-compliant with applicable data protection laws, Polestar may face administrative fines up to CNY 10 million. Additionally, significant restrictions may be imposed on Polestar’s operation in China, or relevant Chinese licenses may be completely or partially revoked. Also, other Chinese regulatory agencies might examine Polestar with regulatory scrutiny and enact sanctions. Finally, Polestar may suffer significant public opinion damage, and there is a risk that its reputation may be materially harmed. Any of these events could have a material and adverse effect on Polestar’s results of operations and financial position as well as on its possibilities to carry out business in China.

Polestar posts public privacy policies on its websites and provides privacy notices to the categories of persons whose personal information it collects, processes, uses or discloses. Although Polestar endeavors to comply with its published policies and other documentation, Polestar may at times fail to do so or may be perceived to have failed to do so. Moreover, despite its efforts, Polestar may not be successful in achieving compliance if its employees, contractors, service providers, vendors or other third parties fail to comply with its published policies and documentation. Such failures could carry similar consequences or subject Polestar to potential international, local, state and federal action if they are found to be deceptive, unfair or misrepresentative of Polestar’s actual practices. Claims that Polestar has violated individuals’ privacy rights or failed to comply with data protection laws, regulations or applicable privacy notices could, even if Polestar is not found liable, be expensive and time-consuming to defend and could result in adverse publicity that could harm its business.

Most jurisdictions have enacted laws or regulations requiring companies to notify individuals, regulatory authorities and other third parties of security breaches involving certain types of data. Such laws or regulations may be inconsistent or may change or additional laws or regulations may be adopted. In addition, Polestar’s agreements with certain customers may require it to notify them in the event of a security breach. Such

 

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mandatory disclosures are costly, could lead to negative publicity, penalties or fines, litigation and Polestar’s customers losing confidence in the effectiveness of its security measures, and could require it to expend significant capital and other resources to respond to or alleviate problems caused by the actual or perceived security breach. Any of the foregoing could materially and adversely affect Polestar’s business, prospects, results of operations and financial condition.

Risks Related to Polestar’s Employees and Human Resources

Polestar’s ability to effectively manage its growth relies on the performance of highly skilled personnel, including its Chief Executive Officer, Thomas Ingenlath, its senior management team and other key employees, and Polestar’s ability to recruit and retain key employees. The loss of key personnel or an inability to attract, retain and motivate qualified personnel may impair Polestar’s ability to expand its business.

Polestar’s success is substantially dependent upon the continued service and performance of its senior management team and key personnel with digital, technical and automotive expertise. Although Polestar anticipates that its management and key personnel will remain in place for the foreseeable future, it is possible that Polestar could lose some key personnel. For example, Polestar is highly dependent on the services of Thomas Ingenlath, its Chief Executive Officer. Mr. Ingenlath has a significant influence on and is a driver of Polestar’s business plan and business, design and technology development. If Mr. Ingenlath were to discontinue his service to Polestar, Polestar would be significantly disadvantaged. The replacement of any members of Polestar’s senior management team or other key personnel likely would involve significant time and costs and may significantly delay or prevent the achievement of Polestar’s business objectives.

Polestar’s future success also depends, in part, on its ability to continue to attract, integrate and retain highly skilled personnel. Competition for highly skilled personnel is frequently intense. As with any company, there can be no guarantee that Polestar will be able to attract such individuals or that the presence of such individuals will necessarily translate into Polestar’s profitability. Because Polestar operates in a newly emerging industry, there may also be limited personnel available with relevant business experience, and such individuals may be subject to non-competition and other agreements that restrict their ability to work for Polestar. Polestar’s inability to attract and retain key personnel may materially and adversely affect Polestar’s business operations. Any failure by Polestar’s management to effectively anticipate, implement and manage the changes required to sustain Polestar’s growth would have a material and adverse effect on its business, financial condition and results of operations.

Polestar’s manufacturing partners will need to hire and train a significant number of employees to engage in full-scale operational and commercial operations, and Polestar’s business could be adversely affected by labor and union activities.

Polestar’s manufacturing partners will need to hire and train a significant number of employees to engage in full-scale operational and commercial operations. There are various risks and challenges associated with hiring, training and managing a large workforce. If Polestar’s manufacturing partners are unsuccessful in hiring and training a workforce in a timely and cost-effective manner, Polestar’s business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

Furthermore, it is common throughout the automobile industry generally for many employees at automobile companies to belong to a union, which can result in higher employee costs and increased risk of work stoppages. Moreover, regulations in some jurisdictions outside of the U.S. mandate employee participation in industrial collective bargaining agreements and work councils with certain consultation rights with respect to the relevant companies’ operations. Approximately 51% of Polestar’s workforce is covered by collective bargaining agreements. Polestar has collective agreements in Austria, Belgium, Finland, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain and Sweden. Labor unions or labor organizations could also seek to organize some or all of Polestar’s non-unionized workforce. Future negotiations with the union or other certified bargaining representatives could

 

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divert management attention and disrupt operations, which may result in increased operating expenses and lower net income. Additionally, if Polestar is unable to reach labor agreements with any current or future unionized work groups, it may be subject to work interruptions or stoppages, which may adversely affect its ability to conduct its operations. Moreover, future agreements with unionized and non-unionized employees may be on terms that are not as attractive as Polestar’s current agreements or comparable to agreements entered into by Polestar’s competitors. Furthermore, Polestar may be directly or indirectly dependent upon companies, such as parts suppliers and trucking and freight companies, with unionized work forces, and work stoppages or strikes organized by such unions could have a material adverse impact on Polestar’s business, financial condition or results of operations. If a work stoppage occurs, it could delay the manufacture and sale of Polestar’s products and have a material and adverse effect on its business, prospects, results of operations or financial condition.

Misconduct by Polestar’s employees and independent contractors during and before their employment with Polestar could expose Polestar to potentially significant legal liabilities, reputational harm and/or other damages to its business.

Many of Polestar’s employees play critical roles in ensuring the safety and reliability of its vehicles and/or its compliance with relevant laws and regulations. Certain of Polestar’s employees have access to sensitive information and/or proprietary technologies and know-how. While Polestar has adopted a code of conduct for all of its employees and implemented policies relating to intellectual property, confidentiality and the protection of company assets, Polestar cannot assure you that its employees will always abide by the codes, policies and procedures, nor that the precautions Polestar takes to detect and prevent employee misconduct will always be effective. If any of Polestar’s employees engages in any misconduct, illegal or suspicious activities, including but not limited to misappropriation or leakage of sensitive customer information or proprietary information, Polestar and such employees could be subject to legal claims and liabilities and Polestar’s reputation and business could be adversely affected as a result.

In addition, while Polestar has screening procedures during the recruitment process, Polestar cannot assure you that it will be able to uncover misconduct of job applicants that occurred before Polestar offered them employment, or that Polestar will not be affected by legal proceedings against its existing or former employees as a result of their actual or alleged misconduct. Any negative publicity surrounding such cases, especially in the event that any of Polestar’s employees is found to have committed any wrongdoing, could negatively affect Polestar’s reputation and may have an adverse impact on its business.

Furthermore, Polestar faces the risk that its employees and independent contractors may engage in other types of misconduct or other illegal activity, such as intentional, reckless or negligent conduct that violates production standards, workplace health and safety regulations, fraud, abuse or consumer protection laws, other similar non-U.S. laws or laws that require the true, complete and accurate reporting of financial information or data. It is not always possible to identify and deter misconduct by employees and other third parties, and the precautions Polestar takes to detect and prevent this activity may not be effective in controlling unknown or unmanaged risks or losses or in protecting Polestar from governmental investigations or other actions or lawsuits stemming from a failure to be in compliance with such laws or regulations. In addition, Polestar is subject to the risk that a person or government could allege fraud or other misconduct, even if none occurred. If any such actions are instituted against Polestar and Polestar is not successful in defending itself or asserting its rights, those actions could have a significant impact on Polestar’s business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations, including, without limitation, the imposition of significant civil, criminal and administrative penalties, damages, monetary fines, disgorgement, integrity oversight and reporting obligations to resolve allegations of non-compliance, imprisonment, other sanctions, contractual damages, reputational harm, diminished profits and future earnings and curtailment of Polestar’s operations, any of which could adversely affect its business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.

 

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Risks Related to Litigation and Regulation

Polestar is subject to evolving laws and regulations that could impose substantial costs, legal prohibitions or unfavorable changes upon its operations or products, and any failure to comply with these laws and regulations, including as they evolve, could result in litigation and substantially harm its business and results of operations.

Polestar is or will be subject to complex environmental, manufacturing, and health and safety laws and regulations at numerous jurisdictional levels, including laws relating to the use, handling, storage, recycling, disposal, release of and exposure to hazardous materials and with respect to constructing, expanding and maintaining its facilities. For example, Polestar is subject to laws, regulations and regulatory agencies like EU Regulation 2018/858 in the EU, the Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”) and NHTSA in the United States and the Provisions on the Administration of Investments in the Automotive Industry in China. The costs of compliance, including remediating contamination if any is found on Polestar’s properties and any changes to Polestar’s operations mandated by new or amended laws, may be significant and such costs may increase in the event of new, or changes to existing, environmental or climate change laws, regulations or rules. Polestar may also face unexpected delays in obtaining permits and approvals required by such laws in connection with the manufacturing and sale of its vehicles, which would hinder its ability to conduct its operations. Such costs and delays may adversely impact its business prospects and results of operations. Furthermore, any violations of these laws may result in litigation, substantial fines and penalties, remediation costs, third party damages or a suspension or cessation of Polestar’s operations.

In addition, motor vehicles are subject to substantial regulation under international, federal, state and local laws. Polestar has incurred, and expects to continue to incur, significant costs in complying with these regulations. Any failures to comply could result in litigation, significant expenses, delays or fines. Generally, vehicles must meet or exceed mandated motor vehicle safety standards to be certified under applicable regulations. Rigorous testing and the use of approved materials and equipment are among the requirements for achieving certification. Any future vehicles will be subject to substantial regulation under federal, state and local laws and standards. These regulations include those promulgated by the EPA, NHTSA, other federal agencies, various state agencies and various state boards (including the California Air Resources Board (“CARB”)), and compliance certification is required for each new model year and changes to the model within a model year. These laws and standards are subject to change from time to time, and Polestar could become subject to additional regulations in the future, which would increase the effort and expense of compliance. In addition, federal, state and local laws and industrial standards for electric vehicles are still developing, and Polestar faces risks associated with changes to these regulations, which could have an impact on the acceptance of its electric vehicles, and increased sensitivity by regulators to the needs of established automobile manufacturers with large employment bases, high fixed costs and business models based on the internal combustion engine, which could lead them to pass regulations that could reduce the compliance costs of such established manufacturers or mitigate the effects of government efforts to promote electric vehicles. Compliance with these regulations is challenging, burdensome, time consuming and expensive. If compliance results in litigation, delays or substantial expenses, Polestar’s business could be adversely affected.

Polestar is also subject to laws and regulations applicable to the supply, manufacture, import, sale and service of automobiles internationally, including in Europe, North America and Asia Pacific. Regulations such as standards relating to vehicle safety, fuel economy and emissions, among other things, often vary materially from country to country and compliance with such regulations will therefore require additional time, effort and expense to ensure regulatory compliance in those countries. This process may include official review and certification of Polestar’s vehicles by foreign regulatory agencies prior to market entry, as well as compliance with foreign reporting and recall management systems requirements. The costs of achieving international regulatory compliance or the failure to achieve international regulatory compliance could harm Polestar’s business, prospects, results of operations and financial condition.

 

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Polestar may face regulatory limitations on its ability to sell vehicles directly, which require Polestar to implement alternative consumer approaches through dealers or importers.

Polestar’s business model includes the direct sale of vehicles to retail consumers. The laws governing licensing of dealers and sales of motor vehicles vary from country to country and, within a country, from state to state, and the application of these local laws to Polestar’s operations can be difficult to predict. Certain jurisdictions require a dealer license to sell new motor vehicles within the country or state. Where required, Polestar anticipates that it can become a licensed dealer in certain countries.

In countries where Polestar is required to resort to dealers, other challenges may arise. In the United States, for example, some automobile dealers have brought a claim before the Illinois Motor Vehicle Review Board claiming that they have a right to sell Polestar vehicles because of their franchise with Volvo Cars and in accordance with the Illinois Motor Vehicle Franchise Act. Further, even in jurisdictions where Polestar believes applicable laws and regulations do not currently prohibit its direct sales model, legislatures may impose additional requirements. Because the laws vary from country to country, and, within a country, from state to state, Polestar’s distribution model and its sales and service processes is continually monitored and adapted for compliance with the various jurisdictional requirements and may change from time to time. Regulatory compliance and likely challenges to the distribution model may add to the cost of Polestar’s business.

Polestar has undertaken, and in the future may choose to or be compelled to undertake, product recalls or to take other actions that could result in litigation and adversely affect its business, prospects, results of operations, reputation and financial condition.

As of the date of this prospectus, Polestar has issued a number of recalls of its vehicles and expects more will be issued in the future. Examples of some of these recalls were due to (i) a risk of certain high voltage battery cells overheating when the battery is fully charged, which could lead to a thermal event inside the battery, increasing the risk of fire, (ii) the mal-production of seatbelts which could result in the early activation of the locking feature used to tightly secure a child restraint system, (iii) the too high adjustment of headlamps which could result in excessive glare for oncoming traffic, (iv) a software error causing an internal reset in the Battery Energy Control Module, resulting in the control unit opening the high voltage connectors during driving (which caused two recalls), (v) a supplier design issue known as “tin whiskers,” which caused a short circuit inside the front and rear inverters, (vi) an error resulting in displayed velocity of the vehicle being lower than the actual velocity, and (vii) an incorrect message shown on display when the vehicle is placed in reverse mode. Product recalls in the future may result in litigation and adverse publicity and may damage Polestar’s reputation and adversely affect its business, prospects, results of operations and financial condition. In the future, Polestar may, voluntarily or involuntarily, initiate a recall if any of its electric vehicles or components (including its battery cells) prove to be defective or noncompliant with applicable federal motor vehicle safety standards. If a large number of vehicles are the subject of a recall or if needed replacement parts are not in adequate supply, Polestar may be unable to service and repair recalled vehicles for a significant period of time. These types of disruptions could jeopardize Polestar’s ability to fulfill existing contractual commitments or satisfy demand for its electric vehicles and could also result in the loss of business to its competitors. Such recalls, whether caused by systems or components engineered or manufactured by Polestar or its suppliers, would involve significant expense and diversion of management’s attention and other resources, which could adversely affect Polestar’s brand image in its target market and its business, prospects, results of operations and financial condition.

Polestar may in the future be subject to legal proceedings, regulatory disputes and governmental inquiries that could cause it to incur significant expenses, divert its management’s attention and materially harm its business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.

From time to time, Polestar may be subject to claims, lawsuits, government investigations and other proceedings involving product liability, consumer protection, competition and antitrust, intellectual property, privacy, securities, tax, labor and employment, health and safety, its direct distribution model, environmental

 

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claims, commercial disputes, corporate and other matters that could adversely affect its business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition. In the ordinary course of business, Polestar has been the subject of complaints or litigation, including claims related to consumer complaints and intellectual property matters.

Litigation and regulatory proceedings may be protracted and expensive, and the results are difficult to predict. Additionally, Polestar’s litigation costs could be significant, even if it achieves favorable outcomes. Adverse outcomes with respect to lit